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G  K  O  R  G  K      C  L  I  N  C  H 

(Of  the  Department  of  Printed  Books,  British   Museum), 
Author  of  " Bloomsbury  &  St,  Giles's,"  &c. 

Mitb  •numerous  Jlluatratlpna. 


TRUSLOVE     &     SHIRLEY,     143,     OXFORD     STREET,     W. 




TRUSLOVE     AND     BRAY,      KNIGHT'S     HILL     ROAD, 
WEST     NORWOOD,     S.E. 


THE  wide  area  occupied  by  the  districts  of  Marylebone 
and  St.  Pancras  contains  rich  and  extensive  materials 
for  a  book  of  local  history.  Indeed  it  would  be 
impossible  to  put  a  detailed  and  exhaustive  history  of  these 
most  interesting  places  in  a  volume  of  the  size  which  is  now 
before  the  reader.  Such  a  work  would  require,  not  one,  but 
many  such  volumes. 

To  tell  the  truth,  the  author  has  not  attempted  anything 
of  the  nature  of  an  exhaustive  history.  He  has  endeavoured 
to  make  a  selection  from  the  large  mass  of  material  at  his 
disposal,  using  such  parts  of  it  as  seemed  likely  to  be 
generally  and  permanently  acceptable  to  his  readers  ;  and, 
while  no  important  branch  of  the  subject  has  been  omitted 
intentionally,  many  branches  have  been  treated  with  brevity 
in  consequence  of  the  obvious  limitations  of  space  in  a  volume 
of  this  scope  and  size,  and  some,  upon  which  one  would 
desire  to  linger  awhile,  have,  for  the  same  reason,  been 
condensed  and  modified. 

It  may  be  explained  here  that  only  the  southern  portion 
of  St.  Pancras  has  been  included  in  this  book,  the  great 
historical  interest  which  centres  in  and  immediately  around  the 
old  church,  demanding  too  much  space  to  allow  of  any  account 
of  the  more  northern  portions. 

The  accounts  of  the  Royal  Toxophilite  Society  and  the 
Foundling  Hospital  are,  to  some  extent,  based  upon  accounts 
which  have  recently  appeared  in  "  Bloomsbury  and  St.  Giles's," 
by  the  present  writer. 

It  is  a  frequent  complaint  that  life  is  not  long  enough 
to  allow  of  as  much  reading  as  one  would  like,  or,  rather, 

vi.  PREFACE. 

that  so  much  is  crowded  into  one's  life  as  to  leave  time  only  for 
limited  literary  recreation.  I  is  for  this  reason  that  the  present 
writer  hesitates  to  occupy  as  much  of  his  readers'  time  and 
attention  as  the  subject  might  seem  to  demand ;  and,  in 
attempting  to  meet  this  popular  wish  for  a  summarized  account, 
he  humbly  begs  the  indulgence  of  those  who  may  have 
expected  a  more  elaborate  and  comprehensive  book  upon  two 
most  important  and  influential  metropolitan  districts. 

In  attempting  to  shape  his  book  to  this  end,  the  author 
has  received  the  greatest  and  most  valuable  help  (especially 
in  the  pictorial  part)  from  his  friend,  Mr.  A.  Bernard  Sykes, 
several  of  whose  sketches,  specially  executed  for  the  purpose 
from  old  water  colour  drawings  in  the  Grace  Collection,  British 
Museum,  are  used  in  the  illustration  of  the  volume. 

The  author  cannot  allow  the  present  opportunity  to  pass 
without  expressing  his  sincere  thanks  to  those  kind  friends  who 

have    afforded   him    information   and   useful    hints ;    and,    without 

7  ' 

singling  out  for  mention  any  particular  name,  he  feels  that  it 
would  be  unpardonable  were  he  not  to  record  his  deep  thanks 
and  hearty  appreciation  of  the  many  kindnesses  he  has  received 
in  this  way. 

It  would  be  equally  ungracious  were  he  to  omit  a  brief 
reference  to  the  authorities  he  has  made  use  of  in  the 
compilation  of  this  work.  Stow,  Lysons,  Cunningham,  Thomas 
Smith  (Topographical  and  Historical  Account  of  Marylebone),  and 
a  valuable  collection  of  drawings,  cuttings,  and  documents 
relating  to  the  parish  of  St.  Pancras,  gathered  together  by 
Mr.  R.  Percival,  and  now  preserved  in  the  British  Museum 
Library — these,  and  many  other  sources,  have  provided  material 
which  is  indispensable  for  such  a  book  as  that  with  which  the 
author  has  essayed  to  amuse  or  instruct  his  readers. 





EARLY    HISTORY: — Ancient    name    of    Marylebone.  —  Domesday    Account.  —  The    Manor. 

Marylebone  Park.— Fox-hunting  and  hare-hunting. — Marylebone  Manor-house. — Oxford 
House,  and  the  Harleian  Manuscripts.  — The  Tybourne. — The  Hole-bourne.  — The 
Westbourne. — The  source  and  ancient  course  of  the  Tybourne  River. — Conduits. — 
Annual  inspection  of  the  Conduits. — The  Lord  Mayor's  Banqueting  House. — Origin  of 
the  name  Tybourne. — Thorney  Island 3 


ECCLESIASTICAL  HISTORY  :  -  St.  Marylebone  Old  Church. — The  site  of  St.  John's  Church. 
Thefts  of  Church  Goods. — Rebuilding  of  the  Church. — Dedication  to  St.  Mary,  the 
Virgin. — Hogarth's  picture  of  the  interior  of  the  Church. — "  The  Rake's  Progress." — 
Vault  of  the  Forset  Family.  — Demolition  of  the  Church  in  1740. — Rebuilding  of  the 
Church  in  1741. — Inadequate  accommodation. — Suggestions  for  a  new  Church. — 
Epitaphs,  &c.,  in  Marylebone  Old  Church.  —  Sir  Edmund  Douce. — James  Gibbs, 
architect. — Baretti.  —  Storace.— John  Allen,  apothecary. — Caroline  Watson,  engraver. — 
Celebrated  names  in  the  Burial  Register. —St.  Marylebone  New  Church. — Architectural 
features. — St.  Mary's  Church. — All  Souls'  Church.— Holy  Trinity  Church. — Christ 
Church.— St.  Peter's  Church,  Vere  Street. — St  Paul's  Church,  Great  Portland  Street.— 
St.  John's  Wood  Chapel.— Dissenting  Chapels. — French  Chapel 15 


MARYLEBONE  GARDENS,  TAVERNS,  &c  : — Marylebone  Gardens. — The  French  Gardens. — 
Illuminations,  fireworks,  and  music,  at  Marylebone  Gardens. — "The  Forge  of  Vulcan." 
— Dr.  William  Kenrick's  lectures.— The  Marylebone  Spa.— James  Figg  and  "The 
Boarded  House." — Bowling  Greens. — "The  Rose  of  Normandy." — "The  Queen's  Head 
and  Artichoke." — "The  Yorkshire  Stingo." — "The  Old  Farthing  Pie  House." — "The 
Jew's  Harp  " 31 

viii.  CONTENTS. 



MODERN  HISTORY  :- Regent's  Park.— Old  Marylebone  Park.— Willan's  Farm.— Other  Farms. 
— Construction  of  "the  Regent's  Park."— Proposed  Triumphal  Arch. — St.  Dunstan's 
Villa. — Regent's  Canal. — St.  John's  Wood. — Lisson  Green. — Lisson  Fields. — The  New 
Road.— Cavendish  Square.— Portman  Square.— Manchester  Square.— Dorset  Square.— 
Blandford  Square.— Bryanston  and  Montague  Squares  ..."-.  50 


TYBURN  TREE  AND  PRIMROSE  HILL: — The  name  Tyburn. — "Deadly  Never  Green."  — 
Fuller's  derivation.— The  journey  to  Tyburn.— St.  Giles's  Bowl. — Tom  Clinch. — 
Cromwell,  Ireton,  and  Bradshaw. — Celebrated  Executions  :  Holy  Maid  of  Kent,  Robert 
Southwell,  Mrs.  Turner,  John  Felton,  Hacker,  Axtell,  Okey,  Barkstead,  Corbet, 
Thomas  Sadler,  Sir  Thomas  Armstrong,  John  Smith,  Jack  Sheppard,  Lord  Ferrers, 
John  Wesket,  Dr.  Hensey,  John  Rann,  Dr.  Dodd,  Elizabeth  Gaunt,  John  Austen. — 
Hangmen  :  Derrick,  Gregory  Brandon,  "  Esquire  Dun,"  John  Ketch. — Primrose  Hill 
and  Barrow  Hill. — Green  Berry  Hill. — Murder  of  Sir  Edmond  Berry  Godfrey. — Duels. 
— Capt.  Macnamara  and  Col.  Montgomery. — Barrow  Hill.— Origin  of  name  .  .  67 


SOCIETIES  AND  INSTITUTIONS: — The  Marylebone  Volunteers.  —  The  Royal  York  St. 
Marylebone  Volunteers. — The  Royal  Toxophilite  Society,  Regent's  Park. — Sir  Ashton 
Lever.— The  Archers'  Hall.— The  Marylebone  Cricket  Club.— Thomas  Lord. — M. 
Garnerin's  balloon  ascent  — The  Zoological  Society. — The  Royal  Botanic  Society's 
Gardens,  Regent's  Park. — The  Middlesex  Hospital 79 


MARYLEBONE  CELEBRITIES,  &c.  : — Joanna  Southcott. — Mrs.  Siddons. — Anecdote  of  Handel. 
—  Thomas  Holcroft.  —  Horatia  "Nelson."  —  Marylebone  Celebrities:  —  Mary  Lamb, 
Edward  Gibbon,  Henry  Fuseli,  "  Berners  Street  Hoax." — Faraday,  Wilkie,  Flaxman, 
James  Barry,  Dr.  Johnson,  George  Romney,  John  Constable,  Thomas  Hood,  Landseer, 
Thomas  Moore,  Barry  Cornwall,  Lyell,  Leigh  Hunt,  Dickens,  Macready,  Nollekens, 
Anna  Jameson,  Samuel  Lover,  Benjamin  West,  Thomas  Stothard,  J.  M.  W.  Turner, 
Thomas  Campbell,  Frederick  Marryat,  Sydney  Smith,  J.  G.  Lockhart,  Sir  Walter  Scott, 
Henry  Hallam,  Admiral  Lord  Hood,  Elizabeth  Barrett  Browning,  William  Pitt, 
Lady  Hester  Stanhope. — Miscellanea. — Cato  Street  Conspiracy. — Verley's  Charity. — 
Marylebone  Rates,  &c 93 


57.    PA  NCR  AS. 


EARLY  HISTORY: — The  Brill;  Dr.  Stukeley's  theory  of  its  having  been  a  Roman  camp  — 
Defensive  works  in  1643.  —  Pastoral  character  of  the  district. — Value  of  land.  —  The 
name  St.  Pancras. — Manors  of  Cantelows  (Kentish  Town),  Totenhall,  Pancras,  and 
Ruggemere. — King  John's  Palace. — The  Adam  and  Eve. — "The  Paddington  Drag." — 
The  Pinder  of  Wakefield. —Battle  Bridge  and  King's  Cross 115 


ECCLESIASTICAL  HISTORY-: — The  old  Church  of  St.  Pancras. — Quaint  description  in  1593. — 
Antiquity  of  St.  Pancras  Church. — French  Refugees. — Benefactions  to  the  church. 
— Renovation  in  1848. — Altar  Stone. — Epitaphs. — Epigram  in  St.  Pancras  Churchyard. 
— Anecdote  of  the  Poet  Chatterton. — The  New  Church  of  St.  Pancras. — St.  James's 
Church,  Hampstead  Road. — Whitefield's  Tabernacle.  —  "Resurrection-Men."  —  Monu- 
ments.— Demolition  of  the  Tabernacle,  1890. — Presbyterian  Church,  Regent  Square. 
— Catholic  Apostolic  Church,  Gordon  Square 129 


SPRINGS  AND  WELLS  OF  ST.  PANCRAS:  —  Lamb's  Conduit.  —  William  Lamb.  —  Public 
rejoicings. — The  Lamb  Public  House. — The  River  Holebourne. — Black  Mary's  Hole. 
— Bagnigge  Wells. — The  Pinder  of  Wakefield. —  Nell  Gwynne.  —  Properties  of  the 
waters.  —  Bagnigge  Wells  Tea-gardens. — "The  Bagnigge  Organfist." — Pancras  Wells  — 
The  Adam  and  Eve,  Pancras. — St.  Chad's  Well. — Portrait  of  St.  Chad. — Tottenham 
Court  Fair. — Smock  Race  ...  144 


POPULAR  EXHIBITIONS  AND  ST.  KATHARINE'S  HOSPITAL:  —  The  Colosseum.  —  Panoramic 
View  of  London. — The  Swiss  Cottage. — The  Glyptotheca. — Classic  Ruins. — Stalactite 
Cavern.— Cyclorama  of  Lisbon.— The  Diorama. — The  Cosmorama.— The  Royal  Hospital 
of  St.  Katharine:  foundation,  benefactions,  statutes,  &c.  — Raymond  Lully.— The 
Hospital  Church.— Removal  to  Regent's  Park  .  .  164 


INSTITUTIONS,  THEATRES,  &c.: — University  College.  —  St.  Pancras  Volunteers.  —  The  Royal 
Panarmonion  Gardens. — Thorrington's  Suspension  Railway. — The  Tottenham  Theatre.— 
The  Cabinet  Theatre 179 





CHARITIES,  HOSPITALS,  &c.  : — Charities:  Heron's  Charity;  Miller's  Gift;  Stanhope's  Gift; 
Charles's  Gift ;  Cleeve's  Gift ;  Coventry's  Gift ;  Platt's  Gift ;  Church  Lands ;  Donor 
unknown. — Ancient  Bequests. —  Charity  School. — The  Foundling  Hospital. — Thomas 
Coram. — Hatton  Garden  Premises. — William  Hogarth's  Pictures. — Raphael's  Cartoon. 
— G.  F.  Handel.— "The  Messiah. "-Benjamin  West,  R.A.— The  Small  Pox  Hospital. 
— The  Royal  Free  Hospital. — North  London,  or  University  College  Hospital  .  .  .  186 


CELEBRITIES  AND  MISCELLANEA  : — St.  Pancras  Celebrities :  Frank  Buckland,  John  Leech, 
Barry  Cornwall,  Charles  Dickens,  Charles  Darwin,  Thackeray,  Shelley,  Charles  Kean, 
Samuel  Warren,  Dr.  Dodd,  George  Smith. — Anecdote  of  Toplady.— Miscellanea; — 
Capper's  Farm,  Pugilism,  Items  from  Old  Newspapers 207 




ST.  MARYLEBONE    CHURCH      .......        Frontispiece. 



OF   NEWCASTLE,  1708     .......        facing  4 


CAVENDISH  HOLLES  HARLEY,  1719  .  .  .  .  facing  6 




MAP   OF    LONDON,  1732          ......         facing  12 


"  RAKE'S    PROGRESS  ")    .         .         .         .         .         .         .        facing  16 

OLD   MARY-LE-BONE    CHURCH,  BEFORE    1740        .....  17 

VIEW   OF.  St.    MARYLEBONE   CHURCH,  1750  ....        facing  18 

CHURCHES,  &c.,  IN    MARYLEBONE   AND  ST.  PANCRAS                     .    ,,  28 

PLAN   OF   MARYLEBONE   GARDENS,  1756        .....,,  32 


THE  QUEEN'S  HEAD  AND  ARTICHOKE,  1819  ....,,  40 


THE  ROSE  OF  NORMANDY,  1840 44 





JEW'S  HARP  INN,  REGENT'S  PARK,  1784 48 

PLAN  OF  THE  REGENT'S  PARK facing  50 

VIEW  IN  REGENT'S  PARK  ......  .  ,,  52 


MAP  OF  THE  PARISH  OF  ST.  MARY-LE-BONE,  1833  .  ,,  64 













ENGRAVING    AFTER     SlR    JOSHUA     REYNOLDS)             .            .            facing  98 

DEVONSHIRE   PLACE   AND  WIMPOLE   STREET,  1799      .        .        .    ,,  106 


THE   STABLE   IN   CATO   STREET,  1820 108 




KING  JOHN'S   PALACE,  NEAR  TOTTENHAM   COURT        .        .        .     ,, 

PART  OF  THE   ADAM   AND   EVE,  1811 

CORNER  OF   GRAY'S   INN   LANE  AND   BATTLE   BRIDGE        .        facing  125 

ELEVATION   OF   KING'S   CROSS,  1830 ,,  126 

S.W.  VIEW  OF   ST.  PANCRAS   CHURCH,  1750 130 

A     SOUTH    VIEW    OF    THE     CHURCH    OF     ST.     PANCRAS      .            .            facing  132 

NEW  CHURCH   OF   ST.   PANCRAS ,,  137  ^ 

TOTTENHAM     COURT     ROAD     TURNPIKE,     ABOUT     1800     (FROM    AN 

ENGRAVING    AFTER     ROWLANDSON)              ....           facing  138] 

WHITEFIELD'S   NEW   CHAPEL,  1764 ,,  140 




WHITE facing  156] 

ST.  CHAD'S  WELL,  GRAY'S   INN   LANE,  1850 159] 

SMOCK  RACE  AT  TOTTENHAM   COURT  FAIR  (1738)      .        .        facing  162' 




THE   FOUNDLING   HOSPITAL,   1750 ,,  194 




Ancient  name  of  Marylebone. — Domesday  account. — The  Manor. — Marylebone  Park. — Fox-hunting 
and  hare-hunting. — Marylebone  Manor-house. — Oxford  House  and  the  Harleian  Manuscripts. — 
The  Tybourne. — The  Hole-bourne. — The  Westbourne. — The  source  and  ancient  course  of 
the  Tybourne  River. — Conduits. — Annual  inspection  of  the  Conduits  — The  Lord  Mayor's 
Banqueting  House. — Origin  of  the  name  Tybourne. — Thorney  Island. 

N  ANCIENT  times   the  name  of  Marylebone 
was  Tyburn,  a  name  derived   from  a  stream 
so    called    which    flowed   through    it.      The 
manor   of  Tyburn,    containing   five    hides  of 
land,   is   described    in   the    Domesday    Book 
as   parcel    of    the   ancient    demesnes   of  the 
abbess   and   convent   of    Barking,   who   held 
it   under  the   Crown.      The    land,   says   the 
survey,   is   three   carucates.      Two  hides  are 
in  demesne,  on  which   is   one   plough ;    the  villans  employ 
two  ploughs.      There   are  two  villans,  holding  half  a  hide, 
one   villan    who    holds    half  a  virgate,    two   bordars*   who 
have    10  acres,    and   three   cottars.      There   is   pasture   for 
the   cattle   of  the   village,    woods   for   50    hogs,    and    40^. 
arising  from   the   herbage.     In  the   whole   valued   at  525. ; 
in  King  Edward's  time  at  loos. 

Robert  de  Vere,  who  held  this  manor  under  the  Abbey 
of  Barking,  gave  it   in   marriage  with   his   daughter  Joan, 
to  William  de  Insula,  Earl  Warren  and    of  Surrey,  whose 
son  John   dying    without    issue,    it    descended   to    Richard 
Earl  of  Arundel,  son  of  his  sister  Alice. 
After   the   death   of  Richard   the   succeeding   earl,  who   was   beheaded 
m    J394>    his   estates    became    the    joint    property    of    his   daughters    and 

*  Bordarij,  in  the  Domesday  Survey,  meant  persons  supposed  to  be  inferior  to  the  villani,  as 
>emg  limited  to  a  small  number  of  acres.  Bordarii  were  also  servants  employed  about  the  house 
in  fetching  wood,  drawing  water,  grinding  corn,  and  the  like  domestic  duties. 


co-heirs.  William  Marquis  of  Berkeley,  who  had  an  interest  in  this 
inheritance,  as  descended  from  Joan  Fitzalan,  through  the  Mowbrays, 
is  said  to  have  given  the  manor  of  Marylebone  to  Sir  Reginald  Bray, 
prime  minister  to  King  Henry  VII.  ;  but  probably  it  was  only 
his  share  in  it  ;  for  it  appears  that  Thomas  Hobson,  about  the 
year  1503,  purchased  three  parts  of  this  manor  of  Lord  Bergavenny, 
the  Earl  of  Derby,  and  the  Earl  of  Surrey.  It  is  most  likely  that  he 
purchased  the  remaining  part  of  Sir  Reginald  Bray.  In  the  year 
1544,  Thomas  Hobson,  son  (it  is  supposed)  of  the  last-mentioned  Thomas, 
exchanged  this  manor  with  the  King  for  some  church  lands.  Queen 
Elizabeth,  in  1583,  granted  a  lease  of  the  manor  of  Tyburn  to  Edward 
Forset  for  21  years,  at  the  yearly  rent  of  £16  us.  Sd.;  and  in  1595, 
to  Robert  Conquest  and  others  (trustees,  it  is  probable)  on  the  same 

In  the  year  1611,  King  James  granted  the  manor,  with  all  its 
appurtenances,  excepting  the  park,  for  the  sum  of  £829  35.  jd.,  to  Edward 
Forset,  Esq.,  in  whose  family  it  continued  several  years,  and  then  passed 
into  that  of  Austen,  by  the  marriage  of  Arabella  Forset  with  Thomas 
Austen,  Esq.  In  the  year  1710,  it  was  purchased  of  John  Austen,  Esq., 
afterwards  Sir  John  Austen,  Bart.,  by  John  Holies,  Duke  of  Newcastle. 
A  plan  of  the  Marylebone  Estate,  showing  the  fields,  with  their  names 
and  sizes,  and  the  projected  streets  to  be  built  over  them,  is  here 
reproduced,  from  a  valuable  manuscript  plan  in  the  Grace  Collection 
of  topographical  views,  maps,  and  plans  in  the  British  Museum.  It  i< 
dated  1708,  which  is  probably  the  time  when  the  preliminary  negociationj 
for  the  sale  were  being  carried  on. 

The  Duke's  only  daughter  and  heir  married  Edward  Harley,  Earl 
of  Oxford  and  Mortimer,  and  thus  the  manor  came  into  possession  of 
the  Harley  family. 

The    manor    came    into    the    possession  of  the  Portland  family   by  th( 
marriage  of  Lady  Margaret  Cavendish  Harley  with    William,  2nd  Duke  ol 
Portland.     About   the   year    1813    an  exchange  was  effected  for  some  lands  ; 
in    Sherwood    Forest   valued    at    £"40,000,    and    thus    the   Crown   became 
again   possessed   of  the   manor  of  Marylebone. 

The   manor   house  of  Marvlebone,  which  was  taken    down  in  the  vear 


1791,   during   the   time    it    was   vested  in  the  Crown,  is  said  to  have  bee 

FOX    AND     HARE     HUNTING,  5 

used  as  one  of  the  royal  palaces.  It  will  be  found  more  particularly 
described  below. 

In  early  times  a  large  tract  of  ground  in  Marylebone  parish  appears  to 
have  been  used  for  hunting  purposes.  An  early  (probably  the  earliest) 
notice  of  the  park,  which  was  anciently  known  as  Marybone  Park,  refers 
to  its  being  used  for  that  purpose.  "  The  3d  of  February,  1600-1,  the 
Ambassadours  from  the  Emperour  of  Russia,  and  other  the  Muscovites, 
rode  through  the  Cittie  of  London,  to  Marybone  Park,  and  there  hunted 
at  their  pleasure,  and  shortly  after  returned  homeward."  -  The  Pro- 
gresses and  Public  Processions  of  Queen  Elizabeth.  By  John  Nichols,  F.S.A., 
Vol.  III.  p.  519. 

It  is  extremely  probable  that  some  provision  was  made  for  hunting 
in  and  around  this  neighbourhood  at  an  earlier  date  than  that  just 
mentioned.  Stow  gives  an  account  of  hare-hunting  and  fox-hunting 
in  this  district  upon  the  occasion  of  the  visitation  of  the  conduits  at 
Tyburn  by  the  Lord  Mayor  and  Aldermen  of  London  in  the  year  1562. 
"And  after  dinner,"  he  says,  "they  went  to  hunting  the  fox.  There 
was  a  great  cry  for  a  mile,  and  at  length  the  hounds  killed  him  at 
the  end  of  St.  Giles's." 

When  King  James  I.,  in  1611,  granted  the  manor  of  Marylebone 
to  Edward  Forset,  Esq.,  he  reserved  the  park,  called  Marybone  Park, 
in  his  own  hands.  It  continued  in  the  possession  of  the  Crown  until 
the  year  1646,  when  King  Charles,  by  letters  patent,  dated  at  Oxford 
(May  6),  granted  it  to  Sir  George  Strode  and  John  Wandesford,  Esq., 
as  security  for  a  debt  of  £2318  us.  gd.  due  to  them  for  supplying 
arms  and  .ammunition  during  the  troubles.  After  the  King's  death, 
when  the  Crown  lands  in  general  were  sold,  this  park,  without  any 
regard  to  the  claim  of  the  grantees  above  mentioned,  was  sold  to  John 
Spencer  of  London,  Gentleman,  on  behalf  of  Col.  Thomas  Harrison's 
regiment  of  dragoons,  on  whom  Marybone  Park  was  settled  for  their 
pay.  Sir  John  Ipsley  was  at  this  time  ranger,  by  authority  of  the 
Protector.  The  purchase  money  was  £13,215  6s.  8^.,  including  £130 
for  the  deer  (124  in  number,  of  several  sorts)  and  £1774  &s-  f°r  the 
timber,  exclusively  of  2976  trees  marked  for  the  navy. 

On  the  restoration  of  Charles  the  Second,  Sir  George  Strode  and 
Mr.  Wandesford  were  re-instated  in  their  possession  of  the  park,  which 


they  held  till  their  debt  was  discharged,  except  the  great  lodge  and 
sixty  acres  of  land,  which  had  been  granted  for  a  term  of  years  to 
Sir  William  Clarke,  Secretary  to  the  Lord  General,  the  Duke  of 
Albemarle.  A  compensation  was  made  also  to  John  Carey,  Esq.,  for 
the  loss  of  the  rangership  which  he  had  formerly  held.  The  site  of 
the  park  (for  it  was  disparked  before  the  Restoration,  and  never  after- 
wards stocked)  was  leased  in  1668  to  Henry  Earl  of  Arlington  ;  in 
1696  to  Charles  Bertie  and  others,  in  trust  for  the  Duke  of  Leeds ; 
in  1724  to  Samuel  Grey,  Esq.  Mr.  Grey's  interest  in  the  lease  was 
purchased  by  Thomas  Gibson,  John  Jacob,  and  Robert  Jacomb,  Esqrs., 
who  renewed  it  in  1730,  1735,  and  1742.  In  1754,  a  lease  was  granted 
to  Lucy  Jacomb,  widow,  and  Peter  Hinde,  Esq.,  In  1765,  William 
Jacombe,  Esq.,.  had  a  fresh  lease  for  an  undivided  share,  being  15  parts 
in  24.  The  term  of  this  share  was  prolonged  in  1772,  and  again  in 
1780,  for  eight  years,  to  commence  from  January  24th,  1803.  In  the 
year  1789,  Mr.  Jacomb  sold  his  interest  in  the  estate  to  the  Duke  of 
Portland.  In  1765  and  1772  Jacob  Hinde,  Esq.,  had  new  leases  of 
the  remaining  undivided  share,  being  9  parts  in  24.  These  leases 
expired  in  1803.  The  Duke  of  Portland's  lease  expired  in  January  1811. 

About  the  year  1813,  the  manor  came  again  into  the  possession 
of  the  Crown,  an  exchange  being  effected  for  land  of  the  value  of 
£40,000,  situated  in  Sherwood  Forest. 

The  various  leases  which  had  been  granted  by  the  Crown  falling 
in  during  the  regency  of  George  IV.,  Marylebone  Park  began  to  be 
laid  out  by  Mr.  James  Morgan  in  1812,  from  the  plans  of  Mr.  John 
Nash,  and  in  honour  of  the  Prince  Regent,  was  called  the  Regent's 


This  mansion,  which  was  attached  to  the  royal  park  of  Marylebone, 
was  originally  built  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII.,  and  was  occasionally 
used  as  one  of  the  royal  palaces  during  the  reigns  of  Mary  and  Elizabeth. 
The  earliest  representation  of  the  house  is  supposed  to  be  a  drawing 
made  by  Joslin,  dated  1700,  which  was  formerly  in  the  possession  of 
the  Duke  of  Buckingham.  It  comprehends  the  field-gate  and  palace, 
its  surrounding  walls  and  adjacent  buildings  in  Marylebone  to  the 


south  -  west,  including  a  large  mansion,  which  in  all  probability  had 
been  Oxford  House,  the  grand  receptacle  of  the  Harleian  Library.  An 
engraving  of  the  view  was  published  2Oth  September,  1800,  by  J.  T. 
Smith,  of  Great  Portland  Street. 

It  stood  on  the  south  side  of  what  is  now  Marylebone  Road, 
the  exact  site  being  that  which  is  now  occupied  by  Devonshire 
Mews.  The  following  lines  from  J.  T.  Smith's  "  Book  for  a  Rainy 
Day,"  may  assist  us  to  realize  the  exact  form  of  the  house : — "  This 
house  consisted  of  an  immense  body  and  two  wings,  a  projecting 
porch  in  the  front,  and  an  enormously  deep  dormer  roof,  supported 
by  numerous  cantalevers,  in  the  centre  of  which  there  was,  within  a 
very  bold  pediment,  a  shield  surmounted  by  foliage  with  labels  below 
it."  The  back  or  garden  front  consisted  of  a  flat  face  with  a  bay 
window  at  each  end,  glazed  in  quarries,  and  the  wall  of  the  back 
front  terminated  in  five  gables.  The  first  flight  of  the  grand  staircase 
consisted  of  sixteen  steps,  and  the  handrails  were  supported  with  richly 
carved  perforated  foliage,  the  date  of  which  is  ascribed  by  Mr.  J.  T. 
Smith  to  the  period  of  Inigo  Jones.  The  decorations  of  the  staircase 
were  executed  in  tessellated  work.  The  mansion  was  wholly  of  brick, 
and  surmounted  by  a  large  turret  containing  the  clock  and  bell. 

In  the  year  1703  a  large  school  was  established  here  by  Mr.  De  la 
Place.  That  gentleman's  daughter  married  the  Rev.  John  Fountayne, 
Rector  of  North  Tidmouth  in  Wiltshire,  and  the  latter  succeeded  Mr. 
De  la  Place  in  the  school.  The  school  is  said  to  have  attained  a 
considerable  reputation  among  the  nobility  and  gentry,  whose  sons 
there  received  an  educational  training  previously  to  their  removal  to 
the  universities. 

There  were  at  one  time  above  a  hundred  pupils  in  Mr.  Fountayne's 
establishment,  and  on  Sunday  morning  as  they  walked  to  St.  Maryle- 
bone Church,  two  and  two,  some  in  pea  -  green,  others  in  sky  -  blue, 
and  several  in  the  brightest  scarlet,  and  many  with  gold  -  laced  hats, 
and  flowing  locks,  they  are  described  by  an  eye-witness  as  a  sight 
worth  seeing. 

The  school  appears  to  have  been  continued  until  the  year  1791, 
when  the  house  was  taken  down  and  some  livery  stables  were  built 
on  its  site.  Over  the  western  entrance  to  these  stables  was  placed  a 


clock,  which  had  originally  occupied  a.  prominent  position  in  the  old 
mansion,  but  which  was  removed  some  time  before  the  year  1833. 
The  old  mansion  was  demolished  under  the  superintendence  of  a  Mr. 
John  Brown,  a  builder  who  resided  in  the  parish  upwards  of  fifty 
years,  and  who  died  at  the  advanced  age  of  eighty. 

In  the  hall  of  this  old  manor-house  there  was  many  years  ago  a 
parrot,  so  aged  that  its  few  remaining  feathers  were  for  years  confined 
to  its  wrinkled  skin  by  a  flannel  jacket,  which  in  very  cold  weather 
received  an  additional  broadcloth  covering  of  the  brightest  scarlet,  so 
that  Poll,  like  the  Lord  Mayor,  had  her  scarlet  days.  Poll,  who  had 
been  long  accustomed  to  hear  her  mistress's  general  invitation  to 
strangers  who  called  to  enquire  after  the  boarders,  relieved  her  of  that 
ceremony  by  uttering,  as  soon  they  entered,  "  Do  pray  walk  into  the 
parlour  and  take  a  glass  of  wine,"  but  this  she  finally  did  with  so 
little  discrimination,  that  when  a  servant  came  with  a  letter  or  a  card 
for  her  mistress,  he  was  greeted  by  the  bird  with  equal  liberality  and 


It  has  been  erroneously  supposed  by  some  that  the  ancient  manor 
house  of  Marylebone  was  indentical  with  Oxford  House.  Jesse,  in  his 
work,  entitled  "London:  its  celebrated  characters  and  remarkable  places," 
so .  speaks  of  it.  He  says,  "  Oxford  House,  the  ancient  manor  house 
of  Marylebone,  and  the  residence  at  a  later  period  of  the  Harleys, 
Earls  of  Oxford,  stood  as  late  as  the  year  1791,  on  the  site  of  Devon- 
shire Mews,  New  Road."  It  is  improbable  that  the  Earls  of  Oxford 
ever  resided  at  Marylebone  Manor  House ;  but  their  noble  library  of 
books  and  manuscripts  was  deposited  in  a  house  built  for  that  purpose 
in  High  Street,  about  120  yards  south  of  the  Manor  House.  A  drawing 
of  the  Manor  house  by  Joslin  about  the  year  1700,  shows  the  house 
itself,  its  surrounding  walls  and  adjacent  buildings  in  Marylebone  to 
the  south-west,  including  a  large  mansion  which  was  considered,  by 
Mr.  John  Thomas  Smith  (author  of  "A  Book  for  a  Rainy  Day")  to  be 
probably  Oxford  House,  the  grand  receptacle  of  the  Harleian  Library. 

After  the   removal    of    that     library    to    the    British    Museum,    Oxforc 
House    was    nearly    rebuilt,    with    a     modern    front,    by    Mr.   John    Browr 












of  Clipstone  Street,  and  occupied  as  a  boarding  school  for  young 

The  celebrated  Harleian  Collection  of  Manuscripts,  which  now  forms 
one  of  the  many  valuable  collections  in  the  Library  of  the  British 
Museum,  was  collected  in  the  latter  part  of  the  i7th  century  by  Robert 
Harley,  of  Brampton  Bryan,  in  the  County  of  Hereford,  Esq.  ;  who  on 
the  nth  February  1700,  was  chosen  Speaker  of  the  House  of  Commons; 
on  the  24th  May,  1711,  was  created  Earl  of  Oxford  and  Mortimer; 
and  five  days  afterwards  promoted  to  the  important  station  of  Lord 
High  Treasurer  of  Great  Britain.  The  Harley  family  appears  to  have 
been  remarkable  for  an  appreciative  taste  for  literature.  The  Earl's 
grandfather,  Sir  Robert  Harley,  Knight  of  the  Bath,  had  at  his  seat 
at  Brampton  Bryan  Castle,  a  library  of  manuscripts  and  printed  books, 
collected  from  one  descent  to  another,  and  valued  at  £1000.  This 
together  with  the  castle  and  church  of  Brampton,  £c.,  was,  during  the 
troublous  times  of  the  civil  war,  destroyed  by  the  parliamentary  army. 

After  his  retirement  from  public  business,  the  Earl  of  Oxford  spent 
the  remainder  of  his  days  in  unwearied  application  for  the  gaining 
accessions  to  his  library,  not  sparing  any  expense  for  that  purpose. 
He  kept  many  persons  employed  in  purchasing  manuscripts  for  him 
abroad,  giving  them  such  written  instructions  for  their  conduct  in  that 
respect,  as  sufficiently  manifest  the  exact  knowledge  he  had  acquired 
as  well  of  every  curious  manuscript  as  of  the  person,  circumstances, 
and  residence  of  its  possessor.  By  these  means  the  manuscript  library 
was,  in  the  year  1721,  increased  to  near  six  thousand  books  ;  fourteen 
thousand  original  charters ;  and  five  hundred  rolls. 

At  his  death,  which  occurred  on  the  2ist  May,  1724,  his  son  and 
successor,  Edward,  the  second  Earl,  followed  his  noble  example,  and 
devoted  a  great  part  of  his  fortune  to  the  completion  of  what  had  been 
so  auspiciously  commenced.  Upon  the  death  of  the  second  Earl,  in 
June,  1741,  the  library  became  the  property  of  his  daughter  and  heiress, 
Margaret  Cavendish,  Duchess  of  Portland,  and  on  the  institution  of  the 
British  Museum,  in  1753,  it  was  purchased  of  the  Duke  and  Duchess, 
by  the  country,  for  the  sum  of  £10,000.  The  collection  contains  7639 
volumes,  exclusive  of  14,236  original  rolls,  charters,  deeds,  and  other  legal 



The  "  Catalogue  of  the  Harleian  Manuscripts  in  the  British  Museum," 
a  monument  of  industry  and  learning,  was  originally  commenced  in  1708, 
by  Mr.  Humphrey  Wanley,  the  librarian  to  Robert  and  Edward,  the  first 
and  second  Earls  of  Oxford.  He  was  employed  on  it  until  his  death, 
in  July,  1726,  by  which  time  he  had  reached  No.  2408.  It  was  resumed 
in  1733,  by  Mr.  Casley,  Keeper  of  the  Cottonian  Library,  who  continued 
it  to  No.  5709.  Soon  after  the  death  of  the  Earl  of  Oxford,  in  June, 
1741,  the  catalogue  was  committed  to  the  care  of  Mr.  Hocker,  the  Deputy 
Keeper  of  the  Records  in  the  Tower,  who,  in  less  than  two  years, 
completed  it  as  far  No.  7355.  In  this  state  the  catalogue  remained 
until  the  22nd  of  July,  1800,  when,  at  the  express  desire  of  the  Record 
Commission,  the  Trustees  engaged  Rev.  Rob.  Nares,  under  librarian 
of  the  MS.  Department,  to  revise  and  correct  the  latter  part  of  the 
catalogue,  beginning  at  No.  3100.  This  task,  and  the  revision  of  the 
previous  part  of  the  catalogue,  between  Nos.  2408  and  3100,  was  per- 
formed by  him,  with  the  assistance  of  Rev.  Stebbing  Shaw  and  Mr. 
Douce  ;  and  the  first  three  volumes  were  printed  and  published  in  1808. 
The  fourth  volume,  which  consists  of  Indexes,  was  compiled  by  Rev. 
Thomas  Hartwell  Home,  and  was  published  in  1812. 


The  well-known  names  of  Holborn,  Marylebone,  Tyburn,  and  West- 
bourne,  owe  their  origin  to,  and  preserve  the  memory  of  three  streams 
or  brooks,  arising  in  the  high  ground  about  Hampstead  and  Highgate,  and 
flowing  in  a  south-ward  direction  to  the  Thames.  Traces  still  remain 
of  the  streams,  but  in  the  crowded  streets  of  London,  except  in  the 
local  names,  little  remains  to  be  seen  of  them,  although  it  is  pretty 
certain  that  they  have  played  an  important  part  in  the  physical  geography 
of  the  districts  through  which  they  ran. 

The  "  Hole-bourne,"  from  whence  we  get  the  ancient  name  Oldburn, 
and  the  modern  name  Holborn,  arose  in  and  around  the  ponds  at 
Hampstead  and  Highgate,  and  after  a  meandering  course  through  Kentish 
Town,  Camden  Town  (where  the  two  main  branches  united  and  made 
one  channel),  Somers  Town,  Battle  Bridge,  Farringdon  Road,  and 
Farringdon  Street,  and  so  into  the  Thames  at  the  place  where  Black- 
friars  Bridge  spans  the  river.  It  was  subsequently  called  the  Fleet  River. 













The  "  Westbourne "  had  its  origin  in  several  small  streams  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  West  Hampstead,  from  whence  it  flowed  through 
Kilburn,  Bayswater,  Kensington  Gardens,  Hyde  Park,  and  into  the 
Thames  at  the  Hospital  Gardens,  Chelsea. 

The  "  Tybourne,"  or  Tyburn,  in  which  we  are  more  particularly 
interested,  occupied  an  area  lying  between  those  through  which  the 
"  Hole-hourne  "  and  the  "  Westbourne  "  ran.  Like  them  its  source  was 
in  the  northern  heights  of  London,  and  its  course  was  southward.  It 
had  two  main  sources ;  one  at  Shepherd's  Well  Conduit,  now  Fitzjohn 
Avenue,  Hampstead  ;  and  the  other  near  the  site  of  Belsize  Manor 
House.  The  streams  flowing  from  these  two  sources  united  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Barrow  Hill  and  Primrose  Hill,  and  the  course  from 
thence  was  through  Regent's  Park,  the  water  being  conveyed  across 
Regent's  Canal  by  means  of  an  aqueduct.  The  Tybourne  formerly 
supplied  the  artificial  waters  of  Regent's  Park.  From  thence  it  proceeded 
across  the  boundary  of  Regent's  Park  and  across  Baker  Street  and 
Marylebone  Road,  where  a  depression  is  to  be  seen  marking  the  channel. 

The  ancient  church  of  the  parish,  dedicated  to  St.  John  the  Baptist, 
was  situated  near  the  present  courthouse,  in  the  erection  of  which,  in 
1727,  the  site  of  the  churchyard,  indicated  by  remains  of  interments, 
was  discovered.  In  the  fourteenth  century  it  fell  into  a  ruinous  state 
from  neglect,  its  lonely  situation  rendered  it  subject  to  dilapidations,  and 
its  bells  and  ornaments  were  frequently  stolen.  Robert  Braybrook,  Bishop 
of  London,  therefore  granted  a  license  to  the  parishioners,  on  petition 
dated  October,  1400,  to  build  a  new  church  near  where  a  chapel  had 
been  erected.  This  was  dedicated  to  St.  Mary,  and  remained  until  May, 
1740,  when  being  ruinous  it  was  taken  down.  This  new  dedication  gave 
a  new  name  to  the  manor  and  parish,  for  being  built  near  the  stream, 
the  name  of  Mary-le-bourne  was  given,  which  has  become  changed  into 
Marylebone.  In  earlier  times  the  name  seems  to  have  been  simply 
Marybone,  and  it  was  sometimes  written  Marrow-bone. 

From  Marylebone  Road  to  Oxford  Street  the  course  of  the  Tybourne 
is  not  marked  in  any  known  map,  except  one  of  great  interest  accom- 
panying Mr.  J.  G.  Waller's  paper  on  "  The  Tybourne  and  the  West- 
bourne"  (Transactions  of  the  London  and  Middlesex  Archceological  Society, 
Pt.  I.  of  Vol.  VI.)  To  this  map,  and  the  valuable  paper  which  it 


illustrates,  we  are  much  indebted  for  information  and  hints.  A  portion 
of  the  Tybourne  is  represented  in  a  map  by  William  Faden,  1785,  as 
taking  a  sweep  westwards,  bending  round  again  to  the  east,  and 
terminating  at  the  then  stables  of  the  Horse  Guards,  as  near  as 
possible  that  of  Baker  Street  Bazaar.  From  hence  it  may  be  faintly 
traced  towards  Marylebone  Lane  (which  accommodates  itself  to  the  curves 
of  the  stream),  when  it  becomes  again  visible  in  the  maps  of  Lea  and 
Glynne  and  others. 

The  Tybourne  was  tributary  to  the  ancient  water-supply  of  the 
metropolis.  In  the  2ist  year  of  Henry  III.,  liberty  was  granted  to 
Gilbert  Sandford  to  convey  water  from  Tyburn  by  pipes  of  lead  to  the 
city,  and  there  were  subsequent  extensions  showing  the  early  importance 
that  the  citizens  of  London  attributed  to  a  pure  water-supply.  Conduits 
about  nine  in'  number  were  here  distributed,  many  of  which  are  marked 
in  the  map  of  Lea  and  Glynne.  One  was  nearly  opposite  South 
Street  in  a  field  east  of  Marylebone  Lane ;  another  close  to  what  is 
now  the  police  station,  and  a  few  years  back  still  in  use ;  another  in 
the  rear  of  the  Banqueting  House,  now  Stratford  Place ;  and  others 
on  the  south  side  of  Oxford  Street. 

The  Lord  Mayor's  Banqueting  House  was  used  by  the  city 
authorities  for  entertainments  when  they  came  to  visit  and  inspect  the 
conduits  in  the  vicinity,  and  this  ceremony  was  a  day  of  some  recreation 
to  the  mayor  and  aldermen,  with  their  wives.  It  was  usually  held  on 
the  i8th  of  September,  the  citizens  journeying  upon  horseback,  and 
their  ladies  in  waggons.  Upon  one  of  these  occasions,  in  1562,  it  is 
recorded  by  Strype  that  "  The  Lord  Mayor,  Aldermen,  and  many 
worshipful  persons  rode  to  the  conduit-heads  to  see  them  according  to 
old  custom ;  then  they  went  and  hunted  a  hare  before  dinner  and 
killed  her;  and  thence  went  to  dinner  at  the  Banqueting  House,  at  the 
head  of  the  conduit,  where  a  great  number  were  handsomely  entertained 
by  their  chamberlain.  After  dinner  they  went  to  hunt  the  fox.  There 
was  a  great  cry  for  a  mile,  and  at  length  the  hounds  killed  him  at 
the  end  of  St.  Giles',  with  great  hollowing  and  blowing  of  horns  at 
his  death ;  and  thence  the  Lord  Mayor,  with  all  his  company,  rode 
through  London  to  his  place  in  Lombard  Street." 

After   the   establishment    of    the    New    River   system   the   Corporation 


leased  these  conduits,  which  became  part  of  a  system  of  water-supply, 
called  Marylebone  Waterworks,  and  there  was  a  large  reservoir,  called 
Marylebone  Basin,  north  of  Cavendish  Square  and  parallel  to  Portland 
Place.  Portland  Chapel,  afterwards  St.  Paul's  Church,  was  built  upon 
the  site  which  the  reservoir  formerly  occupied.  The  Banqueting  House, 
was  pulled  down  in  1737.  Traces  of  the  former  course  of  the  Tybourne 
are  to  be  seen  in  the  names  Brook  Street,  Conduit  Street,  &c.,  and  in 
the  direction  which  certain  streets  took  in  order  to  avoid  the  course  of 
the  river.  Good  illustrations  of  this  are  visible  in  South  Street,  part  of 
Marylebone  Lane,  and  South  Molton  Lane. 

The  stream  flowed  a  little  to  the  east  of  Berkeley  Square,  and, 
crossing  Piccadilly,  into  the  Green  Park.  Buckingham  Palace  is  built 
upon  a  portion  of  its  old  course,  and  at  a  point  a  little  south  of  that 
building  the  stream  separated  into  two  arms,  one  falling  into  the  Thames 
a  little  south-west  of  the  Houses  of  Parliament.  The  fall  of  water  here 
was  utilized  for  the  Abbot's  mill,  hence  the  name  Millbank,  by  which 
the  spot  is  known  to  this  day.  The  other  arm,  anciently  forming  the 
boundary  of  Westminster,  fell  into  the  Thames  a  little  west  of  Vauxhall 
Bridge.  The  tract  of  ground  bounded  by  these  arms  of  the  Tybourne 
and  by  the  River  Thames  was  called  Thorney  Island,  the  abundance  of 
water  around  it  in  former  times  having  been  sufficient  to  give  it  a  claim 
to  the  designation  of  an  island.  Mr.  Waller  considers  the  name  to  be 
equal  to  "the  Isle  of  Thorns,"  and  probably  to  have  been  derived  from 
the  whitethorn,  which  is  very  common  still  in  our  marshes,  by  the  sides 
of  ditches.  Upon  the  space  which  represents  the  area  of  this  ancient 
island  stand  the  venerable  building  of  Westminster  Abbey,  the  ancient 
royal  Palace  of  Westminster,  and  the  more  modern  Houses  of  Parliament. 

There  is  some  reason  to  suppose  that  the  name  Tybourne,  or 
Tyburn,  was  derived  from  the  circumstance  of  the  brook  being  double  in 
its  sources  and  in  the  latter  part  of  its  course.  Another  good  explana- 
tion of  the  origin  of  the  name  is  that  it  took  the  first  part  of  the 
name,  Ty,  from  the  delta-like  area  of  ground  which  the  two  arms 
bounded,  and  which,  as  we  have  already  said,  was  known  in  olden 
days  as  Thorney  Island.  In  the  old  English  language  "  tye,"  "tigh," 
or  "teage"  indicated  an  enclosure  of  land,  and  as  such  the  name 
would  be  specially  applicable  to  a  stream  which  enclosed  an  island 


between  its  branching  arms,  as  this  enclosed  Thorney  Island.  The 
stream  is  referred  to  as  "  Teoburna  "  in  a  charter  of  King  Edgar,  dated 
951,  and  for  many  years  it  gave  the  name  of  Tyburn  to  the  manor 
through  which  it  ran,  and  which  was  afterwards  called  Marylebone  in 
allusion  to  its  situation  upon  this  very  stream.  In  old  records  this 
stream  was  referred  to  under  the  name  of  Aye-brook,  or  Eye-brook,  a 
name  which  might  easily  have  become  corrupted  to  Tyburn. 

~^^-s     ^~~\ ^,/-^    ^Jx — ^m\s^~^.,^    ^"^  f  J>- ~\. 


St.  Marylebone  Old  Church.— The  site  of  St.  John's  Church. — Thefts  of  Church  Goods. — 
Rebuilding  of  the  Church. — Dedication  to  St.  Mary,  the  Virgin. —Hogarth's  picture  of  the 
interior  of  the  Church. — "The  Rake's  Progress." — Vault  of  the  Forset  Family. — Demoli- 
tion of  the  Church  in  1740. — Rebuilding  of  the  Church  in  1741. — Inadequate  accommo- 
dation.— Suggestions  for  a  new  Church. — Epitaphs,  &c.,  in  Marylebone  Old  Church.— Sir 
Edmund  Douce. — James  Gibbs,  architect. — Baretti. — Storace. — John  Allen,  apothecary. — 
Caroline  Watson,  engraver. — Celebrated  names  in  the  Burial  Register. — St.  Marylebone 
New  Church. — Architectural  features. — St.  Mary's  Church. — All  Souls'  Church.— Holy 
Trinity  Church.— Christ  Church.— St.  Peter's  Church,  Vere  Street. — St.  Paul's  Church, 
Great  Portland  Street. — St.  John's  Wood  Chapel. — Dissenting  Chapels. — French  Chapel. 


ROBABLY  the  earliest  church  in  Marylebone, 
and    certainly    the    earliest     of    which    we 
possess   any   record,   was   one   dedicated   to 
St.    John.        In     the     year      1400,     Bishop 
Braybroke,   the   Bishop  of  London  at   that 
time,   granted   a   license   to  the  inhabitants 
upon    their    petition     (dated     October     23, 
1400),   to   remove    that    old    church,   called 
"the    old     church     of     Tybourn,"     Tyburn 
^   being  the   name   by   which   the   place  was  known  in  early 
times.      The  site  of  the  old  church  of  St.   John   has  been 
identified    by    topographers    with    the    site    of    the   court- 
house,    at    the    corner    of    Stratford    Place,    where    great 
numbers   of  old   bones   were    dug    up    some    years    since. 
The    spot    seems    to    have    been    a    lonely    one,    as     the 
church   was   subject   to  the   depredations   of  robbers,   who 
frequently   stole   the   images,    bells    and    ornaments.      The 
license   also   provided   for   the    building   a   new   church   of 
stone    or     flints,     near    the    place    where    a    chapel    had 
been    then    lately    erected,   which    chapel     might     in     the 
meantime   be   used.     The   Bishop   of  London   claimed  the 


privilege  of  laying  the  first  stone.  The  old  churchyard  was  to  be 
preserved,  but  the  parishioners  were  allowed  to  enclose  another  adjoining 
the  new  church. 

This  church,  dedicated  to  St.  Mary  the  Virgin,  became  ruinous 
and  dilapidated  in  the  first  half  of  the  i8th  century,  as  may  be  seen 
in  the  plate  representing  the  marriage  in  Hogarth's  "  Rake's  Progress" 
— a  view  which  is  regarded  as  the  best  representation  of  the  interior 
of  the  old  church. 

Dr.  Trusler's  "  Hogarth  Moralized,"  1813,  contains  the  following 
description  of  Hogarth's  picture  :— 

"  The  rake  is  here  exhibited  embracing  the  happy  opportunity  of 
recruiting  his  wasted  fortune  by  a  marriage  with  a  deformed  and  super- 
annuated female,  ordinary  even  to  a  proverb,  and  possessed  but  of  one 
eye.  As  this  wedding  was  designed  to  be  a  private  one,  they  are 
supposed  to  have  retired  for  that  purpose  to  the  church  of  St.  Mary-le- 
bone  (which  at  that  time  was  denominated  a  small  village,  in  th( 
outskirts  of  London)  ;  but  as  secret  as  he  thought  to  keep  it,  it  die 
not  fail  to  reach  the  ears  of  an  unfortunate  young  woman  whom  he 
had  formerly  seduced,  and  who  is  here  represented  entering  with  her  chik 
and  mother,  in  order  to  forbid  the  solemnization.  They  are,  howeve 
opposed  by  the  pew-opener,  lest,  through  an  interruption  of  the  ceremony 
she  should  lose  her  customary  fee,  and  a  battle  consequently  ensues- 
a  manifest  token  of  the  small  regard  paid  to  these  sacred  places.  Bj 
the  decayed  appearance  of  the  walls  of  this  building,  the  torn  belief, 
and  cracked  commandments,  our  author  would  humorously  and  effectually 
intimate  the  great  indifference  shewn  to  the  decency  of  churches  in 
country  parishes. 

"  The  only  thing  further  to  be  noticed,  is  that  of  the  poor's  box, 
whose  perforation  is  humourously  covered  with  a  web,  where  a  spider 
is  supposed  to  have  been  a  long  time  settled,  not  finding  so  good  a 
resting  place  before ;  and  it  is  probable  she  might  have  continued  there 
much  longer  had  not  the  overseer,  in  private,  searched  the  box,  with 
a  view  of  abstracting  its  contents.  Hence  are  we  given  to  understand, 
that  dissapation  so  far  prevails  as  to  drive  humanity  from  the  heart; 
and  that  so  selfish  are  we  grown,  as  to  have  no  feeling  for  the  dis- 
tresses of  our  fellow-creatures;  a  matter  which,  while  it  disgraces  the 


THE    OLD    CHURCH.  17 

Christian,  even  degrades  the  man."  Adverting  to  this  incident,  as  also 
to  the  cracked  commandments,  and  the  creed  destroyed  by  the  damps  of 
the  church,  Mr.  Ireland  observes:  "These  three  high-wrought  strokes  of 
satirical  humour,  were  perhaps  never  equalled  by  an  exertion  of  the 
pencil;  excelled  they  cannot  be." 

" 'W-iwiifrtii.  V.aKS  ir=ni  p1**""* ""f  ==->V?' 

-  ' 

JM    irfreu* "'    /i"  -a*        H          '/*        ~       .  .  e=— ^sy          -v 

«P)«ffiJ^^Qk^i«P:.  /  / 

"1=3*^''  p^ww-L=_lH 


The  inscription,  denoting  the  church  to  have  been  "  beautified "  when 
Thomas  Sice  and  Thomas  Horn  were  churchwardens,  was  not  fabricated 
for  the  purpose  of  ridicule  (though  it  might  well  have  served  that 
purpose,  when  contrasted  with  the  ruinous  appearance  of  the  church), 
but  proves  to  have  been  genuine. 

The  following  amusing  poetical  description  of  the  scene  is  taken 
from  "  The  Rake's  Progress ;  or  the  Humours  of  Drury  Lane "  :— 

"  Only   themselves   and   Chambermaid, 
In   Hackney   Coach   to   Church  convey 'd. 
Near  Oxford   Road,   O !    Omen  dire ! 
Where   Criminals   daily   expire. 
The  advent'rous   Hero   leads  her  on 
To   the  fam'd   Church   of  Marybone; 
The  Clerk   who   neither  said  nor  sung, 
The   Parson   with   Lip   under  hung, 
Of  the  true  ancient   Bull  -  dog  Breed, 
Cou'd   hardly   either  spell   or  read. 


The   Altar  all   adorn'd   with   Bays, 

The  ragged   Boy   who   the   Hassock   lays, 

To  raise  her   Foot   equal   to  his, 

And   to  receive  the   Ring  in   Bliss. 

Some   Hero's   Trophies  dismal   sad, 

In   Tatters  waving  o'er  their   Head  : 

The   Sword,   the  Glove,   and  Coat   of  Mail, 

Impendent   fast'ned   by   a   Nail  ; 

His   Knightly   Qualities  proclaim : 

And   if  they   cou'd   would   speak   his   Fame 

For  it   is  a  custom   due   to   P s, 

And   every   man   who   Honour  bears, 

To   have   these  Things   hang  in   the   Church 

Which   when   alive  he  durst   not   touch  : 

Below,   how   much   he  gave  is  told, 

In   shining   Letters   all   of  Gold  ; 

At   which   each   thoughtless   Booby   stares, 

And   heeds   it   much   more   than  his   Pray'rs. 

Th'   Apostle's   Creed,   tho'   painted   plain, 

Is  quite   rubbed   out    with   keeping   clean  : 

And   the   Commands,   tho'   plain   to   view, 

From   Top   to   Bottom   are   crackt   thro' ; 

A   Spider  finding  out   a   Place 

Where  he  could   hope   to  be  at    Ease, 

On   the   Poor's   Box   his   Web  he   weav'd, 

And   three   Months  undisturb'd  had   liv'd ; 

And   still   had   liv'd,   but   th'   Overseer, 

In  private,   took   out   all   was   there." 

Hogarth's  plate  was  published  in  1735,  and  the  ill-spelt  verses, 
pointing  out  the  vault  of  the  Forset  family,  were  accurately  copied 
from  the  original,  as  follows  :— 

THESE  :  PEWES  :  VNSCRVD  :  AND  :  TAN  :  IN  :  SVNDER 

IN  :  STONE  :  THERS  :  GRAVEN  :  WHAT  :  IS  :  VNDER 

TO  :  WIT  :  A  :  VALT  :  FOR  :  BVRIAL  :  THERE  :  IS 

WHICH  :  EDWARD  :  FORSET  :  MADE  :  FOR  :  HIM  :  AND  :  HIS 

This  inscription,  the  letters  of  which  were  in  relief  wood-work,  w; 
preserved  with  great  care,  and  in  the  church  which  was  erected  in 
1742  they  were  placed  in  the  front  of  a  pew  directly  opposite  the 
altar.  Thomas  Smith,  writing  in  1833,  says  :  "  The  first  two  lines  of 
this  Inscription  are  the  originals,  the  last  two  were  restored  in  1816, 
at  the  expense  of  the  Rev.  Mr.  Chapman,  the  Minister.  The  Vault 
is  now  occupied  by  the  Portland  Family." 

The  ruinous  condition  of  the  church  became  so  serious  that  the 
structure  had  to  be  pulled  down.  This  work  was  commenced  in  May, 















THE     OLD     CHURCH.  ig 

1740,  and  in  less  than  two  years  another  church  was  built  upon  the 
same  site.  The  new  building  was  opened  for  service  in  April,  1742. 
A  writer,  speaking  of  it  a  few  years  later,  describes  it  as  having  been 
built  in  as  plain  a  manner  as  possible,  with  two  series  of  small  arched 
windows  on  each  side,  the  only  efforts  at  ornamentation  consisting  of 
a  vase  at  each  corner,  and  a  turret,  wherein  hung  the  bell,  at  the 
west  end.  It  was  constructed  of  brick,  was  an  oblong  square  in  plan, 
and  had  a  gallery  on  the  north,  south,  and  west  sides.  The  altar 
occupied  the  east  end  of  the  church,  and  several  of  the  monumental 
slabs  which  had  decorated  the  former  church,  and  which  are  portrayed 
in  Hogarth's  engraving,  were  preserved  and  transferred  to  the  walls  of 
the  new  church. 

The   entrance    doors   to   this    church    were    formerly   at    the    east   and 

west    ends,    but    upon    its    being    converted    into    the    Parish    Chapel    in 

1818,   by   Act   of    Parliament,   some  judicious  alterations   were   made :   the 

,    entrance    at     the     east     end     was     blocked    up,    that    at    the    wrest    only 

;    remaining.      The    pulpit    and    reading-desk   were    separated,    and    removed 

near    the    east    wall,    and   the    pews   were    re-arranged.      The    organ    was 

placed   in   the   west    gallery. 

The   following    inscriptions   still    remain    on   the    exterior   wall   of    the 
east   end    of  the   chapel : — 

"  REBUILT     IN     YE     YEAR     1741. 

WALTER     LEE         {churchwardens." 

"  Converted    into    a    Parish    Chapel, 
By   Act   of   Parliament,    LI.    George    III. 

on   the   iv.    Feb.    MDCCCXVII. 
The   Day   of  Consecration   of  the   New    Church." 

A  writer  in  the  Gentleman's  Magazine  for  July,  1807,  gives  the  following 
details  of  the  inconvenience  arising  from  the  miserably  insufficient 
accommodation  for  public  worshippers  in  Marylebone  : — 

SIR.  . .  I  was  lately  called  upon  to  visit  a  parish  church  towards 
the  north-west  end  of  the  town.  It  is  a  very  small  edifice,  much 
smaller  than  chapels  of  ease  generally  are ;  I  believe  I  may  say  it 
is  the  smallest  place  of  worship  attached  to  the  Church  of  England 
in  the  metropolis.  Small,  however,  as  it  is,  it  is  the  only  church 


belonging  to  the  largest  and  most  opulent  parish  in  this  capital,  or 
in  any  part  of  His  Majesty's  dominions— a  parish  which  on  the  lowest 
computation  contains  70.000  souls ;  there  is  no  font  for  baptism,  no 
room  for  depositing  the  dead  bodies  on  tressels,  after  the  usual  way  ; 
no  aisle  to  contain  them  They  are  placed  in  the  most  indecent 
manner  on  the  pews.  At  the  time  I  visited  this  scandal  to  our  church 
and  nation,  there  were  no  fewer  than  five  corpses  placed  in  the 
manner  described ;  eight  children  with  their  sponsors,  &c.,  to  be 
christened ;  and  five  women  to  be  churched ;  all  within  these  con- 
tracted dimensions.  A  common  basin  was  set  upon  the  communion 
table  for  the  baptisms,  and  the  children  ranged  round  the  altar ;  but 
the  godfathers  and  godmothers  in  pews,  in  so  confused  and  disorderly 
a  manner,  that  it  was  impossible  for  the  minister  to  see  many  of 
them,  or  address  and  require  them  to  make  the  responses,  which  the 
Rubrick  directs.  Not  to  mention  the  danger  of  the  dead  and  the 
living  being  thus  confined  together,  and  the  peculiarly  delicate  situation 
of  women  immediately  after  child-birth ;  all  reverence  for  the  sacrament 
of  baptism ;  all  solemn  and  awful  reflections  from  hearing  one  of 
the  finest  services  ever  composed,  and  on  an  occasion  the  most  interest- 
ing to  the  heart  that  can  be  imagined,  are  entirely  done  away,  and 
the  mind  filled  with  horror  and  disgust. 


When  Regent's  Park  was  laid  out  it  was  proposed  to  build  a  churcl 
in  order  to  remedy  this  serious  defect  to  some  extent.  The  suggested 
site  was  the  centre  of  a  circus  to  be  constructed  at  the  end  of  Portland 
Place,  and  the  Vestry  having  received  a  communication  from  the  Secretary 
to  the  Treasury,  and  believing  that  there  was  an  intention  to  confer  upon 
them  this  site,  together  with  five  acres  of  land  to  surround  their  projected 
building,  applied  for  and  obtained  an  Act  of  Parliament  for  the  diversion 
of  the  New  Road,  as  the  Marylebone  Road  at  that  time  was  called. 
No  sooner,  however,  were  their  efforts  attended  with  success,  than 
difficulties  were  interposed  and  new  portions  of  land  pointed  out. 

An  Act  was,  however,  passed  in  the  Session  of  1810-11,  entitled 
"  An  Act  to  enable  the  Vestrymen  of  the  Parish  of  St.  Mary-le-bone, 
in  the  County  of  Middlesex,  to  build  a  new  Parish  Church,  and  two  or 
more  Chapels ;  and  for  other  purposes  thereto ;"  by  which  all  the  former 
Acts  were  repealed,  and  new  powers  given  to  the  Vestrymen  and  their 
successors  (who  derive  their  authority  from  an  Act  of  the  35th  of 
George  III.)  to  purchase  lands  not  exceeding  ten  acres,  for  the  above 
purposes ;  and  in  which  there  was  a  clause,  providing  that  no  sum 
shall  be  given  for  any  one  site  for  the  said  Church  or  Chapels  exceeding 
£6000."  About  the  end  of  1812,  Mr.  White,  jun.,  the  District  Surveyor 


of  the  Parish,  presented  the  Vestry  with  a  design  for  a  double  church, 
upon  a  new  principle,  having  for  its  object  the  accommodating  of  a  large 
number  of  persons,  and  at  the  same  time  admitting  a  magnificence  of 
exterior ;  which  design  was  meant  as  an  accompaniment  to  his  father's 
plan  for  the  improvement  of  Marylebone  Park. 

Shortly  after  the  delivery  of  the  design  above  mentioned,  the  Vestry 
offered  premiums,  by  public  advertisement,  to  architects,  as  they  had  done 
in  the  year  1770,  for  plans  and  elevations  of  a  parish  church  ;  but  about 
a  fortnight  previous  to  the  time  of  receiving  such  plans  and  elevations 
from  the  artists,  they  gave  public  notice  that  the  designs  were  not  to 
be  proceeded  with  ;  it  should  appear,  on  account  of  the  difficulties  which 
had  arisen  in  obtaining  the  ground  which  the  Lords  of  the  Treasury  had 
proposed  to  grant  them.  A  triangular  piece  of  ground  was,  however, 
granted  to  the  Parish  by  the  Treasury,  on  the  south  side  of  the  New 
Road,  near  Nottingham  Place,  and  the  Vestry  proceeded  to  erect  a 
chapel  capable  of  containing  a  considerable  number  of  persons ;  the 
foundation  was  laid  on  the  5th  of  July,  1813,  and  the  fabric  was 
proceeded  with  nearly  to  its  completion.  At  that  period,  however,  the 
work  was  stopped,  and  the  Vestry  came  to  a  resolution  to  convert  the 
intended  chapel  into  a  parochial  church.  This  occasioned  a  consider- 
able alteration  to  be  made  in  the  original  design,  and  particularly  in 
regard  to  the  exterior  of  the  building.  The  principal  front,  next  to  the 
New  Road,  underwent  a  very  important  change,  a  more  extended  portico 
and  a  steeple  were  substituted  for  the  former  design  (which  consisted  of 
an  Ionic  portico  of  two  columns,  surmounted  by  a  group  of  figures  and 
a  cupola)  ;  and  other  alterations  were  made  in  order  to  give  the  edifice 
an  appearance  more  in  harmony  with  the  character  of  a  church. 


Among  the  numerous  persons  commemorated  by  inscriptions  in  old 
Marylebone  Church  are  the  following : — 

Sir  Edmund  Douce,  of  Broughton,  Kt.,  "  cup-bearer  to  Ann  of 
Denmark,  Queene  to  Kynge  James,  and  to  Henryetta  Maria  of  France, 
forty  yeares  a  servant  in  his  place  :  never  maryed.  At  the  writinge 
hereof  he  was  aged  three  score  and  three  years,  in  Anno  Dni.  1644." 



James  Gibbs,  Esq.,  "whose  skill  in  Architecture  appears  by  his 
Printed  Works  as  well  as  the  Buildings  directed  by  him.  Among  othei 
Legacys  and  Charitys,  he  left  One  Hundred  Pounds  towards  enlarging 
this  church.  He  died  August  5,  1754,  aged  71." 

Thomas  Smith,  in  his  History  of  Marylebone,  appends  the  following 
foot-note  to  this  inscription  : — "  Posterity  is  indebted  for  the  preservatior 
of  this  inscription,  Sampson  Hodgkinson,  Esq.,  an  ardent  lover  of 
antiquities,  and  sidesman  of  the  parish  church,  who,  at  his  own  expense, 
had  these  letters  repainted  in  1816 ;  but  no  satisfactory  account  of  the 
expenditure  of  the  bequest  mentioned  on  the  monument  can  be 
discovered  in  the  Vestry  Minutes.  The  above  gentleman,  who  has 
resided  in  the  parish  from  his  infancy,  possesses  a  fund  of  genuine 
entertaining  biographical  anecdote,  an  excellent  collection  of  minerals, 
and  a  curious  and  splendid  library,  which  in  the  most  kind  and 
obliging  manner  is  rendered  accessible  to  those  who  require  local  in- 

One  of  the  first  works  upon  which  this  celebrated  architect  was 
engaged  was  the  church  of  St.  Mary-le- Strand,  one  of  the  fifty  new 
churches.  It  has  been  justly  observed  that  the  delicate  beauty  of  that 
church  is  suggestive  of  the  influence  of  Wren.  In  1719,  Gibbs  added 
the  steeple  and  the  two  upper  stages  to  the  tower  of  Wrren's  church 
of  St.  Clement  Danes  in  the  Strand.  His  next  ecclesiastical  work  was 
"  Marybone  Chapel,"  better  known  as  St.  Peter's,  Vere  Street,  begun 
in  1721,  by  Harley,  Earl  of  Oxford.  His  chief  works,  however,  were 
the  church  of  St.  Martin-in-the-Fields,  and  the  building  for  the  Radcliffe 
Library  at  Oxford.  He  was  buried,  by  his  own  wish,  within  the  old 
church  of  Marylebone,  where,  on  the  north  wall  below  the  gallery,  is 
yet  remaining  a  simple  marble  tablet  to  his  memory,  with  the  inscrip- 
tion above  referred  to.  It  has  been  said  of  him  that  "  his  portraits 
and  busts  indicate  thoughtfulness,  penetration,  and  self-control,  but 
scarcely  great  power.  His  architecture  shows  fine  discernment  rather 
than  fine  invention.  His  reverence  for  classic  architecture  led  him  to 
an  excessive  respect  for  tradition,  but  his  work  is  lifted  far  above  the 
level  of  mere  imitation,  and  has  a  distinctive  style  of  its  own.  He 
never  fell  into  the  vagaries  of  some  of  his  contemporaries,  and  made 
no  attempt  at  Gothic.  His  good  taste  may  be  attributed  to  his  Italian 


training,  which  also  narrowed  his  art  to  the  mere  consideration  of  fine 
composition  and  proportion.  Although,  as  Walpole  says,  his  designs 
want  the  harmonious  simplicity  of  the  greatest  masters  of  classic  archi- 
tecture, he  deserves  higher  praise  than  Walpole  gave,  and  is  now 
regarded  as  perhaps  the  most  considerable  master  of  English  architecture 
since  Wren." 

"  Near  this  place  are  deposited  the  remains  of  SIGNOR 
GUISEPPE  BARETTI,  a  native  of  Piedmont,  in  Italy,  Secretary  for 
Foreign  Correspondence  to  the  Royal  Academy  of  Arts,  of 
London ;  Author  of  several  esteemed  Works  in  his  own  and  the 
Languages  of  France  and  England." 

Baretti  was  the  author  of  several  works,  but  his  name  is  perhaps 
best  known  in  connection  with  the  Italian  and  Spanish  Dictionaries  which 
he  compiled. 

"  In  memory  of  a  life  devoted  to  the  Study  of  Musical 
Science,  and  shorten'd  by  unremitted  application  and  anxiety  in 
the  attainment  of  its  object,  this  marble  is  inscribed  with  the 
name  of  STEPHEN  STORAGE,  whose  professional  talents  commanded 
publick  applause,  whose  private  virtues  ensur'd  domestic  affection. 
He  died  March  16,  1796,  aged  34,  and  is  interred  under  this 


Silent  his  lyre,  or  vvak'd  to  Heav'nly  strains, 

Clos'd  his  short  scene  of  chequer'd  joys  and  pains, 

Belov'd  and  grateful  as  the  notes  he  sung, 

His  name  still  trembles  on  Affection's  tongue, 

Still  in  our  bosoms  holds  its  wonted  part, 

And  strikes  the  chords,  which  vibrate  to  the  heart. 

P.    H. 

This  marble  is  put  up  by  a  tender  mother  and  an  affectionate 

John  Allen,  Esq.,  died  on  the  xyth  of  March,  1/74.  "  He  was 
Apothecary  to  the  Households  of  King  George  the  First,  Second  and 
Third ;  and  having  employed  a  long  life,  and  ample  Fortune,  in  Acts  of 
Benevolence  and  Charity,  Liberal  to  others,  Frugal  only  to  himself,  he 
was  released  from  his  Labours,  and  called  to  his  Reward  in  the  ninety- 
first  year  of  his  age.  By  his  Will  he  gave  large  Benefactions  to  his 
Relations,  Friends,  and  Servants.  To  Poor  Clergymen's  Widows  and 
Children.  To  Poor  House-Keepers,  and  the  Charity  Children  of  this 
Parish,  of  St.  Paul,  Covent  Garden,  and  of  St.  James',  Westminster. 


To  St.  George's  Hospital,  of  which  he  was  a  Governor  from  the  first 
institution  ;  and  to  the  Company  of  Apothecaries,  of  which  he  was 
most  respected  member.  Providence  seems  to  have  protected  the  life 
this  excellent  man,  as  an  example  to  show  how  useful  a  private  persoi 
may  be  with  a  mind  so  disposed." 

"  Sacred  to  the  memory  of  CAROLINE  WATSON,  Engraver  to  Her 
Majesty,  who  died  gth  June,  1814.  Aged  44. 

If  Taste  and  Feeling,  that  with  goodness  dwell, 
And  teach  the  modest  Artist  to  excel ; 
If  Gratitude,  whose  voice  to  Heaven  ascends, 
And  seems  celestial  to  surviving  Friends ; 
If  charms  so  pure  a  lasting  Record  claim, 
Preserve,  Thou  faithful  Stone!   a  spotless  Name! 
Meek  CAROLINE  !  receive  due  Praise  from  Earth 
For  Graceful  Talents  join'd  to  genuine  worth  ! 
God  gave  thee  gifts,  such  as  to  few  may  fall, 
Thy  Heart,  to  Him  who  gave,  devoted  all. 


Erected   by   John    Eardley   Wilmot." 

"  Here  lies  the  Body  of  HUMPHREY  WANLEY,  Library  Keeper  to  the 
Right  Hon.  Robert  and  Edward,  Earls  of  Oxford,  &c.  Who 
died  on  the  6th  day  of  July,  MDCCXXVI.  In  the  55th  year  of 
his  age." 

In  the  crypt  or  vault  underneath  the  church  are  deposited  the 
remains  of  several  members  of  the  Portland  family,  including  William 
Henry  Cavendish  Bentinck,  Duke  of  Portland,  who  died  on  the  3Oth 
of  October,  1809. 

At  the  west  end  of  the  church  there  was  a  monument  in  lead, 
gilt,  with  figures  in  alto-relievo,  to  the  memory  of  some  children  of 
Thomas  Tayler,  of  Popes,  in  Hertfordshire,  in  1689.  When  certain 
alterations  were  made  in  the  church,  in  1816,  this  curious  monument 
was  stolen,  probably  on  account  of  the  metal  of  which  it  was  composed. 
Strange  to  say,  no  steps  appear  to  have  been  taken  to  discover  the 

Among  the  persons  whose  names  appear  in  the  burial  register  of 
this  church  are  James  Figg,  prize-fighter,  buried  the  nth  of  December, 
Z734  5  J°nn  Vandrebrank,  painter,  buried  the  3oth  of  December,  1739 ; 
Edmund  Hoyle,  author  of  a  well-known  treatise  on  whist,  &c.,  buried 
the  23rd  of  August,  1769 ;  John  Michael  Rysbrack,  sculptor,  buried  the 


nth  of  January,  1770;  Anthony  Relhan,  author  of  works  upon  medical 
subjects,  buried  the  nth  of  October,  1776  ;  James  Ferguson,  astronomer, 
&c.,  buried  the  23rd  of  November,  1776 ;  Allen  Ramsay,  portrait-painter, 
buried  the  i8th  of  August,  1784;  Rev.  Charles  Wesley,  buried  the  5th  of 
April,  1788;  William  Cramer,  musician,  buried  the  nth  of  October, 
1799 ;  Francis  Wheatley,  R.A.,  buried  the  2nd  of  July,  1801  ;  George 
Stubbs,  painter  and  anatomist,  buried  the  i8th  of  July,  1806. 

In  1788,  Byron,  at  the  age  of  six  weeks,  and  on  the  3rd  of  May, 
1803,  Horatia,  the  daughter  of  Lord  Nelson  and  Lady  Hamilton,  were 
baptized  within  this  church. 

Francis  Bacon,  in  1606,  was  married  at  the  old  church  at  Marylebone. 


This  church  was  designed  by  Thomas  Hardwick,  a  pupil  of  Sir 
William  Chambers,  and  the  father  of  Philip  Hardwick,  R.A.,  architect 
of  the  New  Hall  at  Lincoln's  Inn.  The  portico  faces  the  north,  a 
peculiarity  in  some  measure  forced  upon  the  architect  by  the  nature  of 
the  ground  selected  for  its  site. 

The  north  front  of  the  church,  which  is  extremely  rich,  is  well  seen 
from  York  Gate,  Regent's  Park.  It  consists  of  a  handsome  winged 
portico  of  the  Roman  Corinthian  order,  surmounted  by  a  tower.  The 
portico  is  composed  of  eight  columns,  six  in  front  and  two  in  flank, 
raised  on  a  flight  of  steps,  and  sustaining  an  entablature  and  pediment. 
Within  the  portico  are  three  lintelled  entrances,  surmounted  by  cornices 
and  two  arched  windows.  Above  the  central  doorway  is  a  panel,  bearing 
the  following  inscription  : — 

This  Church  was  erected  at  the  expense  of  the  Parishioners, 
And  consecrated  iv.  February,  MDCCCXVII. 
The  REV.  ARCHDEACON  HESLOP,  Minister, 

The  DUKE  OF  PORTLAND,    )  _, 

\  Churchwardens. 


[  Sidesmen. 

Above  this  is  a  long  panel  designed  for  sculpture.  The  ceiling  of 
the  portico  is  panelled,  each  panel  containing  an  expanded  flower.  The 


wings   have   no   windows   on   their   northern   front,  the  angles  are  guardec 
by   pilasters,    and    the   flanks   are    enriched    with    two   columns. 

The  tower  is  in  three  stories,  and  is  crowned  with   a   spherical  dome 
In  the  interior  of  the  building  there   are  galleries   on   the   sides  and  north 
end.     Near  the  altar  is  a  painting  of  the  Holy  Family  by  West,  presented 
by  the  artist  to  the  parish. 

The  body  of  the  church  is  86  feet  6  inches  in  length,  and  60  feet 
in  breadth.  It  is  calculated  to  accommodate  between  three  and  four 
thousand  persons,  and  cost  nearly  £80,000  for  building  and  furnishing. 

The  church,  which  is  dedicated  to  St.  Mary-le-bone,  was  restored 
during  the  years  1883-84. 


This  church,  situated  in  Wyndham  Place,  near  Bryanston  Square, 
was  built  from  the  designs  of  Sir  Robert  Smirke,  and  was  consecrated 
on  the  yth  of  January,  1824.  The  plan  of  the  church  is  somewhat 
singular,  the  principal  front  facing  the  south,  and  having,  in  its  centre, 
the  portico  and  tower.  The  building  consists  of  a  nave,  or  body,  with 
side  aisles,  a  portion  of  the  angles  having  been  taken  to  form  vestries 
and  lobbies,  whereby  the  body  is  made  longer  than  the  aisles. 

The  tower  is  circular  in  plan ;  the  elevation  is  made  into  three 
stories.  The  basement  has  a  doorway  with  a  lintelled  architrave,  and 
above  it  three  round-headed  windows.  A  portico,  consisting  of  six  Ionic 
columns  and  two  antae,  sustaining  an  entablature  and  attic,  the  latter 
ornamented  with  arched  panels  instead  of  a  balustrade,  sweeps  round  that 
portion  of  the  tower  which  projects  from  the  building.  Above  the  parapet 
the  circular  tower  is  continued,  and  forms  a  stylobate  to  the  secom 
story,  which  has  eight  semi-columns,  of  the  early  Corinthian  Order, 
attached  to  it,  with  windows  having  arched  heads  in  the  spaces  between 
the  cornice  is  finished  with  a  parapet  set  around  with  Grecian  tiles, 
and  upon  this  story  is  a  pedestal,  still  continuing  the  same  form,  having 
four  circular  apertures  for  the  clock  dials,  and  finished  with  a  cornice 
sustaining  a  circular  temple  pierced  with  eight  arched  openings,  the  piers 
between  which  are  ornamented  with  antae,  supporting  an  entablature, 
cornice,  and  parapet,  the  latter  set  round  with  Grecian  tiles,  and  crowned 
with  a  conical  dome,  on  the  vertex  of  which  is  a  gilt  cross.  The 


remaining  part  of  this  side  of  the  church  is  formed  into  two  stories  by  a 
string  course,  and  finished  by  a  cornice  and  parapet  continued  from  the 
portico.  The  lower  story  contains,  on  each  side  of  the  portico,  three 
square  windows  with  stone  architraves,  and  the  upper  story  contains  the 
same  number  of  lofty  arched  windows  with  architraves  of  stone  round 
the  heads,  resting,  by  way  of  impost,  on  a  string  course.  Within  the 
portico  there  is  also  an  entrance,  with  a  window  above  it  in  the  wall 
of  the  church. 

The  west  front  is^  in  like  manner  made  into  two  stories,  and  also 
vertically  into  three  divisions,  the  lateral  ones  containing  windows,  and 
finishing  with  cornices  and  parapets  as  before.  The  central  division  has 
three  doorways,  with  lintelled  heads  in  its  basement,  and  three  arched 
windows  above.  This  division  is  surmounted  by  a  pediment  to  conceal 
the  roof. 

The  north  side  of  the  church  only  differs  from  the  south  in  having 
three  more  windows  in  each  story,  in  the  space  which  is  occupied  by 
the  tower  and  portico  on  the  side  already  described. 

The  east  front  is  in  three  divisions,  the  side  ones  similar  to  the 
the  western ;  the  central  division  retires  behind  the  line  of  the  front, 
and  has  a  square  window  divided  into  three  compartments  by  antae, 
and  finished  with  a  pediment.  The  church  is  built  of  brick,  except 
the  tower,  cornices,  and  other  particular  parts  before  enumerated. 
The  interior  consists  of  a  nave  and  side  aisles.  On  each  side  of  the 
nave  are  square  piers  supporting  galleries.  The  altar  is  elaborately 
constructed  of  various  ornamental  and  costly  marbles.  The  great  defect 
in  the  church  is  an  insufficiency  of  light.  The  interior  of  the  church 
was  remodelled  in  1874. 


The  first  stone  of  this  church  was  laid  on  the  i8th  of  November, 
1822,  and  the  consecration  took  place  on  the  25th  of  November,  1824. 
One  of  the  most  remarkable  features  in  connection  with  the  church  is 
the  strange  effect  produced  by  an  acutely  tapering  spire  set  upon  a 
circular  tower  of  classic  style. 

The  ground    on   which    All  Souls'   Church  stands,  formed  part   of  the 



site   of  Lord    Foley's   mansion,    which,  with   several   adjacent    houses,   was 
removed   to   complete   this   end    of    Regent    Street. 


Sir  John  Soane,  R.A.,  designed  this  church,  which  was  consecrated 
in  the  year  1828.  The  principal  face  of  the  building  fronts  the  south, 
instead  of  the  west,  as  is  the  general  rule.  Of  the  first  stage  of  the 
tower  it  has  been  said,  "  It  is  no  vague  or  unmerited  compliment  to 
the  architect  to  say  that  a  more  beautiful  piece  of  ecclesiastical  achi- 
tecture  is  not  to  be  seen  in  the  whole  range  of  modern  churches." 

The  chancel,  built  from  designs  of  G.  Somers  Clarke,  was  added, 
and  the  organ  removed  from  the  gallery  into  the  chancel,  in  the  year  1878. 


This  church  was  built  from  the  designs  of  Philip  Hardwick,  Esq., 
and  was  consecrated  in  1825.  Curiously  enough,  the  portico  and  prin- 
cipal front  are  at  the  east  end.  Another  curious  feature  in  the  church 
is  that  it  consists  of  two  separate  portions ;  the  first,  which  is  entirely 
of  stone,  comprises  the  entrance  and  tower ;  the  second  portion,  which 
consists  of  the  body  of  the  church,  and  is  entirely  appropriated  to  the 
congregation.  This  portion  is  built  of  brick,  with  stone  dressings. 
The  portico  and  pediment  are  built  in  the  Ionic  order. 

A  chancel  was  constructed,  and  the  east  end  of  'the  church  re- 
arranged, in  1867. 


St.  Peter's  Church,  formerly  known  as  Oxford  Chapel,  was'  erected 
about  1724,  and  during  the  rebuilding  of  the  parish  church  in  1741, 
marriages,  baptisms,  &c.,  were  performed  here.  The  Duke  of  Portland 
was  married  at  this  church  in  1734.  The  building  is  of  brick,  strength- 
ened with  rustic  quoins  of  stone.  Upon  the  pediment  at  the  west  end 
of  the  church  there  is,  carved  in  stone,  a  coat  of  arms,  which  appears 
to  be  those  of  a  descendant  of  Aubrey  De  Vere,  the  last  Earl  of 
Oxford  of  that  family.  The  arms  were  removed  in  the  year  1832,  when 
the  chapel  was  repaired,  and  when  it  was  named  St.  Peter's. 

Strange   as   it  may  seem   to  our  modern   notions  of  ecclesiastical  art, 

sons  Clinto 

i  ou5  i 




UTO  PLAV  Or  AL1  SOm-S 




orxi>  PUSJS  or  SCOTCH  CHTHCH. 


ntocyr  <;QT;AI«.  aum.. 

CHURCHES,    &c.,    IN    MARYLEBONE    AND    ST.    PANCRAS. 


this   chapel,    previously    to   the   erection    of    the    new   churches,    was    con- 
sidered  one   of  the   most    beautiful    structures    in    the    metropolis. 


This  church,  originally  known  as  Portland  Chapel,  was  erected  in 
1766,  on  the  site  of  Marylebone  Basin,  which  was  formerly  a  reservoir 
of  water  for  the  supply  of  that  part  of  the  metropolis,  but  had  been 
disused  for  many  years.  By  some  unaccountable  neglect,  this  chapel 
was  left  unconsecrated  from  the  time  of  its  erection  until  the  end  of 
the  year  1831,  when  (it  having,  in  common  with  the  Rectory  of  the 
Parish,  passed  into  the  hands  of  the  Crown)  the  ceremony  of  consecra- 
tion was  performed,  and  it  was  dedicated  to  St.  Paul.  The  church 
was  restored  in  1883. 


Architecturally  this  church  has  not  many  striking  features.  It  was 
built  after  the  designs  of  Thomas  Hardwick,  and  consecrated  in  the 
year  1814.  The  monumental  tablets  placed  against  the  walls  inside  the 
church  comprise  many  beautiful  specimens  of  modern  sculpture  by  the 
most  celebrated  masters  of  the  age.  Among  them  are  the  productions 
of  Chantrey,  Behnes,  Wyatt,  and  various  other  eminent  sculptors. 

In  the  vaults  beneath  this  church  are  deposited  the  remains  of 
a  great  number  of  well-known  persons,  among  whom  is  the  wife  of 
Benjamin  West,  P.R.A. 

In  the  burial  ground  attached  to  this  church  (now  converted  into 
a  public  garden)  is  the  grave,  among  many  others,  of  Joanna  South- 
cott.  It  was  estimated  in  1833  that  about  forty  thousand  persons  had 
been  buried  in  this  cemetery,  and  the  list  of  notable  characters  included 
in  that  number  is  much  too  long  to  give  in  this  volume. 


There  are  several  important  and  old-established  Dissenting  Chapels 
in  Marylebone,  but  we  have  no  space  for  even  a  brief  account  of 

In  Little  Titchfield  there  was  a  place  of  worship,  called  Providence 
Chapel,  frequented  by  a  congregation  styling  themselves  "  Independents," 


and  under  the  ministry  of  Mr.  Huntingdon.  This  chapel  was  burnt  down 
on  the  i8th  July,  1810,  upon  which  occasion  the  minister  is  reported 
to  have  observed,  that  "  Providence  having  allowed  the  chapel  to  be 
destroyed,  Providence  might  rebuild  it,  for  he  would  not " — and  in 
consequence,  the  site  was  occupied  by  a  timber  yard. 


About  the  middle  of  the  lyth  century  there  was  a  French  Chapel 
at  Marylebone.  It  was  probably  only  of  a  small  size,  conformably  with 
the  sparse  population  of  Marylebone  at  that  time.  There  seems  to  have 
been  some  doubt  as  to  the  exact  spot  it  actually  occupied,  which  is 
supposed  to  have  been  somewhere  in  Marylebone  Lane  or  High  Street. 
It  is  recorded  that  the  chapel  was  founded  in  1656,  in  which  year 
Bernard  Perny  .and  Michel  Eloy  Nollet  were  the  officiating  ministers. 

In  the  early  days  of  their  existence,  the  Marylebone  Gardens  were 
called  the  "  French  Gardens,"  in  consequence,  it  is  said,  of  their  con- 
tiguity to  the  Marylebone  French  Chapel.  The  site  of  the  Marylebone 
Gardens  is  well  known :  it  is  now  occupied  by  Devonshire-  Place  and 
Street  and  Beaumont  Street,  and  the  adjacent  locality,  and  if  the  French 
Chapel  adjoined  or  stood  near  those  gardens,  it  must  have  been  some 
little  distance  to  the  north  of  Marylebone  Lane.  (See  History  of  the 
Protestant  Refugees  settled  in  England.  By  J.  S.  Burn.  p.  153.) 

The  site  of  the  chapel  is  pretty  clearly  defined  in  a  plan  of  the 
Marylebone  Gardens,  which  is  reproduced  in  connection  with  the  account 
of  that  establishment  in  the  present  volume. 

"  The  vast  number  of  French  Protestants  who  fled  into  England  on 
the  Revocation  of  the  Edict  of  Nantes,  led  to  a  large  increase  in  the 
number  of  French  churches.  This  was  especially  the  case  in  London, 
which  was  the  principal  seat  of  the  immigration.  It  may  serve  to  give 
the  reader  an  idea  of  the  large  admixture  of  Huguenot  blood  in  the 
London  population,  when  we  state  that  about  the  beginning  of  last 
century,  at  which  time  the  population  of  the  Metropolis  was  not  one 
fourth  of  what  it  is  now,  there  were  no  fewer  than  thirty-five  French 
Churches  in  London  and  the  suburbs.  Of  these  eleven  were  in  Spitalfields, 
showing  the  preponderance  of  French  settlers  in  that  quarter." — Smiles. 



Marylebone  Gardens. — The  French  Gardens.— Illuminations,  fireworks,  and  music,  at  Marylebone 
Gardens.  —  "  The  Forge  of  Vulcan."— Dr.  William  Kenrick's  lectures.— The  Marylebone  Spa.— 
James  Figg  and  "The  Boarded  House  "—Bowling  Greens.— " The  Rose  of  Normandy."— 
"The  Queen's  Head  and  Artichoke."— "The  Yorkshire  Stingo."— "  The  Old  Farthing  Pie 
House."—"  The  Jew's  Harp." 


HERE  is  evidence  of  the  existence  of  public 
pleasure  gardens  at  Marylebone  at  an  early 
date.  Pepys  writes  in  1668  : — "  Then  we 
abroad  to  Marrowbone,  and  there  walked 
in  the  garden ;  the  first  time  I  ever  was 
there,  and  a  pretty  place  it  is." 

The  gardens,  which  occupied  the  ground 
where  Beaumont  Street,  Devonshire  Street, 
and  Devonshire  Place  now  are,  seem  to 
have  been  known  at  first  (as  was  mentioned  in  the  last 
chapter)  as  "  The  French  Gardens,"  on  account,  as 
some  say,  of  their  having  been  cultivated  by  French 
refugees,  who  had  a  chapel  close  by.  When  the 
gardens  were  first  named  the  Marylebone  Gardens, 
and  definitely  set  apart  for  the  use  of  pleasure-seekers, 
does  not  clearly  appear.  The  probability  is,  however, 
that  they  gradually  assumed  that  character. 

An  advertisement  in  the  "  Daily  Courant,"  of  the 
29th  of  May,  1718,  reads: — "This  is  to  give  notice  to 
all  persons  of  quality,  ladies  and  gentlemen,  that  there 
having  been  illuminations  in  Marybone  bowling-greens 
on  his  Majesty's  birthday  every  year  since  his  happy  accession  to  the 
throne;  the  same  is  (for  this  time)  put  off  until  Monday  next,  and  will 


be  performed  with  a  consort  of  musick,  in  the  middle  green,  by  reason 
there  is  a  ball  in  the  garden  at  Kensington  with  illuminations,  and  at 
Richmond  also." 

This  notice  goes  to  show  that  the  bowling-greens  at  Marylebone  had 
for  a  few  years,  at  least,  been  used  for  the  celebration  of  public  events. 

A  distinct  advance  towards  improvement  of  the  condition  and 
appointments  of  the  place  was  made  in  the  years  1738-9,  when  Mr. 
Gough,  the  proprietor,  enlarged  the  gardens,  built  an  orchestra,  and  issued 
silver  tickets  at  twelve  shillings  each  for  the  season,  each  ticket  admitting 
two  persons.  It  is  not  generally  known  that,  previous  to  the  year  1737, 
this  "fashionable"  place  of  amusement  was  entered  freely  by  all  ranks  of 
people ;  but  the  company  becoming  more  select,  Mr.  Gough  determined 
to  charge  one  shilling  for  entrance  money  for  a  lady  and  gentleman,  for 
which  the  party  paying  was  to  receive  an  equivalent  in  viands.  Any 
single  person  was  admitted  upon  a  payment  of  sixpence.  The  gardens 
were  open  from  six  to  ten  in  the  evening  at  first,  but  the  hour  for  opening 
was  afterwards  altered  to  five  o'clock.  An  advertisement  in  a  con- 
temporary newspaper  humbly  requests  that  the  gentlemen  will  riot  smoke 
on  the  walks. 

The  plan  of  the  Marylebone  Gardens  here  inserted  has  been  reproduced 
from  a  valuable  MS.  plan  in  the  Grace  collection  at  the  British  Museum. 
The  following  are  the  references  to  the  numbers  marked  upon  it. 

1.  The  house  called  The  Rose  of  Normandy. 

2.  The  field  entrance. 

3.  Old  Church  (French). 

4.  Orchestra 

5.  Burlettas,  &c.,  without  front. 

6.  Fireworks. 

In  the  year  1740,  an  organ,  built  by  Bridge,  was  added  to  the 
musical  attractions  of  Marylebone  Gardens,  and  later  on  illuminations  and 
artificial  fireworks  formed  a  frequent  and  popular  item  in  the  entertain- 
ments. On  July  27th,  1769,  upon  the  occasion  of  Mr.  Forbes's  benefit, 
the  following  list  of  fireworks  was  advertised  to  be  exhibited  : — 

"THE     ORDER     OF     FIRING. 

"First  Division. — i.  Four  Sky  Rockets.  2.  Two  illuminated,  brilliant,  and 
changeable  wheels.  3.  Two  Tourballoons.  4.  One  large  Range  of  Chinese 
Trees  bearing  white  Flowers.  5.  Two  Furious  Wheels  changing  into  Wheat- 
sheafs.  6.  Two  Pots  d'Airgrets  with  Chinese  Jerbs. 


•  p 


















"  Second  Division.— 7.  Four  Skyrockets.  8.  Two  Tourballoons.  9.  One 
large  brilliant  Wheel,  with  blue,  yellow,  and  white  lights.  10.  Two  Pyramids 
of  Roman  Candles,  n.  Two  Line  Rockets.  12.  Two  large  Diamond  Pieces  of 
brilliant  Fountains,  five  pointed  Stars,  and  a  large  Sun  at  the  Top  of  each. 

"Third  Division. — 13.  Four  Sky  Rockets.  14.  Two  Tourballoons.  15.  One 
regulating  Piece  of  three  Mutations,  first  a  large  brilliant  wheel  illuminated. 
2nd,  A  Sun  of  Brilliants  and  Royonet  Fire.  3rd,  Six  Branches  representing 
Wheat  Ears.  16.  One  large  Gothic  Arch,  superbly  illuminated  with  Lances, 
and  Variety  of  other  Decorations.  17.  One  large  brilliant  Sun  with  a  Star  of 
eight  Points  in  the  Centre.  18.  Two  Pots  d'Airgrets  with  large  Chinese  Jerbs." 

These  elaborate  fireworks  were  sent  off  at  the  conclusion  of  a  concert 
of  vocal  and  instrumental  music,  and  as  only  half-a-crown  was  charged 
for  admission,  it  cannot  be  said  that  the  entertainment  was  extravagantly 

So  many  rough  characters  were  attracted  towards  Marylebone  Gardens, 
that  the  journey  back  to  London  through  the  country  roads  was  attended 
with  considerable  risk  of  robbery  and  violence,  and  provision  for  the 
safety  of  visitors  was  made,  as  appears  by  the  following  : — 

"  Mrs.  Vincent's  night.  At  Marybone  Gardens,  on  Thursday,  July 
3rd  (1766),  will  be  a  Concert  of  Vocal  and  Instrumental  Music.  The 
vocal  parts  by  Mr.  Lowe,  Mr.  Raworth,  Mr.  Taylor,  Miss  Davis,  and  Mrs. 
Vincent.  With  several  new  Songs.  And  (by  particular  Desire)  after  the 
Concert  will  be  a  Ball.  Tickets  Two  Shillings  and  Sixpence. 

"  To  render  it  more  agreeable  to  the  Company  there  will  be  a 
Platform  laid  down  in  the  great  Walk  which  will  be  entirely  covered  in. 

"There  will  be  a  Horse  Patrol  for  the  City  Road  to  and  from  the 
Gardens,  to  protect  those  Friends  who  intend  honouring  Mrs.  Vincent 
with  their  Company. 

"  Tickets  to  be  had  of  Mrs.  Vincent,  at  her  lodgings,  at  Mr.  More's, 
Grocers,  next  to  the  Savoy  Gate  in  the  Strand,  and  at  the  Bar  of  the 

Music  was  one  of  the  chief  attractions  of  the  gardens.  Handel's 
name  is  closely  associated  with  them,  as  are  those  of  Dr.  Arne,  Webbe, 
Richter,  Hook,  Bartholomew,  Abel,  Dibdin,  and  Banister,  and  other 
popular  singers  and  actors  of  the  day. 

In  1744  Miss  Scott  was  a  singer  at  Marylebone  Gardens ;  Mr.  Knerler 
played  the  violin,  and  Mr.  Ferrand  played  an  instrument  called  the 



bariton.  In  1751  Mr.  John  Trusler  was  sole  proprietor  of  the  gardens, 
and,  in  1758,  his  son  produced  the  first  burletta  that  was  performed  there, 
entitled  "  La  Serva  Padrona." 

The  next  year,  1759,  Mr.  Trusler,  who  appears  to  have  been  possessed 
of  ingenious  business  capacities,  opened  his  gardens  for  breakfasting,  and 
his  daughter,  Miss  Trusler,  made  the  cakes. 

The  following  year  this  enterprising  lady  developed  a  new  branch  of 
her  business.  The  following  notice  was  publicly  given  in  the  news- 
papers : — "  Mr.  Trusler's  daughter  begs  leave  to  inform  the  Nobility  and 
Gentry  that  she  intends  to  make  fruit-tarts  during  the  fruit  season  ;  and 
hopes  to  give  equal  satisfaction  as  with  the  rich  cakes,  and  almond 
cheesecakes.  The  fruit  will  always  be  fresh  gathered,  having  great 
quantities  in  the  garden  ;  and  none  but  loaf  sugar  used,  and  the  finest 
Epping  butter.  Tarts  of  a  twelvepenny  size  will  be  made  every  day  from 
i  to  3  o'clock  ;  and  those  who  want  them  of  larger  sizes,  to  fill  a  dish, 
are  desired  to  speak  for  them,  and  send  their  dish  or  the  size  of  it, 
and  the  cake  shall  be  made  to  fit. 

"  The  almond  cheesecakes  will  be  always  hot  at  one  o'clock  as 
usual ;  and  the  rich  seed  and  plum  cakes  sent  to  any  part  of  the  town, 
at  2s.  6d.  each.  Coffee,  tea,  and  chocolate,  at  any  time  of  the  day ;  and 
fine  Epping  butter  may  also  be  had." 

A  good  idea  of  the  general  arrangement  and  appearance  of  the 
Marylebone  Gardens  is  presented  in  the  accompanying  plate,  which  is 
reproduced  from  an  engraving  published  in  the  year  1761.  It  represents 
the  gardens  probably  in  their  fullest  splendour.  The  central  part  of  the 
plate  exhibits  the  longest  walk,  with  regular  rows  of  young  trees  on 
either  side,  the  stems  of  which  received  the  irons  for  the  lamps  at  about 
the  height  of  seven  feet  from  the  ground.  On  either  side  this  walk 
were  latticed  alcoves ;  on  the  right  hand  of  the  walk,  according  to  this 
view,  stood  the  bow-fronted  orchestra  with  balustrades,  supported  by 
columns.  The  roof  was  extended  considerably  over  the  erection,  to 
keep  the  musicians  and  singers  free  from  rain.  On  the  left  hand  of  th 
walk  was  a  room,  possibly  intended  for  balls  and  suppers.  The  figures  i 
this  view  are  all  well  drawn  and  characteristic  of  the  time. 

In  1763,  the  gardens  were  taken  by  the  famous  Mr.  T.  Lowe,  who 
engaged  Mrs.  Vincent,  Mrs.  Lampe,  Junr.,  Miss  Mays,  Miss  Hyatt 



















Miss  Catley  and  Mr.  Squibb,  as  singers.     Upon  the  opening  of  the  gardens 
in  May,  1763,  the  following  musical  address  was  sung : — 

"  MR.  LOWE. 

Now  the  summer  advances,  and  pleasure  removes, 
From  the  smoke  of  the  town  to  the  fields  and  the  groves, 
Permit  me  to  hope,  that  your  favours  again 
May  smile,  as  before,  on  this  once  happy  plain. 

Miss  CATLEY. 

Tho'  here  no  rotunda  expands  the  %vide  dome, 
No  canal  on  its  borders  invites  you  to  roam ; 
Yet  nature  some  blessings  has  scattered  around, 
And  means  to  improve  may  hereafter  be  found. 

Miss  MILES. 

On  spots  as  uncouth,  from  foundations  as  mean, 
Some  structures  stupendous  exalted  have  been ; 
Hence  started   Vauxhall,  and  Ranelagh  grew, 
From  rudeness  to  grandeur,  supported  by  you. 

Miss  SMITH. 

The  barrenest  heath  may  by  art  be  improv'd  : 
And  rivers  diverted,  and  mountains  remov'd  : 
Do  you  then  the  sunshine  of  favour  display, 
And  culture  shall  soon  the  glad  summons  obey. 

Miss  CATLEY. 
Meanwhile,  ev'ry  effort  to  please  ye  we'll  try ; 

Miss  MILES. 
Good  music,  good  wine,  with  each  other  shall  vie. 

Miss  SMITH. 
To  gain  your  esteem  's  the  full  scope  of  our  plan, 

And  we'll  strive  to  deserve  it  as  well  as  we  can. 


To  gain  your  esteem  's  the  full  scope  of  our  plan, 
And  we'll  strive  to  deserve  it  as  well  as  we  can." 

One  of  the  many  popular  sights  at  Marylebone  Gardens  was  Signer 
Torre's  representation  of  the  Forge  of  Vulcan.  When  the  ordinary 
fireworks  were  concluded,  a  curtain,  which  covered  the  base  of  the 
representation  of  Mount  Etna,  rose  and  discovered  Vulcan  leading  the 
Cyclops  to  work  at  their  forge ;  the  fire  blazed,  and  Venus  entered  with 
Cupid  at  her  side,  who  begged  them  to  make  for  her  son  those  arrows 
which  are  said  to  be  the  causes  of  love  in  the  human  breast ;  they 
assented  and  the  mountain  immediately  appeared  in  eruption,  with  lava 


rushing  down  the  precipices.  This  exhibition  proved  highly  interesting 
to  the  public,  and  was  often  represented.  Another  popular  attraction  was 
a  course  of  lectures,  delivered  in  1774,  by  Dr.  William  Kenrick,  author 
of  numerous  books  and  pamphlets.  They  were  given  in  the  Theatre  for 
Burlettas,  which  was  called  the  School  of  Shakespeare,  as  the  lectures 
dealt  mainly  with  Shakespeare,  and  consisted,  to  a  large  extent,  of 
recitations  from  certain  portions  of  his  works.  The  character  of  Sir 
John  Falstaff  was  received  with  much  applause  by  the  crowded  audiences 
which  were  attracted  by  Dr.  Kenrick's  declamation.  Dr.  Kenrick  used 
to  hold  his  ''School  of  Shakespeare,"  as  it  was  called,  also  in  the  Apollo 
at  the  Devil  Tavern,  Temple  Bar,  and  he  printed  an  introduction  to  his 
lectures  in  the  form  of  a  pamphlet.  In  1775,  Mr.  George  Saville  Gary 
gave  lectures  on  mimicry,  in  which  he  introduced,  "  A  Dialogue  between 
Small  Cole  and  Fiddle-stick ;  Billy  Bustle,  Jerry  Douglas,  and  Patent ; 
with  the  characters  of  Jerry  Sneak  in  Richard  the  Third,  Shylock  in 
Macbeth,  Juno  in  her  Cups,  Momus  in  his  Mugs,  and  the  Warwickshire 
Lads  ;  concluding  with  a  dialogue  between  Billy  Buckram  and  Aristophanes, 
in  which  Nick  Nightingal,  or  the  Whistler  of  the  Woods,  made  his 
appearance  in  the  character  of  a  Crow. 

In  1774,  the  public  press  made  serious  complaints  against  ihe 
management  of  the  gardens  for  having  demanded  five  shillings  entrance 
money  to  a  fete  champetre,  which  consisted  of  nothing  more  than  a  few- 
tawdry  festoons  and  extra  lamps.  There  were  indications  that  public 
favour  was  declining;  the  gardens,  after  a  long  period  of  popularity,  were 
becoming  less  and  less  appreciated,  and  the  roughs,  who  assembled  there, 
tore  down  the  decorations,  and  injured  the  stage.  Moreover,  the 
population  around  the  district  was  rapidly  increasing,  and  so  much 
uneasiness  arose  in  the  minds  of  the  inhabitants  lest  some  accident 
should  be  occasioned  by  the  fireworks,  that  complaints  were  frequently 
made  to  the  magistrates.  The  result  was  that  Marylebone  Gardens  were 
finally  suppressed  in  1778,  and  the  site  was  let  to  builders. 

The  following  is  an  extract  from  a  document  which  was  formerly  in 
the  possession  of  Sampson  Hodgkinson,  Esq.,  who  allowed  an  extract 
to  be  made  for  Thomas  Smith's  "  History  of  the  Parish  of  St.  Marylebone," 
in  which  work  it  was  published  in  1833.  It  is  a  deed  of  assignment 
made  by  Thomas  Lowe,  conveying  his  property  in  Marylebone  Gardens 



to    certain     trustees,    for    the     benefit    of    his  creditors,    on    the    3rd     of 
February,  in  the  gth  of  George  the  Third,  viz.,  1769. 

By  Indenture  bec.ring  the  date  of  the  3Oth  day  of  August,  1763, 
made  between  Robert  Long,  of  the  Parish  of  St.  Mary-le-bone,  otherwise 
Marybone,  Esq.,  and  the  said  Thomas  Lowe,  all  that  Messuage  then  or 
then  before  called  the  Rose  Tavern,  situate  and  being  in  the  Parish 
of  St.  Marylebone  aforesaid,  with  the  tap-house  thereunto  belonging,  and 
also  a  Room  or  Building  known  by  the  name  of  the  French  Chapel, 
together  with  a  stable  or  brewhouse  adjoining,  or  near  to  the  same, 
and  also  all  that  other  Messuage,  situate  in  the  same  parish,  then 
before  in  the  possession  of  Daniel  Gough,  on  the  East  side  of 
the  town  of  Saint  Marylebone,  alias  Marybone,  fronting  towards  the 
West  on  the  Road  leading  to  Marybone  Church,  and  North  on  a 
Gateway  or  passage  leading  from  the  said  Road  into  Marybone 
Gardens.  And  also  all  that  great  garden  and  the  several  pieces  or 
parcels  of  garden  ground  and  walks  to  the  said  Messuages  or  either 
of  them  belonging,  which  had  been  lately  used  therewith  by  the  then 
late  Tennants  of  the  said  Messuages  in  the  carrying  on  a  Musical 
Entertainment  at  Marybone  Gardens,  and  also  the  orchestra,  and  all 
Rooms  and  Buildings  erected,  built  and  set  upon  the  said  pieces  and 
parcels  of  ground  or  any  part  thereof,  and  also  the  organ  then 
standing  in  the  said  orchestra,  and  also  a  harpsicord  and  all  the 
musical  books  and  music  then  being  on  the  said  premises,  and  used 
in  carrying  on  the  said  musical  entertainment,  and  all  boxes,  benches, 
tables,  lamps,  lamp-posts,  and  all  other  fixtures,  belonging  to  the  said 
Messuages  or  tenements,  pieces  or  parcels  of  ground  which  were  the 
property  of  the  said  Robert  Long,  and  all  the  passage  lights,  profits  or 
commodious  advantages  appointed  to  the  tenants  of  the  said  messuages 
or  said  pieces  of  ground  belonging  or  therewith  held  and  enjoyed, 
except  reserving  to  the  said  Robert  Long,  all  that  small  piece  of 
garden  ground  and  a  small  tenement  built  thereon,  then  in  the 
possession  of  Mr.  Flanders,  and  another  small  piece  of  ground  with 
a  shed  or  tenement  built  thereon,  late  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  Claxton, 
but  then  unlet,  and  also  another  small  piece  of  ground  with  a  tenement 
or  shed  built  thereon,  then  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  Gray  Cutler,  and 
also  another  piece  of  ground  with  a  tenement  built  thereon,  then  in 


the  possession  of  Mr.  Rysbrack,  statuary,  all  which  excepted  premises 
had  been  parted  off  from  the  said  Great  Garden,  and  had  been  held 
and  enjoyed  separately  from  the  same.  And  also,  except  and  always 
reserving  to  the  said  Robert  Long  and  his  tenants  free  liberty  to  pass 
and  repass  in  through  and  from  the  public  walks  of  the  said  great 
gardens  at  all  convenient  times  to  the  said  excepted  premises.  To 
Hold  the  same  (except  as  before  excepted)  unto  the  said  Thomas 
Lowe,  his  Executors  and  Assigns,  from  the  Feast  Day  of  St.  Michael 
the  Archangel,  next  ensuing,  for  and  during  the  full  end  and  term  of 
14  years  from  thence,  and  fully  to  be  compleat  and  ended,  at  and 
under  the  yearly  rent  of  £170  of  lawful  money  of  Great  Britain 
payable  quarterly,  in  manner  therein  mentioned. 

And  on  the  3ist  of  August,  James  Dalling,  Robert  Wright  of  the 
Parish  of  West  Ham,  in  the  County  of  Essex,  Coal  Merchant,  and 
Francis  Walsingham,  together  with  the  said  Thomas  Lowe,  became 
bound  to  the  said  Thomas  Long  in  the  penal  sum  of  five  hundred 
pounds  conditioned  for  the  payment  of  the  rent,  and  performances  6f 
the  contract. 

This  property  was  subsequently,  in  1768,  assigned  to  George  Forbes 
and  Andrew  Mitchie,  Trustees,  for  the  benefit  of  the  creditors. 

In    the   debtor   and   creditor    accounts    the  following  items   appear: — 


£   *•  * 

To  Mr.  Hook,  the  Music  Master       ...  440 

Mr.  Lowe's  weekly  allowance  ...  ...         ...  ...  220 

To  Advertisements  and  Waiters  ...         ...  ...  i     6  10 

To  Mr.  Medhurst,  for  Chickens  580 

To  the  Patrol       o  16 

To  Master  Brown            ...         ..  ...         ...  ...  44 

To  Miss  Da  vies  ...         ...         ...  ...         ...  ...  33 

To  Mr.  Taylor     ...         ...         ...  ...          ...  ...  22 

To  the  Gardener...         ...         ...  ...         ...  ...  09 

To  Candles           ...         ...         ...  ...         ...  ...  30 

To  Washing          ...         ...         ...  ...         ...  ...  01810 

To  One  Hundred  Lemons        ...  ...         ...  ..  o  10     o 

To  Water  Cakes..  060 


£   s-  d- 

To  Beer     ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  440 

To  Servants'  Wages       ...           ..         ...         ...         ...  180 

To  the  Band  of  Music  ...         ...           ..           ..         ...  27  13     8 

To  laying  out  the   Books  and  attending  the   Music  090 

To  the  Doorkeepers        ...         ...         ...          ...         ...  2   19     6 

To  attending  the  Organ...         ...           ..         ..           ...  076 

To  Miss  Davies  ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  220 

To  Mr.  Phillips 220 

To  Mr.  Taylor i     8     o 

To  Mr,  Thomas,  for  the  Organ          ...         ...         ...  060 

To  12  Doorkeepers  and  2  Patrols       ...          ...          ...  430 

To  the  Doorkeepers  for  6  Sundays    ...          ...          ...  060 

To  the  Constable  for  4  Sundays         ...         ...          ...  040 

To  Servant's  Wages       ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  i     8     6 

To  one  Advertisement    ..         ...         ...         ...         ...  050 

To  Writing  Music           ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  113     6 

To  one  Watchman          ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  oio 

To  the  Music  Licence   ..         ...           ..         ...         ...  149 

To  Mr.  Wakefield           o  12     o 

The    expenses   of    the    establishment    from    November    I2th,    1767,    to 
January    3ist,    1769,    were    £1534  us.  gd. 

RECEIPTS.  £    s.    d. 
By  received  in  part  of  the  expenses  of  Mr.  Brown's 

Benefit             ...          ...          ...          ...          ...          ...  10  10     o 

By  ditto  Benefit  of  the  Band  of  Music         ...          ...  9     4     o 

By  ditto  Mr.  Taylor's  Benefit 13     2     6 

By  ditto  Miss  Davis's  Benefit 686 

By  Dr.  Arne,  for  Wine...           ...  2  14     6 

By  one  Ticket      i   n     6 

The  receipts  at  the  door  do  not  appear  to  have  exceeded  on  any 
one  night  £15,  but  the  receipts  at  the  bar  frequently  exceeded  £50, 
and  on  one  occasion,  the  8th  of  September,  1768,  they  amounted  to 
£65  6s.  4^. 


This  valuable  spring   was    discovered    in    Marylebone  Gardens    in   the 

winter    of    1773-4,    in    the    course   of    a    diligent    search,  made  under   the 

40    .  MARYLEBONE. 

direction  of  the  Surveyor  of  the  City  of  London,  after  some  wells 
situated  about  Marylebone,  and  under  the  jurisdiction  of  the  City.  Many 
ancient  subterraneous  avenues  were  found.  Upon  a  careful  examination, 
the  medicinal  virtues  of  the  spring  were  found  to  be  likely  to  be  highly 
useful  in  nervous,  scorbutic  and  other  disorders.  The  waters  were 
supposed  to  strengthen  the  stomach,  and  promote  a  good  appetite  and  a 
good  digestion. 

The    company    were    admitted    every    morning    immediately    after    six 
o'clock,  and  tea,  coffee  and  other  refreshments  were  obtainable  at  the  bar. 


This  celebrated  prize-fighter,  who  long  bore  the  palm  of  victory  from 
all  competitors,  and  who  was  extolled  by  Captain  Godfrey  in  his  treatise 
of  the  science  of  defence,  as  the  greatest  master  of  the  art  he  had  ever 
seen,  was  a  Marylebone  celebrity.  He  was  for  many  years  proprietor  of 
"  The  Boarded  House,"  in  Marylebone  Fields,  near  Oxford  Road,  6r 
Oxford  Street,  as  it  is  now  designated.  Here,  the  "  Atlas  of  the  Sword," 
as  Figg  was  called,  frequently  exhibited  his  own  skill,  and  at  other  times 
made  matches  between  the  most  celebrated  masters  or  mistresses  of  the 
art,  for  the  noble  science  of  defence  was  not  confined  to  the  male  sex. 
We  find  Mrs.  Stokes,  the  famous  city  championess,  challenging  the 
Hibernian  heroines  to  meet  her  at  Mr.  Figg's.  Lysons  quotes  a  writer 
in  Mist's  Journal  of  the  date,  November  2Oth,  1725,  who  says:  — "  We 
hear  that  the  gentlemen  of  Ireland  have  been  long  picking  out  an 
Hibernian  heroine  to  match  Mrs.  Stokes  the  bold,  a  famous  city  cham- 
pioness ;  there  is  now  one  arrived  here,  who,  by  her  make  and  stature, 
seems  mighty  enough  to  eat  her  up.  However,  Mrs.  Stokes,  being  true 
English  blood  (and  remembering  some  late  reflections  that  were  cast 
upon  her  husband  by  some  of  that  country  volk),  is  resolved  to  see  her 
out  vi  ct  annis.  This  being  like  to  prove  a  notable  and  diverting 
engagement,  it  is  not  doubted  but  abundance  of  gentlemen  will  crowd  to 
Mr.  Figg's  amphitheatre  on  Wednesday,  the  24th  instant,  on  purpose  to 
see  this  uncommon  performance." 

The  following  are  copies  of  broadsides  announcing  exhibitions  of 
skill  at  Figg's  establishment : — 





O     _ 

r~        >O 

DC      -«• 

<      s 



^       <ii 
LU     r^ 


co    Q 




JAMES    FIGG     AND     "THE     BOARDED     HOUSE."          41 

^At  the  Bear-Garden  in  Mar  row -bone-Fields,  the  Backside  of 
Soho  Square,  at  the  Boarded  House,  A  Tryal  of  Skill  to  be  performed, 
this  present  Monday,  the  iyth  of  May,  1714,  by  two  Masters  of  the 
Noble  Science  of  Defence,  beginning  at  Three  of  the  clock  precisely. 

"  I,  John  Terrywcsl,  Master  of  the  said  Science,  who  am 
Obliged  not  to  Challenge  any  Man  :  But  the  Gentlemen  present 
at  the  last  Battel,  desiring  me  and  Mr.  John  Parkes,  of  Coventry, 
to  Exercise  the  usual  weapons  ;  We,  to  Oblige  them,  and  for  the 
Diversion  of  others,  will  not  fail  (God  willing)  to  Exercise  the 
several  Weapons  following,  viz.  : — 



Vivat  Regina." 

"  At  the  Boarded  House  in  Marylebone  Fields,  to-morrow 
being  Thursday,  the  8th  day  of  August  (1723),  will  be  performed 
an  extraordinary  Match  at  Boxing,  between  Joanna  Heyfield,  of 
Newgate  Market,  basket-woman,  and  the  City  Championess,  for 
Ten  Pounds  Note.  There  has  not  been  such  a  battle  for  these 
20  years  past,  and  as  these  two  Heroines  are  as  brave  and  as 
bold  as  the  ancient  Amazons,  the  spectators  may  expect  abun- 
dance of  Diversion  and  Satisfaction  from  these  Female  Com- 
batants. They  will  mount  at  the  usual  hour,  and  the  Company 
will  be  diverted  with  Cudgel-playing  till  they  mount.  Note  a 
scholar  of  Mr.  Figg,  that  challenged  Mr.  Stokes  last  summer, 
fights  Mr.  Stokes's  Scholar  6  Bouts  at  Staff,  for  Three  Guineas ; 
the  first  Blood  wins.  The  weather  stopt  the  Battle  last  Wednes- 

From  the  former  of  the  two  broadsides  just  quoted,  it  appears 
that  the  place  was  known  as  the  "  Bear  Garden,"  doubtless  on  account 
of  the  cruel  sport  of  bear-baiting  and  tiger-baiting  which  took  place 
there.  Bear-baiting  and  tiger-baiting  were  exhibited  at  Figg's  Amphi- 
theatre. A  bull-fight  was  once  advertised  to  be  performed  by  a  "grimace" 
Spaniard,  who  had  for  some  time  amused  and  delighted  the  people  of 
St.  Pancras  and  Marylebone  by  making  ugly  faces,  and  a  great 



company  was  drawn  together  by  the  novelty  of  the  proposed  entertain- 

A  portrait  of  Figg  is  introduced  by  Hogarth  in  the  second  plate 
of  his  "  Rake's  Progress." 

Figg  died  in  1734,  and  was  buried  at  Marylebone  on  the  nth  of 
December.  After  his  death  the  celebrated  Broughton  occupied  an 
amphitheatre  near  the  same  spot,  and  was  for  many  years  the  hero  of 
bruisers,  until  at  last  he  was  beaten  on  his  own  stage  by  Slack,  a 
butcher.  The  victor  was  supposed  to  have  gained  £600  by  the  result  of 
the  battle ;  and  the  sums  won  and  lost  by  the  bye-standers  were  to  a 
great  amount,  the  house  being  crowded  with  amateurs,  some  of  whom 
were  of  very  high  rank.  Not  long  afterwards  a  stop  was  put  to  all 
public  exhibitions  of  boxing  and  prize-fighting  by  Act  of  Parliament. 


In  a  map  of  the  Marylebone  Estate  in  1708,  there  are  two 
bowling  greens  shown,  one  of  which  was  situated  near  the  top  of  High 
Street,  and  abutting  on  the  grounds  of  the  old  manor  house.  The  other 
was  situated  at  the  back  of  that  house ;  the  street  afterwards  called 
Bowling  Green  Lane  having  formed  its  southern  boundary.  In  connection 
with  the  first  mentioned  green  there  was  a  noted  tavern  and  gaming- 
house called  the  Rose  Tavern,  much  frequented  by  persons  of  the  first 
rank.  It  afterwards  grew  into  much  disrepute.  The  Marylebone  Bowling 
Green  is  celebrated  by  the  poet  Gay,  who  makes  it  the  scene  of  Capt. 
Macheath's  debauches,  in  "  The  Beggar's  Opera."  This  is  probably  the 
place  alluded  to  by  Lady  Mary  Wortley  Montague  in  this  line  : — 

"Some   Dukes  at   Marybone   bowl   time   away." 

It  is  also  in  all  probability  the  tavern  which  is  meant  by  Pennant,  who, 
in  his  account  of  London,  when  speaking  of  the  Duke  of  Buckingham's 
minute  description  of  the  house,  afterwards  the  Queen's  palace,  and  his 
manner  of  living  there,  says  : — "  He  has  omitted  his  constant  visits  to  the 
noted  gaming-house,  at  Marybone  ;  the  place  of  assemblage  of  all  the 
infamous  sharpers  of  the  time  ;  "  to  whom  his  grace  always  gave  a  dinner 
at  the  conclusion  of  the  season  ;  and  his  parting  toast  was,  "  May  as 
many  of  us  as  remain  unhanged  next  spring,  meet  here  again."  The 



"  London  Gazette,"  of  January  nth,  1691,  mentions  Long's  bowling- 
reen  at  the  "Rose"  at  Marylebone,  half  a  mile  distant  from  London. 

A  description  of  the  bowling-green  attached  to  the  tavern  called  the 
Lose  of  Normandy  in  1659,  states  that  the  outside  was  bounded  by  a 
square  brick  wall,  set  with  fruit  trees,  and  there  were  gravel  walks  over 
two  hundred  paces  long  and  seven  paces  broad.  The  circular  walk  was 
nearly  five  hundred  paces  in  circuit,  and  six  broad ;  the  centre  was 
square ;  and  the  bowling-green  was  one  hundred  and  twelve  paces  one 
way,  and  eighty-eight  paces  another.  All  these  walks  were  double  set 
with  quickset  hedges,  kept  in  excellent  order,  and  indented  in  imitation  of 
battlements.  A  writer  in  1699  says  : — "  Marybone  is  the  chief  place  about 
town,  but,  for  all  its  greatness  and  pre-eminence,  it  lies  under  the  shrewd 
suspicion  of  being  guilty  of  sharping  and  crimping,  as  well  as  the  rest." 

Both  of  these  bowling-greens  were  incorporated  with  the  celebrated 
Marylebone  Gardens. 

THE     ROSE     OF     NORMANDY. 
Little    seems    to  be  definitely  known  as  to  the  origin  of  this  sign,  but 

the  house  is  supposed  to  have  been    established  early  in  the  I7th  century, 

and  when  Thomas  Smith  wrote  his  history 
of  Marylebone  (1833),  it  was  the  oldest  inn 
then  existing  in  the  parish.  It  was  in  its 
early  days  a  detached  building  connected 
with  the  bowling-green  at  the  back.  The 
entrance  to  the  house  was  by  a  descent  of 
a  flight  of  steps,  the  level  of  the  street 
having  been  raised.  At  several  dates  the 
house  had  been  repaired,  but  the  original 
form  of  the  exterior  was  preserved,  and  the 
staircases  and  ballusters  were  coeval  with  the 
erection  of  the  building. 

There  was,  at  the  back  of  the  house,  an 
extensive  yard  on  the  level  with  the  ground 
floor,  which  was  laid  out  as  a  skittle 
ground.  It  is  extremely  probable  that  this 

was  the  skittle  ground  made  famous  by  Nancy    Dawson's  association  with 



it.       The    celebrated    dancer    and    actress,    of    Drury    Lane    and    Covent 

Garden    fame,    is    supposed    to    have 

been    born    near    Clare    Market.       At 

an    early    age    she    lost    her    mother, 

and  was  forced  to  lodge   with  an  old 

Irish    woman    at    Broad    Street,    St. 

Giles's.      At  the  age  of  fourteen    she 

lived  in  a  cellar  in    Drury  Lane  with 

a    sweep    and    his    wife,     and     while 

quite   a    young    girl    Nancy    Dawson 

is    said    to    have    been    employed    in 

setting    up    skittles    at    a    skittle-alley 


in  connection  with  a  tavern  in  High 
Street,  Marylebone,  probably  the  Rose 
of  Normandy. 

Later  in  life,  after  many  adventures 
with  a  variety  of  lovers  (including 
Jack  Pudding,  a  showman,  and  Mr. 
Griffin,  his  master),  she  used  to  dance 
at  Sadler's  Wells,  where,  in  one  way 
or  another,  she  made  a  good  deal  of 
money.  In  1760,  she  gained  great 
applause  for  the  part  she  took  in 
dancing  at  Covent  Garden  Theatre. 
She  died  at  Hampstead,  in  the  year 
1767,  and  was  buried  behind  the 
Foundling  Hospital. 


In    olden    times    this    was    a    well    known     house    of    entertainment, 
situated     in    a    lane     nearly    opposite     Portland     Road,     and     about     five 

OLD     INNS. 


hundred  yards  from  the  road  that  leads  from  Paddington  to  Finsbury. 
The  accompanying  illustration  taken  from  an  old  engraving  of  the  place, 
gives  a  view  of  the  house  opposite  to  the  entrance,  the  door  being  on 
the  other  side  of  the  bow-window.  The  barn  alongside  was  well-known 
as  Edmonson's  Barn ;  it  belonged  to  Mr.  Edmondson,  coach-painter  to 
the  Queen,  in  Warwick  Street,  Golden  Square,  where  he  used  to 


execute  the  first  part  of  his  coach-painting.  The  lane  was  not  any 
public  road,  only  for  foot-passengers,  as  it  led  into  the  fields  towards 
Chalk  Farm,  Jews'  Harp  House,  Hampstead,  &c.  On  the  other  side 
the  paling,  was  the  lane  and  a  skittle-ground  belonging  to  the  house. 
It  was  surrounded  at  the  back  and  one  side  by  an  artificial  stone 
manufactory,  and  several  small  houses  with  gardens  attached  to  them. 



Opposite  Lisson  Grove  and  on  the  south  side  of  Marylebone  Road, 
there  used  to  be  a  very  celebrated  public-house  known  as  the  York- 
shire Stingo.  From  this  house  the  first  pair  of  London  omnibuses 
started  on  July  4th,  1829,  running  to  the  Bank  and  back.  They  were 
constructed  to  carry  twenty-two  passengers  all  inside.  The  fare  was  one 
shilling,  or  sixpence  for  half  the  distance,  together  with  the  luxury  of 

a   newspaper.     Mr.   J.    Shillibeer   was   the    owner   of    these   carriages,    and 
the    first   conductors   were   two   sons   of  a    British    naval    officer. 

As  the  name  indicates,  the  house  was  noted  for  its  ale — "  York- 
shire Stingo " — but  it  was  also  as  much  noted  for  its  tea  gardens  and 
bowling-green.  It  was  much  crowded  on  Sundays  when  an  admission 
fee  of  sixpence  was  charged  at  the  door.  For  that  fee  a  ticket  was 
given,  to  be  exchanged  with  the  waiters  for  its  value  in  refreshments. 
This  plan  was  very  frequently  adopted  in  these  gardens,  to  prevent  the 
intrusion  of  the  lowest  class,  or  of  such  as  might  only  stroll  about  them 
without  spending  anything. 

THE     OLD     FARTHING     PIE     HOUSE. 

A  good  idea  of  the  situation  and  surroundings  of  "  The  Old 
Farthing  Pie  House "  may  be  gathered  from  a  glance  at  Rocque's 

OLD     INNS. 


Map  of  London  (1741-6),  wherein  it  is  shown  as  a  house  occupying  the 
north-east  corner  of  a  nearly  square  enclosed  garden  intersected  by 
footpaths.  The  "  Farthing  Pye  House,"  as  it  is  there  called,  is  shown 
as  being  situated  on  the  west  side  of  "The  Green  Lane,"  almost 
opposite  "  Bilson's  Farm,"  and  at  the  point  where  that  road  was  cut 

by  a  road  going  east  and  west,  where  the  "  New  Road  "  was  afterwards 
made.  The  Green  Lane  extended  from  what  is  now  the  south  end  of 
Berner's  Street  towards  Primrose  Hill,  and  the  boundary  line  between 
Marylebone  and  St.  Pancras  seems  pretty  nearly  to  indicate  its  old 

The  exact  site  of  the  Old  Farthing  Pie  House  is  represented  by 
the  Green  Man,  near  Portland  Road  Railway  Station. 

THE     JEW'S     HARP. 

This  public  house,  which  was  formerly  in  Regent's  Park,  was  perhaps 
chiefly  remarkable  for  its  odd  sign — "  Jew's  Harp,"  or  "  The  Jew's 
Trump."  It  was  often  called  the  "  Jew  Trump,"  and  there  is  reason 
to  believe  that  the  name  is  a  corruption  of  some  foreign  word.  In 
the  low  Dutch  a  tromp  is  a  rattle  for  children.  Another  explanation 
which  is  more  ingenious  than  probable,  is  that  the  house  was  called 



11  The  Jew's  Harp  "    because  the  place  where  that   instrument    was   played 
was   between    the    teeth. 

The  house  was  situated  in  old  Marylebone  Park,  about  a  quarter  of 
a  mile  north  of  Portland  Place,  but  when  the  grounds  were  laid  out 
for  the  formation  of  Regent's  Park,  it  was  removed  further  eastward. 
It  was  long  known  and  resorted  to,  by  holiday  parties,  on  account  of 
its  bowery  tea-garden,  and  thickly-foliaged  arbours,  and  acquired  consider- 
able fame  for  the  excellence  of  its  entertainment  and  accommodation. 

A  curious  anecdote  is  told  of  the  Speaker  Onslow  in  connection  with 
this  public  house.  For  the  purpose  of  relaxation  from  the  many  cares 
of  his  office,  this  celebrated  man  was  in  the  habit  of  passing  his  evenings 
at  "  The  Jew's  Harp,"  at  that  time  a  retired  country  public  house.  He 
dressed  himself  in  plain  attire,  and  preferred  taking  his  seat  in  the 
chimney  corner  of  the  kitchen,  where  he  took  part  in  the  vulgar  jokes 
and  ordinary  concerns  of  the  landlord,  his  family  and  customers.  He 

OLD     INNS.  49 

continued  this  practice  for  a  year  or  two,  and  much  ingratiated  himself 
with  his  host  and  his  family,  who,  not  knowing  his  name,  called  him 
"  the  gentleman,"  but,  from  his  familiar  manners,  treated  him  as  one  of 
themselves.  It  happened,  however,  that  one  day  the  landlord  was 
walking  along  Parliament  Street,  when  he  met  the  Speaker  in  state, 
going  up  with  an  address  to  the  throne ;  and  looking  narrowly  at  the 
chief  personage,  he  was  astonished  and  confounded  at  recognising  the 
features  of  the  gentleman,  his  constant  customer.  He  hurried  home  and 
communicated  the  extraordinary  intelligence  to  his  wife  and  family,  all 
of  whom  were  disconcerted  at  the  liberties  which  at  different  times  they 
had  taken  with  so  important  a  personage.  In  the  evening,  Mr.  Onslow 
came  as  usual,  with  his  holiday  face  and  manners,  and  prepared  to 
take  his  seat,  but  found  everything  in  a  state  of  peculiar  preparation, 
and  the  manners  of  the  landlord  and  his  wrife  changed  from  indifference 
and  familiarity  to  form  and  obsequiousness.  The  children  were  not 
allowed  to  climb  upon  him  and  pull  his  wig,  as  heretofore,  and  the 
servants  were  kept  at  a  distance.  He,  however,  took  no  notice  of  the 
change,  but,  finding  that  his  name  and  rank  had  by  some  means  been 
discovered,  he  paid  his  reckoning,  civilly  took  his  departure,  and  never 
visited  the  house  afterwards. 

It  has  been  said  that  this  was  the  only  public  house  with  the 
sign  of  "  The  Jew's  Harp "  in  London,  but  that  was  incorrect,  as 
there  was  another  in  Islington. 



Regent's  Park.— Old  Mary lebone  Park. — Willan's  Farm. — Other  Farms.— Construction  of  "the 
Regent's  Park."— Proposed  Triumphal  Arch. — St.  Dunstan's  Villa. — Regent's  Canal. — St. 
John's  Wood.  — Lisson  Green. — Lisson  Fields. — The  New  Road.— Cavendish  Square. — Portman 
Square. — Manchester  Square. — Dorset  Square.-  Blandford  Square.  — Bryanston  and  Montague 


LD    Marylebone    Park,    having    been   disparked 
for    some    years,    and     known    generally    as 
Marylebone    Farm    and    Fields,    Mr.    White, 
architect   to    the    Duke    of    Portland,   in   the 
year    1793,    exhibited    to    Mr.    Fordyce,   the 
Surveyor-General,  a   "  plan   for   the   improve- 
ment of  Mary-le-bone  Park,   which    attracted 
his    attention,    and    which   he   noticed    in   his 
report   to   the     Lords   of    the   Treasury,  who 
that     the     necessary     steps    should    be    taken, 
and    that    a    reward,    not    exceeding    £1,000,    should    be 
offered    to    the    successful    author    of     a    plan    for    the 
improvement    of     the    whole     estate.      A    copy    of     the 
Treasury       Minute,       dated       July       2nd,       1793,       was 
communicated    to    Mr.    White,   with    six    engraved    plans 
of     the    estate,    which    induced    him     to    devote     much 
attention    to    the    improvement    thereof;    and    he    made 
several   plans,    which    are    noticed    in    the    First    Report 
of  the   Commissioners  of  Woods  and  Forests   and    Land 

The   following    are    the    names   of    tenants   and   fields,    and   the   sizes 
of    the   fields    on    the   estate    called    Marylebone    Park    Farm,    taken    by 


order    of    the     Lords     of    the    Treasury,    under    the    direction     of     John 
Fordyce,    Esq.,    by    G.    Richardson,    in    1794. 

Farm   in  the  possession  of   Mr.  Thomas  Willan,  and 
his  Under  Tenants. 

1.  Farm-house,  Barn,  Stables,  Cowhouses,  Yards,  A.    R.  p. 

Garden,  &c.           ...          ...          ...          ...          ...  2     o  36 

2.  Small  Tenements,  Sheds,  Yards,  and  Gardens, 

let  to  divers  Tenants     ...          ...           ..           ..  108 

3.  Ditto...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  o     2  25 

4.  The  Six  Closes       ...         ..           ...         ...         ...  72     i  37 

5.  Butcher's  Field       ...         ...         ...         ...           .  27     i  28 

6.  The  Long  Mead     ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  24     3  36 

7.  Long  Forty  Acres              ...         ...         ...         ...  34     o  n 

8.  Short  Forty  Acres             ...         ...         ...         ...  14     217 

9.  Harris's  Field         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  34     i  32 

10.  Hill  Field     ...           ..          ...          ...          ...          ...  18     2   14 

11.  Gravel  Pit  Field    ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  20     2  32 

12.  Part  of   Home  Seven  Acres        ...         ...         ...  6     3  32 

13.  Remainder  of   Ditto           ...          ...          ...          .  .  2     o  25 

14.  Bell  Field     ...         ...         ...           ..         ...         ...  9     2  32 

15.  Pightle,  let  to  Thomas  Hammond        ...         ...  i     i    17 

16.  Copal    Varnish    Manufactory    and    Garden,  let 

to  Mr.  Alexander  Wall              ...         ...         ...  o     i     3 

17.  Cottages,    Sheds,  Yards,    and  Gardens,    let    to 

divers  Tenants      ...          ...          ...          ...          ...  208 

1 8.  The  Five  Acres      ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  4018 

19.  Paddock,  let  to  Thomas  Hammond      ...          ...  i      i    18 

20.  White  House  Field            ...          ...          ...          ...  906 

Totrl     288     o  35 

Farm  in  the  possession  of   Mr.   Richard   Kendall,  and 
his  Under  Tenants. 

A.        R       P. 

21.  Part  of   Saltpetre  Field 12     3  23 

22.  Ditto,  let  to  John  White,   Esq. i      i   12 

23-rt.              Ditto             Ditto                 o     3   16 

23. £.  Late  part  of  the  Five  Acres,  Ditto      ...         ...  i     i  24 

24.     Garden  let  to  George  Stewart,  Esq.     ...         ...  o     2  12 


25.  House,  Garden,  and  Shed,  Ditto          

26.  Dupper  Field 

27.  Garden  let  to  Sir  Richard  Hill,  Bart. 
Farm-house,  Cow-houses,  Yards,  and  Cow-lair 
Cow-houses,  Sheds,  &c.    ... 

Tenements,  Yards,  Gardens,  &c. 
White  House  Field 

Bell  Field 15 

White  Hall  Field 20 

Rugg  Moor  and  Lodge  Field,  in  one  ... 



































































•  o 






Farm    in   the   occupation    of    Mr.    Richard  Mortimer, 
and  his  Under  Tenants. 

The  Nether  Paddock        

Pound  Field 

The  Thirty  Acres 

The  Twenty-Nine  Acres  ...         ...          ...         ...     34 

Home  Field,  Farm-house,  Cow-house,  &c. 
Six  Cottages  and  Gardens,   with  small   Sheds, 
let  to  Mr.  Richard   Holdbrook  



A.      R.      P. 

Mr.  White's  Garden  ...         ...     o     2  26 

Small     triangular     piece     on     the 

south  side  of  the  road  ...     o     o  16 

Part      of      the      Turnpike      road 
belonging  to  the  Estate  ..         ...     o     i  31 

Other  part  of  ditto...          ...          ...     2 

(Both   rented  by    the    Trustees   of 

the  Road.) 
Farm  rented  by  Mr.  Willan 

Ditto         by  Mr.  Kendall      ... 
Ditto         by  Mr.  Mortimer  .. 





o  35 

2    21 
,3    10 

o  17 






REGENT'S    PARK.  53 

After  the  death  of  Mr.  Fordyce,  the  Office  of  Surveyor-General 
of  the  Land  Revenue  was  amalgamated  with  the  Commission  for  the 
management  of  his  Majesty's  Woods  and  Forests ;  and  Messrs.  Leverton 
and  Chawner,  architects  and  surveyors  of  buildings  of  the  Land 
Revenue ;  and  Mr.  Nash,  Architect  and  Surveyor  of  the  Woods  and 
Forests ;  were  required  to  deliver  in  plans  for  the  arrangement  of  the 
Marylebone  Park  Estate.  The  result  of  their  labours  was  the  delivery 
of  several  plans  by  Messrs.  Leverton  and  Chawner,  and  of  several 
others  by  Mr.  Nash. 

Mr.  Fordyce,  in  April,  1809,  had  laid  before  the  Commissioners  of 
the  Treasury,  a  memorandum  respecting  the  extension  of  the  town  over 
Marylebone  Park,  leading  the  attention  of  Architects  to  the  proper 
consideration  of  the  sewer,  supplies  of  water,  markets,  police,  churches, 
and  a  public  ride  or  drive.  He  had,  antecedent  to  this  period,  in  May, 
1796,  particularly  brought  into  notice  the  forming  a  direct  and  com- 
modious communication  to  Marylebone  from  Westminster,  and  recom- 
mended its  execution. 

On  the  expiration  of  the  lease  from  the  Crown  to  the  Duke  of 
Portland  in  January,  1811,  the  Crown  obtained  an  Act  of  Parliament, 
and  appointed  a  commission  to  form  a  park  and  to  let  the  adjoining 
land  on  building  leases.  The  whole  was  laid  out  by  Mr.  James  Morgan 
in  1812,  from  the  plans  of  Mr.  John  Nash,  architect,  who  designed 
all  the  terraces  except  Cornwall  Terrace,  which  was  designed  by 
Mr.  Decimus  Burton. 

The  Park  derives  its  name  from  the  Prince  Regent,  afterwards 
George  IV.,  who  intended  building  a  residence  there  at  the  north-east 
side  of  the  Park.  Part  of  Regent  Street  was  actually  designed  as  a 
communication  from  the  Prince's  projected  residence  to  Carlton  House, 
St.  James's  Palace,  &c.  The  Crown  property  comprises,  besides  the 
Park,  the  upper  part  of  Portland  Place,  from  No.  8  (where  there  is 
now  part  of  the  iron  railing  which  formerly  separated  Portland  Place 
from  Marylebone  Fields),  the  Park  Crescent  and  Square,  Albany, 
Osnaburgh,  and  the  adjoining  cross  streets,  York  and  Cumberland 
Squares,  Regent's  Park  Basin  and  Augustus  Street,  Park  Villages  east 
and  west,  and  the  outer  road  of  the  Park. 

About   the   year   1820,    there    seems    to    have   been   a   proposition   set 



on  foot  for  the  building  of  a  gigantic  triumphal  arch  across  the  New 
Road  from  Portland  Place  to  Regent's  Park.  There  are  in  the  Grace 
Collection,  at  the  British  Museum,  two  beautifully  executed  sepia 
drawings,  by  John  Martin,  showing  the  proposed  Arch,  surmounted  by 
a  large  and  richly  ornamented  column,  and  steps,  for  foot  passengers, 
extending  over  the  whole  of  the  convex  external  surface  of  the  arch. 
Whatever  there  may  be  to  urge  in  favour  of  such  a  structure  from 
an  artistic  point  of  view,  the  absence  of  any  public  utility  is  quite 
sufficient  justification  for  the  relinquishing  of  such  an  extravagant  scheme. 


This  house  was  built  by  Decimus  Burton,  Esq.,  for  the  Marquis  of 
Hertford.  There  is  an  interesting  story  told  in  reference  to  the  house. 
When  the  marquis  was  a  child,  and  a  good  child,  his  nurse,  to  reward 
him,  would  take  him  to  see  "  the  giants  "  at  St.  Dunstan's,  and  he  used 
to  say,  that  when  he  grew  up  to  be  a  man  he  would  buy  those  giants. 
It  happened  when  old  St.  Dunstan's  was  pulled  down  that  the  giants 
were  put  up  to  auction,  and  the  marquis  became  their  purchaser  for  the 
sum  of  £200. 

The  giants  used  to  strike  the  hours  on  the  old  clock  of  St.  Dunstan's 
Church,  in  Fleet  Street,  and  after  they  had  been  purchased  by  the 
Marquis  of  Hertford,  they  were  again  made  to  do  duty  for  that  purpose. 
Cowper,  the  poet,  refers  to  the  figures  at  St.  Dunstan's  in  the  following 

lines : — 

"  When   Labour  and   when   Dullness,  club   in   hand, 
Like   the   t%vo   figures  of  St.  Dunstan's   stand, 
Beating   alternately,    in   measured  time, 
The   clock-work    tintinabulum  of  rhyme, 
Exact   and   regular   the  sounds  will  be, 
But   such  mere   quarter-strokes   are  not  for  me." 

The  buildings  and  offices  are  on  a  larger  scale  than  any  other  in  the 
park.  Simplicity  and  chastity  of  style,  characterize  the  exterior,  and  the 
interior  is  in  the  same  style  of  beauty.  The  entrance  hall,  in  the  principal 
front,  is  adorned  with  a  portico  of  six  columns,  of  that  singular  Athenian 
order  which  embellishes  the  vestibule  of  the  Temple  of  the  Winds  at 
Athens.  The  roof  is  Venetian,  with  broad  projecting  eaves,  supported  by 
cantalivres  and  concealed  gutters  to  prevent  the  dropping  of  the  rain 
water  from  the  eaves.  On  each  side  of  the  portico,  on  the  ground  floor, 







REGENTS     CANAL.— ST.    JOHN'S     WOOD.  55 

are  three  handsome  windows,  and  a  series  of  dormers  range  along  the 
upper  story.  The  offices  are  abundantly  spacious,  being  spread  out,  like 
the  villas  of  the  ancients,  upon  the  ground  floor,  and  are  designed  in  the 
same  style  of  architecture  as  the  mansion. 


By  virtue  of  an  Act  of  Parliament  intituled  "  An  Act  for  making  and 
maintaining  a  navigable  Canal  in  the  Parish  of  Paddington  to  the  River 
Thames,  in  the  Parish  of  Limehouse,  with  a  collateral  cut  in  the  Parish 
of  St.  Leonard,  Shoreditch,  in  the  County  of  Middlesex,"  the  Regent's 
Canal  was  constructed.  The  work  was  begun  in  1812,  and  the  formal 
opening  took  place  on  the  ist  of  August,  1820,  when  the  circumstance  of 
its  completion  was  duly  celebrated  by  an  aquatic  procession  of  boats  and 
barges,  ornamented  with  flags  and  streamers,  and  filled  with  ladies  and 
gentlemen  more  or  less  interested  in  the  success  of  the  undertaking.  The 
canal  is  eight  miles  and  six  furlongs  in  length,  and  has  a  fall  of  about 
eighty-four  feet  from  its  commencement  to  its  termination. 

It  was  projected  by  Mr.  John  Nash,  the  architect,  and  Mr.  James 
Morgan  was  the  engineer. 

ST.    JOHN'S    WOOD. 

The  name  of  this  place  was  derived  from  its  former  possessors, 
the  Priors  of  the  Hospital  of  St.  John  of  Jerusalem.  It  is  described  in 
records  as  "  Great  St.  John's  Wood,  near  Marylebone  Park,"  to 
distinguish  it  from  Little  St.  John's  Wood  at  Highbury,  in  Islington. 

Among  these  Woods,  west  of  Marylebone  Park,  in  Queen  Elizabeth's 
reign,  Babbington  and  two  of  his  fellow  conspirators  succeeded  in 
concealing  themselves  from  the  officers  of  Lord  Burghley. 

The  St.  John's  Wood  estate,  consisting  of  nearly  five  hundred 
acres  of  land  (about  340  acres  of  which  were  in  Marylebone  Parish), 
was  granted  by  Charles  II.  to  Charles  Henry  Lord  Wotton,  in  discharge 
of  £1300,  part  of  the  sum  due  to  him.  The  said  Lord  Wotton  on 
the  6th  of  October,  1682,  devised  his  estate  to  his  nephew,  Charles 
Stanhope,  younger  son  of  his  brother  Phillip,  Earl  of  Chesterfield. 
It  was  subsequently  purchased  in  1732,  of  Philip  Dormer,  Earl  of 
Chesterfield,  by  Samuel  Eyre,  Esq.  In  this  way  the  estate  came  into 


the    possession    of    the    Eyre    family,   from   which    the    famous    hostelry 
known   as   the    "  Eyre   Arms"    takes   its   sign. 
The   following   is   an    "  Account   of    the    Mary-le-bone   portion   of  this 

Estate    from    a    Survey   made    in    1794  :  — 






houses,  yard,  barn,  gardens,  &c. 






Little  Hay  Field           

...       7 





,  Hanging  Field  ... 





Spring  Field 






5  ) 

Dutch  Barn  Field        

...       8 






The  Twenty  Acre  Field 

...       6 





Great  Hill  Field           

...     16 









)  ) 


house,  garden  and  lawn 







Little  Robin's  Field    

...       7 





Little  Blewhouse  Field 





Arable,   Seven   Acres 




I  3. 


Middle  Field       






Blewhouse  Field 


•••       5 






Great  Robin's  Field     ... 




1  6. 

Horn  Castle 





J  ? 

Great  Garden  Field     ... 

...    30 





Willow  Tree  Field 

...     16 




Great  Field 





J  J 

Brick  Field        



*  / 

2  C 


?  ) 


cottage  and  garden 






The  Slipe 





house,  barn,  yard,  gardens 

...       6 





Barn   Field 







Oak  Tree  Field 

...               IL^. 

...     16 






Piece  on  St.  John's  Wood  Lane 






Four  Acre  Field 

-       5 




Six  Acre  Field  ... 






cottage  and  garden 






The  Twenty  Acres 

...     25 





The  Nine  Acres 

...       9 





The  Twenty-two  Acre  Field... 

...     23 



Saint  Jol 

m's  Wood  Lane... 




Total      340     i  33 

THE     MANOR     OF    US  SON    GREEN.  57 


It  appears  that  the  manor  Lilestone,  containing  five  hides  (now  called 
Lisson  Green),  is  mentioned  in  the  Domesday  Book  among  the  lands  in 
Ossultone  Hundred  given  in  alms.  It  is  said  to  have  been,  in  King 
Edward's  time,  the  property  of  Edward,  son  of  Swain,  a  servant  of  the 
King,  who  might  alienate  it  at  pleasure  ;  when  the  survey  was  taken,  it 
belonged  to  Eldeva.  The  land,  says  the  record,  is  three  carucates.  In 
demesne  are  four  hides  and  a  half,  on  which  are  two  ploughs.  The  villans 
have  one  plough.  There  are  four  villans,  each  holding  half  a  virgate, 
three  cottars  of  two  acres  and  one  slave ;  meadow  equal  to  one  plough- 
land  ;  pasture  for  the  cattle  of  the  village  ;  woods  for  100  hogs  ;  and  3d. 
arising  from  the  herbage  ;  valued  in  the  whole  at  6os. ;  in  King  Edward's 
time,  at  403. 

This  manor  afterwards  became  the  property  of  the  Priory  of  St.  John 
of  Jerusalem  ;  on  the  suppression  of  which  it  was  granted,  in  the  year 
1548,  to  Thomas  Heneage  and  Lord  Willoughby ;  who  conveyed  it  in  the 
same  year  to  Edward  Duke  of  Somerset.  On  his  attainder  it  reverted  to 
the  Crown,  and  was  granted,  in  the  year  1564,  to  Edward  Downing,  who 
conveyed  it  the  same  year  to  John  Milner,  Esq.,  then  lessee  under  the 
Crown.  After  the  death  of  his  descendant,  John  Milner,  Esq.,  in  the  year 
I753>  it  passed  under  his  will  to  William  Lloyd,  Esq.  The  manor  of 
Lisson  Green,  being  then  the  property  of  Capt.  Lloyd,  of  the  Guards, 
was  sold  in  lots  in  the  year  1792.  The  largest  lot,  containing  the  site 
of  the  manor,  was  purchased  by  John  Harcourt,  Esq.,  M.P.,  who  built  a 
noble  mansion,  for  his  own  residence,  at  the  corner  of  Harcourt  Street 
and  the  New  Road.  Part  of  the  Harcourt  estate  was  subsequently  sold 
by  auction  in  separate  lots,  and  the  mansion  above-mentioned  was 
occupied  by  Queen  Charlotte's  Lying-in  Hospital,  an  institution  which  was 
established  in  1/52,  removed  from  St.  George's  Row  to  Bayswater  in 
1791,  and  established  here  at  Harcourt  House  in  1810. 

The  tradition  is,  that  foot-travellers,  in  olden  days,  before  crossing 
the  dangerous  area  of  "  Lisson  Fields "  by  night  time,  used  to  collect 
their  forces  and  examine  their  fire-arms  at  a  lonely  public  house  on  the 
outskirts  of  Lisson  Grove.  How  great  a  contrast  to  the  present  over- 
crowded condition  of  Lisson  Grove !  The  report  of  a  medical  officer, 


issued  a  few  years  ago,  draws  a  terrible  picture  of  the  dwellings  of  the 
poor  in  that  locality.  One  of  those  dwellings  contained  nineteen  rooms, 
which  appeared  to  have  been  constructed  with  special  disregard  to  order 
in  arrangement,  uniformity,  and  convenience.  Every  part  of  this  miserable 
abode  was  in  a  ruinous  and  dilapidated  condition :  the  flooring  of  the 
rooms  and  staircases  was  worn  into  holes,  and  broken  away ;  the  plaster 
was  crumbling  from  the  walls  ;  the  roofs  let  in  the  wind  and  the  rain ; 
the  drains  were  very  defective  ;  and  the  general  aspect  of  the  place  was 
one  of  extreme  wretchedness.  The  number  of  persons  living  in  the  house 

was  forty- seven. 

THE    NEW    ROAD. 

The  New  Road  from  Paddington  to  Islington,  constructed  in  the 
year  1757,  is  now  mainly  represented  by  Marylebone  Road,  Euston 
Road,  and  Peritonville  Road. 

When  the  bill  for  making  this  road  was  before  Parliament,  the 
following  reasons  were  offered  in  support  of  it : — 

1.  "That  a  free   and    easy   communication   will   be   opened,   between 
the   county  of  Essex   and  the  different    parts   of  the  county  of    Middlesex 
and   the    several    roads  leading   from   the   western  to  the  eartern   parts   of 
the   kingdom,   without   going   through   the    streets,   and   by   a   nearer  way 
of    about    two   miles. 

2.  That     the     frequent     accidents     which     happen,     and     the     great 
inconveniences   that    arise,    by    driving    cattle     from     the     western     road 
through    the    streets   to  Smithfield    Market,    will    be   prevented. 

3.  That   the    pavements    of    the    streets    will    be    greatly    preserved, 
and    the    frequent    destructions    therein,    by    the    multitude    of    carriages, 
which    must    necessarily   pass   through    the   same   to   go  from   the   western 
to   the   eartern  parts  of  the   town,  will   be    in    a   great    measure   removed, 
and    the   business    of    the    inhabitants    of    London    and    Westminster   will 
be   transacted    in    a   much   easier   and   more   expeditious   manner. 

4.  That   in   times   of    public    danger,    by    threatened    invasions   from 
foreign    enemies,    or    otherwise,    this    New    Road    will    form    a    complete 
line    of     circumvallation,     and     His     Majesty's     Forces     may     easily     and 
expeditiously   march    this    way   into    Essex,    and    other   counties   adjacent, 
to   defend    our   coasts,  without  the  inconvenience   of   passing  through   the 
Cities  of  London  and  Westminster,  or  interrupting  the  business  thereof." 

THE     NEW    ROAD. 


Notwithstanding  all  these  reasons  in  favour  of  the  construction  of 
the  New  Road,  the  bill  met  with  strong  opposition  from  the  Duke  of 
Bedford,  who  endeavoured  to  introduce  a  clause  restricting  the  erection 
of  buildings  within  an  immense  distance  of  the  road.  Horace  Walpole 
writes: — "A  new  road  through  Paddington  has  been  proposed  to  avoid 
the  stones.  The  Duke  of  Bedford,  who  is  never  in  town  in  summer, 
objects  to  the  dust  it  will  make  behind  Bedford  House,  and  to  some 
buildings  proposed,  though,  if  he  were  in  town,  he  is  too  short-sighted 
to  see  the  prospect." 

His  grace's  amendment  would  have  rendered  the  bill  nugatory,  but 
it  was  rejected,  and  the  bill  for  the  construction  of  the  New  Road 
passed.  A  clause  was,  however,  inserted,  prohibiting  the  erection  of 
buildings,  or  any  erection  whatsoever,  within  fifty  feet  of  the  road, 
and  empowering  the  parochial  authorities,  upon  obtaining  an  order  from 
a  magistrate,  to  pull  down  and  remove  any  such  erection,  and  levy 
the  expenses  thereof  on  the  offender's  goods  and  chattels,  without 
proceeding  in  the  ordinary  way  by  indictment. 

Thomas  Smith,  the  historian  of  Marylebone,  writing  in  1833, 
says : — 

"  The  effect  of  this  restriction  has  been  the  laying  out  and 
planting  gardens  of  fifty  feet  in  length  in  front  of  all  the  houses 
erected  on  either  side  of  the  road,  which  gives  them  a  most  pleasing 
and  picturesque  appearance ;  and  has  made  it  necessary  to  introduce 
a  clause  in  the  Acts  of  Parliament,  for  building  the  Parish  and  Trinity 
Churches,  to  legalize  the  erection  of  their  respective  porticoes,  which 
encroach  within  the  prescribed  boundary. 

"This  Road,  which  is  now  one  of  the  finest  leading  avenues  to 
the  metropolis,  is  also  considered  one  of  the  most  convenient ;  stage 
Coaches  and  Omnibuses  (a  vehicle  recently  brought  into  use)  passing 
for  the  conveyance  of  passengers,  from  Paddington  to  the  City,  every 
five  minutes  daily,  another  proof  of  the  immense  increase  of  population, 
since,  35  years  ago,  only  one  coach  ran  from  Paddington  to  London, 
and  the  proprietor  could  scarcely  obtain  a  subsistence  by  his  speculation. 

"  The  New  Road  is  skirted  by  well-built  houses,  some  of  which 
were  erected  soon  after  the  road  was  cut.  On  entering  this  Parish 
the  road  takes  a  slight  turn  after  passing  the  "Old  Fathing  Pie 


House "  on  the  south  ;  and  crossing  Portland  Road,  passes  through 
Park  Crescent ;  from  this  point  the  rows  of  houses  on  the  south  side 
are  named  as  follows : — Harley  Place,  Devonshire  Terrace.  Leaving  these, 
we  arrive,  successively,  at  Church  House,  Church  Cottage,  the  Parish 
Church,  and  St.  Mary-le-bone  Workhouse  and  Infirmary  (described  by 
a  late  writer,  as  "possessing  as  many  windows  and  covering  as  much 
ground  as  a  Russian  Palace "),  York  Buildings,  Salisbury  Place, 
Cumberland  Place,  Queen  Charlotte  Row ;  at  the  end  of  this  Row  is 
situated  the  extensive  bowling-green  and  grounds  of  the  Yorkshire 
Stingo ;  this  house  has  been  a  celebrated  House  of  Entertainment  for 
more  than  a  century ;  and  it  appears  in  the  plan  of  the  New  Road 
of  the  date  of  1757.  Here  was  formerly  held  a  fair  on  the  ist  of  May, 
annually,  which  was  tolerated  by  the  Magistracy  for  several  years,  until  it 
became  the  resort  of  a  multitude  of  disorderly  and  dissolute  characters, 
and  a  complete  nuisance  to  the  inhabitants  of  the  vicinity,  \vhen  it  was 
finally  suppressed,  within  the  last  few  years,  by  order  of  the  magistrates ; 
this  house  is  now  a  respectable  tavern.  Adjoining  these  premises  is  an 
extensive  Brewery,  the  property  of  R.  Staines.  The  road  here  takes 
another  slight  turn  westward,  passing  an  elegant  building  at  the  corner 
of  Harcourt  Street,  occupied  by  that  excellent  Institution  the  Queen's 
Lying -in -Hospital.  Paddington  Chapel,  in  Homer  Place,  is  the  next 
prominent  building,  and  the  road  finally  quits  the  parish  by  Winchester 
Row,  built  in  the  year  1766,  the  houses  of  which  have  been  recently 
repaired,  the  fronts  being  covered  with  stucco,  and  presenting  a  very  neat 

"  The  prominent  features  of  the  north  side  of  the  road  are :  Trinity 
Church  ;  Albany  Terrace  ;  Park  Square  ;  Ulster  Place  ;  Harley  House,  in 
the  occupation  of  Charles  Day,  Esq.;  Devonshire  Place  House,  in  the 
occupation  of  H.  M.  Dyer,  Esq.;  the  office  of  John  White,  Esq.; 
Mary-bone .  Park  House,  in  the  occupation  of  the  Rev.  Edward  Scott ; 
Nottingham  Terrace ;  Union  Place  (here  is  a  modern  building,  with  a 
gothic  front  occupied  by  the  Exchange  Bazaar,  and  the  old  established 
Coach  Manufactory  of  Mr.  Burnand) ;  Allsop  Terrace.  In  Gloucester 
Place,  New  Road,  are  situated  the  following  extensive  establishments : 
Jenkins's  Nursery,  the  Coach  Manufactory  of  Messrs.  Tilbury  &  Co., 
and  that  most  respectable  and  valuable  institution  the  Phylological  School. 


[n  the  next  row  of  houses,  named  Lisson  Grove  South,  is  situated  the 
Astern  General  Dispensary;  and  the  north  side  of  the  road  terminates 
by  Middlesex  Place,  and  Southampton  Row.  Here  is  a  large  cluster  of 
houses  of  ancient  date,  the  property  of  George  Cabbell,  Esq. 


In  1717  or  1718,  Cavendish  Square  was  laid  out  and  the  circular 
piece  in  the  centre  was  enclosed,  planted,  and  surrounded  by  a  parapet 
and  iron  railing.  The  whole  of  the  north  side  was  taken  by  the 
celebrated  James  Brydges,  Duke  of  Chandos  (then  Earl  of  Carnarvon), 
who  acquired  a  princely  fortune  as  pay-master  of  the  forces  in  Queen 
Anne's  reign,  and  was  afterwards  called  "  The  Grand  Duke,"  from  the 
grandeur  and  state  in  which  he  lived. 

The  Duke,  it  is  said,  took  this  immense  plot  of  ground,  which 
extended  a  long  way  back  towards  the  north,  with  the  intention  of 
building  a  town  residence,  corresponding  with  that  of  Cannon's.  Only 
the  wings  were  completed.  One  was  the  large  mansion  at  the  corner 
of  Harley  Street,  at  one  time  the  residence  of  Princess  Amelia ;  the 
other  wing  was  the  corresponding  mansion  at  the  corner  of  Chandos 

Harcourt  House,  on  the  west  side  of  the  square,  was  designed  by 
Inigo  Jones.  The  high  brick  wall,  which  now  conceals  this  noble 
mansion  from  view,  may  have  been  deemed  a  necessary  protection 
originally,  when  the  spot  was  solitary  and  dangerous. 

The  South  Sea  failure,  in  1720,  caused  a  temporary  suspension  of 
building,  and  several  years  elapsed  before  the  square  was  completed. 

In  the  centre  of  the  enclosure  was  erected  an  equestrian  statue 
of  William  Duke  of  Cumberland,  the  hero  of  Culloden.  The  inscription 
reads  thus  : — 

"William  Duke  of  Cumberland,  born  April  15,  1721 — died  October 
31,  1765.  This  equestrian  statue  was  erected  by  Lieutenant-General 
William  Strode,  in  gratitude  for  his  private  friendship,  in  honour  to  his 
public  virtue.  Nov.  the  4th,  Anno  Domini  1770." 

The  Duke  was  represented  in  modern  dress,  in  a  manner  which 
induced  much  sarcastic  and  uncomplimentary  criticism. 

Reynolds   alludes   to   this    statue    in    his   tenth    Discourse :    "  In   this 


town    may    be    seen    an     equestrian    statue    in    a    modern    dress,    which 
may    be   sufficient    to   deter   modern    artists   from    any   such    attempt." 

A  colossal  statue  has  been  erected  on  the  south  side  of 
Cavendish  Square,  facing  down  Holies  Street,  and  bearing  the  following 

inscription  : — 





One  of  the  oldest  squares  in  Marylebone  is  Portman  Square,  the 
building  of  which  was  commenced  in  the  year  1764,  but  it  was  not 
completed  until  twenty  years  later.  It  takes  its  name  from  that  of  the 
Portman  Family,  upon  whose  estate  of  270  acres  it  was  built.  It  is 
a  very  handsome  square,  500  feet  by  400  feet  in  size,  and  adjoins 
the  historic  residence  of  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Montague,  known  as  Montague 

By  the  death  of  her  husband,  the  Hon.  Edward  Montague,  in 
1775,  Mrs.  Montague  was  left  in  great  opulence,  and  maintained  her 
establishment  in  the  learned  and  fashionable  world  for  many  years, 
living  in  a  style  of  splendid  hospitality.  For  many  years  her  elegant 
house  in  Portman  Square  was  opened  to  the  world.  Here  the  wit, 
rank,  and  talent  of  the  last  century  assembled  at  her  receptions ;  and 
here  was  the  apartment  covered  with  feather  hangings,  celebrated  by 
the  poet  Cowper  in  the  lines — 

"The  birds  put  off  their  every  hue 
To  dress  a  room  for  Montague." 

She  had  lived  at  the  table  of  the  second  Lord  Oxford,  the  resort 
of  Pope,  and  his  contemporaries  ;  she  was  the  intimate  friend  of 
Pulteney  and  Lyttelton,  and  she  lived  long  enough  to  entertain  Johnson, 
Goldsmith,  Burke,  Reynolds,  and  Beattie.  She  founded  a  literary  society, 
denominated  "  The  Blue  Stocking  Club,"  which  for  some  years  was 
the  subject  of  much  conversation. 

MRS.     MONTAGUE.  63 

She  early  distinguished  herself  as  a  writer;  first  by  her  "Dialogues 
of  the  Dead,"  published  along  with  those  of  Lord  Lyttelton ;  and 
afterwards  by  her  able  "Essay  on  the  writings  and  genius  of 
Shakespeare,"  in  which  she  amply  vindicated  our  great  poet  from  the 
abuse  thrown  out  against  him  by  Voltaire.  The  work  has  been 
pronounced  by  Thomas  Warton  the  most  elegant  and  judicious  piece 
of  criticism  this  age  has  produced.  After  her  death,  four  volumes  of  her 
epistolary  correspondence  were  published  under  the  editorship  of  her 
nephew  and  executor,  Matthew  Montague,  Esq. 

The  extensive  and  well-wooded  gardens  belonging  to  Montague 
House  were  annually,  for  many  years,  the  scene  of  the  chimney- 
sweepers' holiday.  On  the  ist  of  May  every  year,  Mrs.  Montague  was  led 
by  her  benevolent  feelings  to  invite  all  the  chimney  sweepers  in  the 
metropolis  to  her  garden,  where  they  were  regaled  with  good  and 
wholesome  fare,  so  that  they  might  enjoy  one  happy  day  in  the  year. 
Mrs.  Montague  died  in  the  year  1800. 

In  1802,  M.  Otto,  the  French  Ambassador,  had  his  residence  on 
the  south  side  of  the  square.  Upon  the  occasion  of  peace  being 
proclaimed  on  the  2gth  of  April,  1802,  between  His  Britannic  Majesty 
and  the  French  Republic,  illuminations  of  the  most  splendid  character 
succeeded  the  ceremonial  of  the  day  ;  but  the  object  of  universal 
attraction  was  the  French  Ambassador's  house,  which  was  brilliant  with 
illuminations  by  means  of  coloured  lamps,  dispersed  in  the  form  of 
an  Ionic  temple,  and  having  in  the  centre  a  large  transparency, 
representing  England  and  France,  with  their  various  attributes,  in  the 
act  of  uniting  their  hands,  in  token  of  amity,  before  an  altar  dedicated 
to  humanity,  above  which  appeared  the  word  Peace,  with  olive  branches. 

The  following  circumstance,  which  occurred  a  few  days  before  the 
illumination,  will  shew  the  true  characteristics  of  national  feeling. 
Immense  crowds  were  daily  attracted  by  the  preparations  for  the 
magnificent  display  which  afterwards  took  place.  At  length  the  word 
Concord  was  formed  in  coloured  lamps  on  the  entablature  of  the  temple. 
The  reading  of  John  Bull  was,  however,  Conquered,  and  his  inference 
was  that  it  was  intended  to  mean  that  Britain  was  conquered  by  France. 
Disturbance  and  riot  were  about  to  commence,  when  M.  Otto,  after  some 
fruitless  attempts  at  explanation,  prudently  conceded,  and  the  word 


amity  was  substituted.  But  it  did  not  end  there,  for  some  sailors 
found  out  that  the  initials  G.  R.  were  not  surmounted  as  usual  by  a 
crown.  This  they  promptly  insisted  should  be  done,  and  a  sort  of 
diadem,  formed  of  lamps,  was  extemporized  and  placed  over  the  monogram. 


Manchester  House,  which  occupies  the  north  side  of  this  square, 
was  commenced  in  1776,  but  the  building  of  the  other  portions  of  the 
square  was  not  finished  until  1788.  It  had  been  intended  originally 
that  the  square  should  be  called  Queen  Anne's  Square,  in  honour  of 
the  reigning  sovereign,  and  it  was  proposed  that  a  church  should  be 
built  in  its  centre,  but  for  some  reason  the  plan  was  never  carried  into 
effect.  The  ground  lying  waste  was  purchased  by  the  Duke  of 
Manchester;  the  house  was  erected  upon  it,  and  his  grace's  title  was 
given  as  the  name  to  the  new  square  which  grew  up  in  front  of  it. 

Upon  the  sudden  death  of  the  Duke  of  Manchester,  and  the 
minority  of  his  heir,  this  noble  mansion,  which  has  a  very  imposing 
appearance,  having  a  spacious  court-yard  enclosed  with  iron  railing, 
became  the  residence  of  the  Spanish  Ambassador,  and  afterwards  the 
property  of  the  Marquis  of  Hertford.  During  the  residence  here  of 
the  Spanish  Ambassador,  he  erected  a  small  Roman  Catholic  Chapel  in 
Spanish  Place,  which  is  at  the  north-east  corner  of  the  square.  The 
chapel,  which  is  dedicated  to  St.  James,  is  reckoned  a  handsome  piece 
of  architecture,  and  was  built  from  designs  by  Bonomi.  In  1832  this 
chapel  was  repaired  and  its  exterior  covered  with  stucco. 

Manchester  House  was  afterwards  occupied  by  the  French 


Dorset  Square  is  a  small  but  handsome  square,  with  the  area 
enclosed  and  planted,  and  is  built  on  the  site  of  Lord's  old  Cricket 


The  south  side  of  this  square  was  completed  in  the  year  1833. 
That  was  the  first  portion  built ;  and  the  remainder  has  been  built 


At  No.  16,  George  Eliot  (Miss  Marian  Evans),  the  celerated  authoress, 
lived  previously  to  the  year  1865,  in  which  year  she  changed  her  residence 
to  North  Bank,  St.  John's  Wood.  Romola  and  Felix  Holt  were  written 
at  the  house  in  Blandford  Square. 


Bryanston  and  Montague  Squares  were  built  on  ground  commonly 
called  "Ward's  Field."  Here  was  formerly  a  large  pond,  at  which 
many  fatal  accidents  annually  occurred  to  the  school-boys  of  the 
neighbourhood.  Near  this  spot  was  also  a  cluster  of  small  cottages, 
called  Apple  Village,  remarkable  from  having  been  the  residence  of  one 
of  the  murderers  of  Mr.  Steele. 

The  two  squares  were  built  by  Mr.  David  Porter,  an  eminent  builder 
"vvho  had  formerly  been  chimney-sweeper  to  the  village.  He  acquired 
large  property,  and  made  his  residence  in  Little  Welbeck  Street.  On 
the  occasion  of  the  Jubilee  to  celebrate  the  fiftieth  year  of  the  reign  of 
George  III.,  Mr.  Porter  gave  a  substantial  entertainment  to  his  workmen 
and  dependants  in  the  enclosed  area  of  Montague  Square,  \vhich  was  then 
in  an  unfinished  state ;  when,  notwithstanding  the  public  situation,  much 
conviviality  and  harmony  prevailed  around  the  festive  board.  Mr.  Porter 
died  in  the  year  1819,  having  lived  to  see  the  result  of  his  active 
labours,  for  many  years,  in  a  most  flourishing  state. 

Bryanston  and  Montague  Squares  are  both  oblong  in  shape,  and 
are  nearly  of  the  same  size,  viz.,  upwards  of  eight  hundred  feet  long, 
and  between  one  and  two  hundred  feet  wide. 

Anthony  Trollope  used  to  live  at  No.  39,  Montague  Square. 

A  sarcastic  writer  in  Knight's  Cyclopedia  of  London  gives  the  following 
uncomplimentary  account  of  these  squares : — 

"  Montague  Square  and  Bryanstone  Square  are  twin  deformities,  the 
former  of  which  is  placed  immediately  in  the  rear  of  Montague  House. 
They  are  long,  narrow  strips  of  ground,  fenced  in  by  two  monotonous 
rows  of  flat  houses.  In  the  centre  of  the  green  turf  which  runs  up  the 
middle  of  Bryanstone  Square  is  a  dwarf  weeping  ash,  which  resembles 
strikingly  a  gigantic  umbrella  or  toad-stool ;  and  in  the  corresponding 
site  in  Montague  Square  is  a  pump,  with  a  flower-pot,  shaped  like  an  urn, 
on  the  top  of  it.  A  range  of  balconies  runs  along  the  front  of  the 



houses  in  Bryanstone  Square  ;  but  the  inmates  appear  to  entertain 
dismal  apprehensions  of  the  thievish  propensities  of  their  neighbours,  for 
between  every  two  balconies  is  introduced  a  terrible  chevaux-de-frise. 
The  mansions  in  Montague  Square  are  constructed  after  the  most  approved 
Brighton  fashion,  each  with  its  little  bulging  protuberance  to  admit  of  a 
peep  into  the  neighbours'  parlours.  These  two  oblongs,  though  dignified 
with  the  name  of  squares,  belong  rather  to  the  anomalous  places 
which  economical  modern  builders  contrive  to  carve  out  of  the  corners  of 
mews-lanes  behind  squares,  and  dispose  of  with  a  profit  to  those  who 
wish  to  live  near  the  great." 



The  name  Tyburn. — "Deadly  Never  Green." — Fuller's  derivation. — The  journey  to  Tyburn. — St 
Giles's  Bowl. — Tom  Clinch. — Cromwell,  Ireton,  and  Bradshaw. — Celebrated  Executions  :  Holy 
Maid  of  Kent,  Robert  Southwell,  Mrs.  Turner,  John  Felton,  Hacker,  Axtell,  Okey, 
Barkstead,  Corbet,  Thomas  Sadler,  Sir  Thomas  Armstrong,  John  Smith,  Jack  Sheppard 
Lord  Ferrers,  John  Wesket,  Dr.  Hensey,  John  Rann,  Dr.  Dodd,  Elizabeth  Gaunt,  John 
Austin. — Hangmen:  Derrick,  Gregory  Brandon,  "  Esquire  Dun,"  John  Ketch. — Primrose  Hill 
and  Barrow  Hill. — Green  Berry  Hill. — Murder  of  Sir  Edmond  Berry  Godfrey. — Duels. — 
Capt.  Macnamara  and  Col.  Montgomery. — Barrow  Hill. — Origin  of  name. 


YBURN,    or    Tybourn,    the    name    anciently 
applied  to  the  whole  district  of  Marylebone 
and    its    vicinity,    has,    in    process    of   time 
become  restricted  to  one  particular  spot   in 
the    locality,    where    the     gallows     for     the 
execution  of  criminals  formerly  stood.     Park 
Lane,  in  1679,  was  called  Tyburn  Road,  and 
in  1686,  Tyburn  Lane.     Oxford  Street  also, 
at  one  time,  was  called  Tyburn  Road. 
Tyburn     Gallows,    or     Tyburn     Tree,    or     "  Deadly 
Never    Green,"    as    it    was    variously    called,    was    the 
public  place  of  execution  for  criminals  convicted  in  the 
county    of    Middlesex.       The    actual   gallows,    which    in 
all    probability     was    a    permanent      erection,     was     of 
triangular  form,  standing   upon  three  legs.      There   are 
various  allusions  in    the    works    of   old    authors   to    the 
shape  and  uses  of  this  celebrated  structure.     Thus,   in 
Tarlton's  Jests,  1611,  it    is  written:    "It  was  made  like 
the     shape     of     Tiborne,    three-square."      Taylor,    the 
Water  Poet,  in  1623,  writes : — 

"  I  have  heard  sundry  men  of  times  dispute, 
Of  trees  that  in  one  yeare,  will  twice  beare  fruit. 
But  if  a  man  note  Tyburn  'twill  appeare, 
That  that's  a  tree  that  bears  twelve  times  a  yeare." 


Fuller,  in  his  Worthies,  speaking  of  the  name  Tyburn,  says,  "  Tieburne, 
some  will  have  it  so  called  from  Tie  and  Burne,  because  the  poor  Lollards 
for  whom  this  instrument  (of  cruelty  to  them,  though  of  justice  to 
malefactors)  was  first  set  up,  had  their  necks  tied  to  the  beame,  and  their 
lower  parts  burnt  in  the  fire  " — an  ingenious  derivation,  certainly,  but,  as 
has  been  shown  in  another  place,  one  which  is  far  from  probable. 
Shirley,  in  The  Wedding,  makes  Rawbone  say,  "  I  do  imagine  myself 
apprehended  already ;  now  the  constable  is  carrying  me  to  Newgate — now, 
now,  I'm  at  the  Sessions'  House,  in  the  dock ;  now  I'm  called — '  Not 
guilty,  my  Lord.'  The  jury  has  found  the  indictment,  billa  vera.  Now, 
now,  comes  my  sentence.  Now  I'm  in  the  cart,  riding  up  Holborn  in  a 
two- wheeled  chariot,  with  a  guard  of  halberdiers.  '  There  goes  a  proper 
fellow,'  says  one ;  '  Good  people,  pray  for  me.'  Now  I'm  at  the  three 
wooden  stilts  (Tyburn).  He)'!  now  I  feel  my  toes  hang  i'  the  cart; 
now  'tis  drawn  away  ;  now,  now,  now !  I  am  gone." 

The  exact  spot  upon  which  the  gallows  stood  has  been  identified 
with  the  site  of  Connaught  Place.  After  the  buildings  accumulated,  the 
gallows  at  Tyburn  was  found  to  be  in  the  way,  and  every  time,  after 
use,  was  taken  down  and  deposited  in  a  house  at  the  corner  of  Upper 
Bryanston  Street  and  Edgware  Road.  The  house  had  curious  iron 
balconies  to  the  windows  of  the  first  and  second  floors,  which  were  used 
by  the  sheriffs  when  attending  in  their  official  capacity  as  witnesses  of 
the  execution.  In  1783,  when  Tyburn  ceased  to  be  the  place  of 
execution,  the  gallows  was  purchased  by  a  carpenter  and  converted  into 
stands  for  beer  butts,  in  the  cellars  of  a  public-house  in  Adam  Street 
called  the  "  Carpenter's  Arms." 

In  journeying  from  London  to  Tyburn,  criminals  were  conveyed  along 
Holborn,  and,  as  New  Oxford  Street  was  not  at  that  time  constructed, 
the  way  lay  through  High  Street,  St.  Giles's,  where  the  drinking  of 
St.  Giles's  Bowl  was  an  old  established  and  long  continued  custom.  It 
seems  to  have  been  given  to  the  wretched  criminals  as  their  last 
refreshment,  and  Jack  Sheppard,  who  conformed  to  the  custom,  is  said  to 
have  desired  that  the  remainder  of  the  drink  should  be  given  to  Jonathan 
Wild.  I  have  referred  to  this  custom  in  a  recent  book  (see  "  Bloomsbury 
and  St.  Giles's,"  by  George  Clinch,  p.  9). 

"  St.  Giles's  Bowl "    had  its  origin   in   early   times,  and  was  probably  a 

ST.    GILES'S     BOWL.  69 

pardon-maser  or  pardon-bowl,  whose  superstitious  use  was  denounced  by 
Latimer  from  St.  Paul's  Cross,  and  by  Bishop  Bale,  who,  indeed,  in  his 
Ymage  of  both  Churches,  1550,  expressly  mentions  St.  Giles's  Bowl. 

The  hospitality  at  High  Street,  St.  Giles,  however,  if  the  last,  was 
probably  not  the  only  refreshment  in  which  the  criminals  indulged  on 
their  last  road  to  Tyburn.  Swift  wrote  some  humorous  lines  upon  one, 
Tom  Clinch  (with  whom,  of  course,  the  present  writer  claims  no 
relationship),  who  called  for  refreshments  at  the  "  George  and  Blue 
Boar,"  Holborn,  now  the  "  Inns  of  Court  Hotel :  "— 

"  As  clever  Tom  Clinch,  when  the  rabble  was  bawling, 
Rode  stately  through  Holborn  to  die  of  his  calling, 
He  stop't  at  the  George  for  a  bottle  of  sack, 
And  promised  to  pay  for  it  when  he  came  back." 

Henrietta  Maria,  Queen  of  Charles  I.,  is  said  to  have  walked 
barefooted  through  Hyde  Park  to  Tyburn,  and  to  have  done  penance 
there ;  though  the  fact  of  her  having  done  so  has  been  denied  by  the 
Marshal  de  Bassompierre,  the  French  Ambassador  at  the  time. 

Another  historical  event  took  place  at  Tyburn  upon  the  first 
anniversary  of  the  execution  of  Charles  I.,  after  the  Restoration,  when 
the  bodies  of  Oliver  Crowwell,  Ireton,  and  Bradshaw  were  hung  upon 
the  three  wooden  stilts  of  Tyburn  Tree.  The  bodies  were  dragged  from 
their  graves  in  Henry  VI I. 's  Chapel,  in  Westminster  Abbey,  and  removed 
at  night  to  the  Red  Lion  Inn,  in  Holborn,  from  whence  they  were 
carried  next  morning  in  sledges  to  Tyburn,  and  there,  in  their  shrouds 
and  cere-cloths,  suspended  till  sunset,  at  the  several  angles  of  the 
gallows.  They  were  then  taken  down  and  beheaded,  their  bodies  buried 
beneath  the  gallows,  and  their  heads  set  upon  poles  on  the  top  of 
Westminster  Hall. 

Among  the  celebrated  persons  who  have  been  executed  at  Tyburn 
were  the  Holy  Maid  of  Kent,  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII.  ;  Robert 
Southwell,  the  Jesuit,  who  was  charged  with,  and,  in  1595,  executed  for, 
alleged  conspiracy  against  the  Government  of  Qeeen  Elizabeth.  He  wrote 
a  number  of  books,  both  in  prose  and  verse,  upon  theological  matters. 

Mrs.  Turner,  who  was  implicated  in  the  murder  of  Sir  Thomas 
Overbury,  was  executed  at  Tyburn  on  the  I4th  November,  1615.  She  was 
the  inventress  of  yellow  starch,  and  was  executed  in  a  cobweb  lawn  ruff 


of  that  colour.  It  is  also  asserted  that  the  hangman  had  his  bands 
and  cuffs  of  yellow,  which  made  many  after  that  day,  of  either  sex,  to 
forbear  the  use  of  that  coloured  starch,  till  it  at  last  grew  generally 
detested  and  disused. 

Among  others  who  were  executed  at  Tyburn,  was  John  Felton,  the 
assassin  of  Villiers,  Duke  of  Buckingham.  His  body  was  afterwards 
hanged  in  chains  at  Portsmouth,  where  the  murder  was  committed. 
Hacker  and  Axtell  were  executed  October  igth,  1660,  and  Okey, 
Barkstead,  and  Corbet  were  executed  April  igth,  1662  ;  they  were  five  of 
fifty-nine  individuals  who  signed  the  death  warrant  of  Charles  I.  Thomas 
Sadler  was  hanged  at  Tyburn  in  1677,  for  stealing  the  mace  and  purse 
of  the  Lord  Chancellor ;  and  Oliver  Plunket,  Archbishop  of  Armagh, 
in  1681,  suffered  a  similar  fate  for  an  assumed  design  of  bringing  a 
French  army  over  to  Ireland  to  murder  all  the  Protestants  in  that 
Kingdom.  On  June  2Oth,  1684,  Sir  Thomas  Armstrong  was  executed  at 
Tyburn,  as  a  punishment  for  his  complicacy  in  the  Rye  House  Plot. 
His  head  was  afterwards  set  up  on  Temple  Bar. 

A  singular  instance  of  either  great  tenacity  of  the  vital  principle,  or 
failure  of  the  means  employed  by  the  hangman  for  the  acomplishment  of 
his  task,  is  to  be  found  in  the  case  of  one  John  Smith,  who  was 
condemned  for  felony  and  burglary,  and  was  conveyed  to  Tyburn  on  the 
1 2th  of  December,  1705;  after  he  had  hanged  about  quarter-of-an-hour, 
a  reprieve  came,  and  he  was  cut  down,  whereupon,  marvellous  as  it 
seerns,  "  he  came  to  himself,"  as  an  old  account  records,  "  to  the  great 
admiration  of  the  spectators,  the  executioner  having  pulled  him  by  the 
legs,  and  used  other  means  to  put  a  speedy  period  to  his  life." 

Jack  Sheppard  was,  as  is  well  known,  executed  at  Tyburn.  It  is 
said  that  a  crowd  of  two  hundred  thousand  persons  witnessed  the 
spectacle.  The  various  incidents  which  attended  the  closing  scene  in 
the  life  of  this  notorious  criminal  have  been  graphically  portrayed  by 
the  pen  of  the  novelist  Ainsworth,  and  by  the  inimitable  pencil  of 
Cruikshank.  The  custom  of  drinking  on  the  way  to  Tyburn  reached 
such  a  disgraceful  pitch  that  it  had  to  be  entirely  prohibited.  Lord 
Ferrers,  who  was  executed  at  Tyburn  on  the  5th  of  May,  1760,  for 
the  murder  of  his  land-steward,  on  the  way  to  Tyburn  said  he  was 
thirsty  and  wished  for  some  wine  and  water.  The  sheriff  said  he  was 

DA'.    HENSEY'S    REPRIEVE.  71 

sorry  to  be  obliged  to  refuse  him.  By  late  regulations  they  were 
enjoined  not  to  let  prisoners  drink  from  the  place  of  imprisonment 
to  that  of  execution,  as  great  indecencies  had  been  formerly  committed 
by  the  lower  species  of  criminals  getting  drnnk.  Lord  Ferrers  wore 
his  wedding  clothes  to  Tyburn ;  as  good  an  occasion,  he  observed,  for 
putting  them  on  as  that  for  which  they  were  first  made. 

John  Wesket,  on  the  gth  of  January,  1765,  was  executed  at  Tyburn 
for  the  murder  of  his  master,  the  Earl  of  Harrington.  He  went  in  the 
cart,  dressed  in  a  blue  and  gold  frock,  and  wearing,  as  the  emblem  of 
innocence,  a  white  cockade  in  his  hat.  He  ate  several  oranges  on  his 
passage ;  inquired  if  his  hearse  was  ready ;  and  then,  as  old  Rowe  used 
to  say,  was  launched  into  eternity. 

If  the  melancholy  spectacle  of  formal  processions  to  Tyburn  Tree 
were  intended  to  impress  the  multitudes  who  witnessed  them  with 
sentiments  of  reverence  for  the  laws  of  their  country,  it  must  be  con- 
fessed that  the  result  was  a  complete  failure.  The  eager  curiosity 
of  the  populace  to  witness  executions  became  a  source  of  considerable 
emolument  to  certain  miscreants,  whe  were  in  the  habit  of  erecting 
scaffolds  for  spectators.  The  prices  of  the  seats  varied  according  to  the 
turpitude  or  quality  of  the  criminal.  Dr.  Hensey  was  to  have  been 
executed  for  high  treason  in  1758,  and  the  prices  of  seats  for  that 
exhibition  amounted  to  two  shillings  and  two-and-sixpence ;  but  in  the 
midst  of  general  expectation  the  Doctor  was  most  provokingly  reprieved. 
As  the  mob  descended  from  their  stations  with  unwilling  steps,  it  occurred 
to  them  that  as  they  had  been  deprived  of  the  intended  entertainment, 
the  proprietors  of  the  seats  ought  to  return  the  admission-money,  which 
they  demanded  in  vociferous  terms,  and  with  blows,  and,  in  short,  they 
exercised  their  happy  talent  for  rioting  with  unbounded  success. 

Among  the  many  desperate  characters,  who  after  making  a 
considerable  figure  in  criminal  history,  have  finished  their  career  at 
Tyburn,  mention  may  be  made  of  John  Rann,  commonly  called  "  Sixteen 
String  Jack."  It  is  supposed  that  the  sixteen  strings  worn  by  Rann  at 
his  knees  were  in  allusion  to  the  number  of  times  he  had  been  acquitted. 
The  following  circumstances  are  taken  from  an  account  of  the  life  of  this 
notorious  man,  published  anonymously  between  the  times  of  his  sentence 
and  execution.  John  Rann  was  born  in  the  parish  of  St.  George,  Hanover 


Square,  of  very  honest  parents,  on  the  I5th  of  April,  1752.  At  the  age 
of  fourteen  he  was  employed  by  Mr.  Dimmock,  a  coachmaster  of  some 
standing  near  Grosvenor  Square,  by  whom  he  seems  to  have  been  well 
treated,  and  for  whom  he  himself  always  professed  the  most  grateful 
acknowledgments  and  regard. 

It  was  reported  that  Rann  acted  as  coachman  to  a  nobleman,  and  as 
postillion  to  the  Earl  of  Bute,  but  the  writer  of  the  contemporay  account 
regards  both  reports  as  dubious.  He  thinks  Rann  only  served  as  a  com- 
mon hackney  coachman  under  Mr.  Dimmock.  Finding  this  employment 
about  the  environs  of  Oxford  Road  and  Grosvenor  Square  produced 
but  a  bare  subsistence,  Rann  determined  to  play  a  bolder  game, 
especially  as  he  had  conceived  a  strong  attachment  to  a  young  lady, 
to  whose  fortune  he  thought  himself  unequal. 

His  person,  being  in  every  way  agreeable,  he  found  means  to  be 
frequently  at  masquerades,  assemblies,  and  other  places  of  public  resort, 
where  address  and  effrontery  were  more  useful  than  education.  There  he 
became  acquainted  with  a  young  lady  known  by  the  name  of  Miss  la 
Roache,  for  whom  he  entertained  a  passion.  He  was  always  anxious  to 
appear  in  the  guise  of  a  gentleman,  and  was  fond  of  showy  dress,  such  as 
materials  of  green  or  blue  trimmed  with  gold,  or  brown  laced  with 
silver ;  and  his  hat  was  usually  decorated  with  a  narrow  gold  or  silver 
band.  At  Barnet  Races  he  appeared  on  the  course  dressed  like  a  sporting 
peer  of  the  first  rank.  He  was  distinguished  by  the  elegance  of  his. 
appearance,  in  a  blue  satin  waistcoat  laced  with  silver,  and  was  followed 
by  hundreds  of  spectators  from  one  side  of  the  course  to  the  other, 
attracted  by  so  much  finery. 

Scarcely  had   he    entered    the    eighteenth    year    of   his   age,    when,  for 


picking  a  gentleman's  pocket,  he  was  taken  before  Sir  John  Fielding,  and 
punished.  Upon  several  subsequent  occasions  Rann  had  to  appear  before 
that  worthy  magistrate,  and  generally  upon  charges  of  pilfering  and 
robbery.  William  Clayton  and  Nathan  Jones  were  his  tutors  in  the  art 
of  pocket-picking,  and  James  College,  a  lad  known  by  the  name  of 
"  Eight  String  Jame,"  was  an  intimate  and  frequent  companion. 

His  first  trial  was  in  April,  1774,  when  he,  William  Clayton,  and 
Robert  Shepherd,  were  indicted  for  robbing  William  Somers  on  the 
king's  highway  of  four  shillings,  and  putting  him  in  fear  of  his  life ; 

JOHN    RANN.  73 

but  of  this  they  were  all  acquitted,  the  prosecutor  refusing  to  appear. 
Their  escape  from  punishment  was  no  warning  to  the  highway  robbers, 
and  Rann  was  mixed  up  with  many  others  shortly  afterwards.  One  of 
the  most  extraordinary  circumstances  was  that  Rann  very  frequently 
boasted  of  his  exploits  in  public  company ;  made  no  scruple  to  recite 
the  particulars  of  his  robberies,  and  even  mentioned  the  time  when 
he  thought  his  career  of  iniquity  would  be  at  an  end.  He  was  often 
heard  to  say,  "  I  have  so  much  money,  I  shall  spend  that,  and  then 
I  shall  not  last  long."  He  frequently  said  that  he  should  be  hanged 
about  November,  and  once  he  bet  a  crown's  wrorth  of  punch  that  he 
should  suffer  before  Christmas. 

On  Wednesday,  the  28th  September,  1774,  John  Rann  and  William 
Collier  were  examined  at  the  public  office  in  Bow  Street,  on  a  suspicion 
of  their  having  robbed  Dr.  William  Bell,  Chaplain  to  her  Royal 
Highness  the  Princess  Amelia,  of  his  watch  and  eighteenpence  in 
money,  on  the  highway,  near  Ealing  in  Middlesex.  On  the  following 
Wednesday,  October  5th,  they  were  submitted  to  another  examination, 
and  committed  to  Newgate  to  take  their  trial  for  highway  robbery. 
On  the  2Oth  October,  1774,  John  Rann  was  conducted  from  Newgate 
to  the  New  Sessions  House  in  the  Old  Bailey,  together  with  his 
accomplice  William  Collier,  to  take  their  trial  for  the  robbery  of  Dr. 
William  Bell,  near  Gunnersbury  Lane,  and  on  the  26th  of  October 
they  both  received  sentence  to  be  executed  at  Tyburn,  and  Eleanor 
Roach  to  be  transported  for  fourteen  years.  Rann  was  executed  on 
the  3oth  of  November. 

John  Thomas  Smith,  in  his  Book  for,  a  Rainy  Day,  records  some 
curious  reminiscences  of  Rann's  journey  to  the  gallows.  He  says: — "I  well 
remember,  when  in  my  eighth  year,  my  father's  playfellow,  Mr.  Joseph 
Nollekens,  leading  me  by  the  hand  to  the  end  of  John  Street,  to  see  the 
notorious  terror  of  the  king's  highways,  John  Rann,  commonly  called 
'  Sixteen-string  Jack,'  on  his  way  to  execution  at  Tyburn,  for  robbing 
Dr.  Bell,  Chaplain  to  the  Princess  Amelia,  in  Gunnersbury  Lane.  Rann 
was  a  smart  fellow,  a  great  favourite  with  a  certain  description  of  ladies. 
The  malefactor's  coat  was  a  bright  pea-green ;  he  had  an  immense 
nosegay,  which  he  had  received  from  the  hand  of  one  of  the  frail 
sisterhood,  whose  practice  it  was  in  those  days  to  present  flowers  to  their 


favourites  from  the  steps  of  St.  Sepulchre's  Church,  as  the  last  token  of 
what  they  called  their  attachment  to  the  condemned,  whose  worldly 
accounts  were  generally  brought  to  a  close  at  Tyburn,  in  consequence  of 
their  associating  with  abandoned  characters.  On  our  return  home, 
Mr.  Nollekens,  stooping  close  to  my  ear,  assured  me  that  had  his 
father-in-law,  Mr.  Justice  Welch,  been  high  constable  we  could  have 
walked  all  the  way  to  Tyburn  by  the  side  of  the  cart." 

The  following  humorous  account  of  the  closing  scene  in  Dr.  Dodd's 
life  (executed  at  Tyburn  for  forging  a  bond  in  the  name  of  the  Earl  of 
Chesterfield,  for  £4200)  is  extracted  from  Seluyn's  Correspondence: — 

"Another  was  executed  at  the  same  time  with  him,  who  seemed 
hardly  to  engage  one's  attention  sufficiently  to  make  one  draw  any 
comparison  between  him  and  Dodd.  Upon  the  whole  the  piece  was  not 
very  full  of  events.  The  doctor,  to  all  appearance,  was  rendered  perfectly 
stupid  from  despair.  His  hat  was  flapped  all  round,  and  pulled  over  his 
eyes,  which  were  never  directed  to  any  object  around,  nor  even  raised, 
except  now  and  then  lifted  up  in  the  course  of  his  prayers.  He  came  in 
a  coach,  and  a  very  heavy  showrer  of  rain  fell  just  upon  his  entering  the 
cart,  and  another  just  at  his  putting  on  his  nightcap.  During  the  shower, 
an  umbrella  was  held  over  his  head,  which  Gilly  Williams,  who  was 
present,  observed  was  quite  unnecessary,  as  the  doctor  was  going  to  a 
place  where  he  might  be  dried. 

"  He  was  a  considerable  time  in  praying,  which  some  people  standing 
about  seemed  rather  tired  with  ;  they  rather  wished  for  a  more  interesting 
part  of  the  tragedy.  The  wind,  which  was  high,  blew  off  his  hat,  which 
rather  embarrassed  him,  and  discovered  to  us  his  countenance  which  we 
could  scarcely  see  before.  His  hat,  however,  was  soon  restored  to  him, 
and  he  went  on  with  his  prayers.  There  were  two  clergymen  attending 
on  him,  one  of  whom  seemed  very  much  affected.  The  other,  I  suppose, 
was  the  ordinary  of  Newgate,  as  he  was  perfectly  indifferent  and  unfeeling 
in  everything  he  said  and  did. 

"  The  executioner  took  both  hat  and  wig  off  at  the  same  time.  Why 
he  put  on  his  wig  again  I  do  not  know,  but  he  did ;  and  the  doctor  took 
off  his  wig  a  second  time,  and  then  tied  on  a  nightcap  which  did  not 
fit  him ;  but  whether  he  stretched  that  or  took  another,  I  could  not 
perceive.  He  then  put  on  his  nightcap  himself,  and  upon  his  taking  it 


he  certainly  had  a  smile  on  his  countenance,  and  very  soon  afterwards 
there  was  an  end  of  all  his  hopes  and  fears  on  this  side  the  grave. 
He  never  moved  from  the  place  he  first  took  in  the  cart  ;  seemed 
absorbed  in  despair  and  utterly  dejected,  without  any  other  signs  of 
animation  but  in  praying.  I  stayed  till  he  was  cut  down  and  put  into 
the  hearse." 

The  last  woman  who  suffered  death  in  England  for  a  political  offence 
was  Elizabeth  Gaunt,  an  ancient  matron  of  the  Anabaptist  persuasion, 
burned  to  death  at  Tyburn  for  harbouring  a  person  concerned  in  the  Rye 
House  Plot.  The  last  person  executed  at  Tyburn  was  John  Austin,  who 
suffered  death  on  the  7th  of  November,  1783.  After  that  date  criminals 
were  executed  at  Newgate. 

The  earliest  hangman,  whose  name  is  known  as  having  officiated 
at  Tyburn,  was  Derrick.  He  lived  in  the  reign  of  James  I.,  and  is 
mentioned  by  Dekker,  in  his  Gull's  Hornbook,  and  by  Middleton,  in  his 
Black  Book.  He  was  succeeded  by  Gregory  Brandon,  who,  it  is  said,  had 
arms  confirmed  to  him  by  the  College  of  Heralds,  and  became  an  esquire 
by  virtue  of  his  office.  Brandon  was  succeeded  by  Dun,  "  Esquire 
Dun"  as  he  was  called;  and  Dun,  in  1684  by  John  Ketch,  commemorated, 
by  Dryden  in  an  epilogue,  and  whose  name  is  now  synonymous  with 
hangman.  The  hangman's  rope  was  commonly  called  "  a  riding  knot  an 
inch  below  the  ear,"  or  "  a  Tyburn  tippet ; "  and  the  sum  of  I3^d.  is 
still  distinguished  as  "  hangman's  wages." 

Trials,  condemnations,  confessions,  and  last  dying  speeches  were  first 
printed  in  1624;  and  "Tyburn's  elegiac  lines"  have  found  an  enduring 
celebrity  in  The  Dunciad. 


The  name  of  this  celebrated  eminence  is  supposed  to  have  been 
derived  from  the  abundant  growth  in  its  vicinity  of  the  beautiful  flowers 
whose  name  it  bears.  Primroses  grew  abundantly,  too,  in  "  Primrose 
Lane "  adjoining.  There  seems  to  have  been  an  idea  that  it  was 
once  called  "  Green  Berry  Hill,"  but  the  idea  is  probably  erroneous. 
Barrow  Hill  (now  occupied  by  the  reservoir  of  a  waterworks  company) 
seems  to  have  been  known  by  that  name  at  one  time,  and  a  rather 
curious  circumstance  in  connection  therewith  is  that  three  of  the 



supposed  murderers  of  Sir  Edmond  Berry  Godfrey,  in  1678,  were  named 
Green,  Berry,  and  Hill.  It  is  not  improbable  that  "  Green  Berry  Hill  " 
was  a  form  of  name  adopted  in  consequence  of  that  curious  fact,  but  the 
more  ancient  form  of  Barrow  Hill  was  afterwards  revived,  and,  as  far  as 
the  name  is  now  preserved,  the  ancient  form  is  still  used.  Barrow  Hill 
Road  and  Barrowhill  Place  are  named  after  that  historical  eminence. 

Perhaps  the  most  important  event  in  connection  with  Primrose  Hill 
was  the  discovery  of  the  murdered  body  of  Sir  Edmond  Berry  Godfrey, 
on  Thursday,  October  I7th,  1678.  He  had  probably  been  murdered 
elsewhere  by  strangulation.  Three  persons,  namely,  Robert  Green,  Cushion- 
man  to  the  Queen's  Chapel ;  Lawrence  Hill,  servant  to  Dr.  Godden, 
Treasurer  of  the  Chapel ;  and  Henry  Berry,  Porter  at  Somerset  House ; 
were  tried  for  this  murder  at  the  King's  Bench,  before  the  Lord  Chief 
Justice  Scroggs,  on  the  loth  of  February,  1679.  The  infamous  witnesses, 
Gates,  Prance,  and  Bedloe,  declared  "  that  he  was  waylaid  and  inveigled 
into  the  Palace  (Somerset  House),  under  the  pretence  of  keeping  the  peace 
between  two  servants  who  were  fighting  in  the  yard  ;  that  he  was  there 
strangled,  his  neck  broke,  and  his  own  sword  run  through  his  body ;  that 
he  was  kept  four  days  before  they  ventured  to  remove  him  ;  at  length  his 
corpse  was  first  carried  in  a  Sedan  chair  to  Soho,  and  then  on  a  horse  to 
Primrose  Hill."  The  verdict  at  the  Coroner's  Inquest  was  "  That  he  was 
murdered  by  certain  persons  unknown  to  the  Jurors,  and  that  his  death 
proceeded  from  suffocation  and  strangling ;  and  that  his  sword  had  been 
thrust  through  his  body  some  time  after  his  death,  and  when  he  was  quite 
cold  ;  because  not  the  least  sign  of  blood  was  seen  upon  his  shirt,  or  his 
clothes,  or  the  place  where  he  was  found."  Thus,  although  the  evidence 
taken  at  the  Inquest  and  that  of  the  witnesses  at  the  Trial  agreed  in 
some  particulars,  there  was  not  the  slightest  ground  upon  which  to  convict 
the  three  prisoners. 

Nevertheless  the  jury  found  them  all  guilty  of  the  murder,  and  the 
Lord  Chief  Justice  said,  "  They  had  found  the  same  verdict  that  he  would 
have  found  had  he  been  one  of  them."  Green  and  Hill  were  executed  on 
the  2ist  of  February,  declaring  their  innocence  to  the  last ;  and  Berry, 
who  also  declared  himself  innocent,  was  executed  on  the  a8th  day  of 

Sir    Edmond's    corpse    was    embalmed    and    kept    until    the    3ist    of 


October,  when  it  was  carried  from  Bridewell  Hospital,  of  which  he  was 
one  of  the  Governors,  to  the  Church  of  St.  Martin-in-the-Fields,  where  he 
was  buried.  The  pall  was  supported  by  eight  knights,  all  Justices  of  the 
Peace  ;  and  all  the  Aldermen  of  the  City  of  London  attended  the  funeral. 
Seventy-two  ministers  marched  two-and-two  before  the  body,  and  great 
multitudes  followed  after  in  the  same  order.  A  sermon  was  preached  on 
the  occasion  by  Dr.  Williams  Lloyd,  Vicar  of  St.  Martin's. 

Sir  Edmond  Godfrey  was  himself  a  magistrate,  and  had  been  active 
in  the  discovery  of  the  Popish  Plot  in  1678,  and  a  recent  writer  has 
suggested  that  his  death  might  have  been  plotted  by  Titus  Gates. 

Primrose  Hill  and  the  neighbouring  locality  has  been  the  scene  of 
several  sanguinary  duels,  one  of  which  took  place  on  April  6th,  1803, 
between  Lieut. -Col.  Montgomery  and  Capt.  Macnamara,  in  consequence 
of  a  quarrel  between  them  in  Hyde  Park,  when  a  meeting  was  appointed 
for  7  o'clock  the  same  evening,  near  Primrose  Hill ;  the  consequence  of 
which  proved  fatal.  Captain  Macnamara's  ball  entered  the  right  side  of 
Colonel  Montgomery's  chest,  and  passed  through  the  heart ;  he  instantly 
fell  without  uttering  a  word,  but  rolled  over  two  or  three  times,  as  if 
in  great  agony,  and  groaned.  Being  carried  into  Chalk  Farm,  he  expired 
in  about  five  minutes.  Colonel  Montgomery's  ball  went  through  Captain 
Macnamara,  entering  on  the  left  side,  just  above  the  hip,  and  passing 
through  the  left  side,  carrying  part  of  the  coat  and  waistcoat  with  it, 
and  taking  part  of  his  leather  breeches  and  the  hip  button  away  with 
it  on  the  other  side.  A  Coroner's  Inquest  returned  a  verdict  of  man- 
slaughter against  Captain  Macnamara,  who  was  tried  at  the  Old  Bailey 
on  the  22nd  of  April,  when  he  received  an  excellent  character  from 
Lords  Hood,  Nelson,  Hotham,  and  Minto,  and  a  great  number  of  highly 
respectable  gentlemen,  and  the  jury  returned  a  verdict  of  "  not  guilty." 

The  name  of  Barrow  Hill — the  adjoining  hill  to  Primrose  Hill — is 
suggestive  of  an  ancient  funeral  mound.  Barrow  was  a  wrord  which 
signified  an  earthwork  generally,  but  was  confined  as  a  general  rule  to 
burial  mounds.  It  is  extremely  difficult  to  say  whether  Barrow  Hill  may 
or  may  not  have  been  an  artificially-formed  eminence.  The  reservoir  of 
the  West  Middlesex  Waterworks  now  occupies  the  top  of  the  hill,  and 
its  construction  has  destroyed  the  form  of  the  hill  so  much  that  it  is 
a  matter  of  considerable  difficulty  to  form  any  idea  of  its  original  shape. 



Under  these  circumstances  it  is  impossible  to  ascertain  much  about 
Barrow  Hill,  except  that  the  name  is  of  great  antiquity  and  probably 
has  some  reference  to  its  historical  associations. 

Primrose  Hill  is  now  chiefly  remarkable  for  the  beautiful  and 
extensive  view  which  it  commands  all  around,  and  especially  over  Regent's 
Park,  and  the  adjacent  parts  of  Marylebone  and  St.  Pancras. 



The  Marylebone  Volunteers. — The  Royal  York  St.  Marylebone  Volunteers.— The  Royal  Toxophilite 
Society,  Regent's  Park.— Sir  Ashton  Lever. — The  Archer's  Hall. — The  Marylebone  Cricket 
Club. — Thomas  Lord. — M.  Garnerin's  balloon  ascent. — The  Zoological  Society. — The  Royal 
Botanic  Society's  Gardens,  Regent's  Park. — The  Middlesex  Hospital. 


URING  the  last  few  years  of  the  i8th  century, 
this  military  association  was  formed.  It  is 
thus  described  in  a  \vork  entitled  — "  Loyal 
Volunteers  of  London  and  Environs,"  published 
in  1799 : — 

Commandant,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Phipps. 

This  Corps  was  formed  early  in  1798,  under 
the  Command  of  Lieutenant  -  Colonel  Phipps, 
to  protect  their  own  district.  They  consist  of 
six  Companies,  Light  Infantry,  Grenadiers,  and 
Battalion  Men.  Received  their  Colours  from  the 
hand  of  the  Right  Hon.  Lady  Kinnoul,  in  Lord's 
Ground,  Marylebone,  the  3oth  of  May,  1799,  and 
were  reviewed  by  His  Majesty  the  4th  of  June. 
The  concerns  of  this  Association  are  regulated  by 
a  Committee,  military  and  parochial.  The  number 
they  mean  to  extend  to  is  undetermined. 


Commandant,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Phipps. 
Major,  —  Hamilton. 


Captains,  Welford,  Blair,  Wyatt,  Thompson,  Sir  Henry  Lambert. 
Lieutenants,    Delamain,     Neale,     Boscowen,    Pownall,    Dare,     Plowdc-n, 

Harcourt,  Ward,  Johnson,  Arnold. 
Adjutant,  Jos.  Bibbins. 
Surgeon,  —  Daston. 


Round  Hat,  and  Bear-skin  with  green  Feather. 
Breast-plate,  oval  with  a  Star. 
Cartouch,  a  small  Star. 
Half  Boots,  &c." 

The  uniform  also  included  a  blue  jacket,  turned  up  with  red,  blue 
pantaloons,  &c.,  from  which  circumstance  they  were  facetiously  called 
"  Blue  Bottles."  The  arms  were  provided  by  Government,  and  deposited 
at  the  workhous.e.  Their  parade  ground  was  situated  in  George  Street. 
According  to  one  account,  the  corps  was  formed  in  1797,  but  other 
ii  accounts  say  1798.  It  was  disbanded  in  the  year  1801. 


In  1802,  after  the  short  interval  of  peace,  the  old  threat  of 
invasion  being  repeated,  a  second  Volunteer  Corps  of  Infantry  was 
specially  established  under  the  above  title,  in  compliment  to  His  Royal 
Highness  the  Duke  of  York,  who  at  that  time  resided  in  the  parish. 
This  corps  soon  arrived  to  great  perfection  in  order  and  discipline, 
under  the  command  of  Colonel  the  Rt.  Hon.  Viscount  Duncannon,  and 
T.  Phillips,  Esq.,  their  Adjutant ;  and  comprised  upwards  of  one 
thousand  effective  members.  The  uniform  was  different  to  that  of  the 
original  corps,  being  a  handsome  scarlet  jacket,  trimmed  with  gold  lace, 
blue  pantaloons,  &c.  The  arms  were  provided  by  the  Government,  and  the 
Armoury  and  Orderly  Room  were  first  established  at  No.  4,  Nottingham 
Street,  and  afterwards  removed  to  a  building  at  the  corner  of 
Marylebone  Lane  and  Wigmore  Street.  The  expenses  of  the  corps  were 
defrayed  by  a  subscription  amongst  its  members.  A  subscription  was, 
however,  solicited  in  1804,  from  those  inhabitants  who  were  exempt, 
or  not  eligible  to  serve  in  the  corps ;  when  it  was  stated  in  the 
circulars,  distributed  on  the  occasion,  that  nearly  £20,000  had  been 
expended  in  establishing  the  Association,  which  was  one  of  most 


respectable  character,  being  composed  principally  of  master  tradesmen, 
and  officered  by  gentlemen.  The  corps  was  broken  up  in  1814,  and 
the  remains  of  their  fund  amounting  to  £700  vvas  presented  to  the 
Parish  Charity  School,  and  Middlesex  Hospital ;  viz.,  £400  to  the 
School,  and  £300  to  the  Hospital. 


Near  the  Inner  Circle  of  Regent's  Park  are  the  grounds  and  hall 
of  this  ancient  society,  of  which  the  following  are  some  historical 
particulars  :— 

In  the  year  1514,  the  citizens  of  London  practised  archery  in  the 
fields  round  about  Islington,  Hoxton,  and  Shoreditch.  Henry  VIII. 
was  particularly  fond  of  archery,  and  in  1537  commissioned  Sir 
Christopher  Morris,  Master  of  the  Ordnance,  to  revive  the  amusement, 
which  at  that  time  was  rather  drooping,  by  establishing  a  society  of 
archers,  which  was  called  "the  Fraternitye  or  Guylde  of  St.  George," 
upon  which  the  King  conferred  many  privileges.  They  were  constituted 
"Overseers  of  the  Scyence  of  Artyllery,  that  ys  to  wyt,  for  Long-bowes, 
Cross-bowes,  and  Handguns." 

The  Archers  of  St.  George  used  to  assemble  in  Lolesworth  or 
Spital-fields,  and  the  name  of  their  place  of  exercise  at  this  spot  was 
Teaselcroft,  so  called  from  the  thistles  with  which  it  abounded. 

The  Honorable  Artillery  Company  had  its  origin  about  the  year 
I5&5>  when  London  being  wearied  with  continual  musters,  a  number  of 
its  gallant  citizens  who  had  served  abroad  with  credit,  voluntarily 
exercised  themselves,  and  trained  others  to  the  ready  use  and  practice 
of  war.  The  ground  they  used  was  at  the  north-east  extremity  of  the 
City,  near  Bishopsgate,  the  same  which  had  before  been  occupied  by  the 
above-mentioned  Fraternity  of  Artillery.  Fort  Street,  Artillery  Street 
and  Lane  adjoin  Spital  Square,  and  by  their  names  identify  the  spot. 
Within  two  years  there  were  nearly  300  merchants  and  others  sufficiently 
skilled  to  train  common  soldiers,  and  in  1588,  in  connection  with  the 
preparations  for  repelling  the  Spanish  Armada,  some  of  them  had 
commissions  in  the  camp  at  Tilbury.  The  association  soon  afterwards 
fell  into  decay,  yet,  as  the  Company  has  never  since  its  first  creation 
been  altogether  extinct,  it  is  at  present  the  oldest  representative  of 


the  English  standing  army.  From  the  Company's  Register,  the  only 
book  they  saved  in  the  Civil  Wars,  it  appears  that  the  association 
was  revived  in  1611,  by  warrant  from  the  Privy  Council,  and  the 
number  of  the  Volunteers  soon  amounted  to  6,000. 

Three  years  after  this  they  made  a  general  muster,  when,  according 
to  a  contemporary  authority,  the  men  were  better  armed  than  disciplined. 
In  1622  they  erected  an  armoury,  towards  which  the  Chamber  of 
London  gave  £300.  It  was  furnished  with  500  sets  of  arms  of 
extraordinary  beauty,  which  were  all  lost  in  the  Civil  Wars.  Their 
captain  during  a  part  of  those  troublous  times  was  a  Mr.  Manby,  who 
detained  for  his  own  purposes  the  arms,  plate  money,  books,  and  other 
goods  of  the  Company,  and  the  Protector  was  in  vain  solicited  to 
enforce  their  restoration.  In  1640  they  quitted  their  old  field  of 
discipline,  and  entered  upon  the  plot  of  ground  which  they  now  occupy 
in  Bunhill  Fields,  leased  to  them  by  the  City.  This  ground  is  described 
as  a  parcel  of  ground  consisting  of  gardens,  orchards,  etc.,  situated  on  the 
north  side  of  Chiswell  Street,  and  called  by  the  name  of  Bunhill  Fields, 
which  was  in  the  year  1498  converted  into  a  spacious  field  for  the  use 
of  the  London  archers,  and  which  is  now  known  by  the  name  of  the 
Artillery  Ground. 

For  many  years  the}-  kept  up  an  Archery  Division,  archery  being 
the  art  cultivated  by  the  Company  in  their  earliest  days,  when  the  bow 
and  arrow  were  used  in  warfare.  In  process  of  time  this  division  was 
abolished,  but  archery  was  still  kept  alive  in  the  neigbourhood  of  London 
by  the  Finsbury  Archers.  Even  this  remnant  of  the  ancient  art  of 
archery  had  almost  died  out  when  the  few  survivors  joined  Sir  Ashton 
Lever  in  the  inauguration  of  the  Toxophilite  Society,  in  1781. 

Some  years  later  the  members  of  the  Artillery  Company  appear  to 
have  resumed  the  bow,  as  they  occupied  two  pairs  of  targets  at  the 
grand  meeting  of  Archery  societies  on  Blackheath,  in  1792,  and  the 
Toxophilite  Society,  in  its  earlier  years,  mostly  held  their  principal 
meetings  in  the  Company's  ground.  But  the  Finsbury  archers  have 
never  reappeared,  and  the  Archers'  Division  of  the  Honourable  Artillery 
Company  has  also  become  merged  into  the  Royal  Toxophilite  Society. 

Sir  Ashton  Lever,  Knight,  who  founded  the  Royal  Toxophilite 
Society,  on  April  3rd,  1781,  was  son  of  Sir  D'Arcy  Lever,  of  Allington, 


near  Manchester.  He  finished  his  education  at  Corpus  Christi  College, 
Oxford,  and  on  leaving  the  University  went  to  reside  with  his  mother, 
and  afterwards  settled  at  his  family  seat,  Allington,  which  he  rendered 
famous  by  forming  there  the  best  aviary  in  the  kingdom.  He  next 
paid  great  attention  to  the  study  of  all  branches  of  natural  history, 
which  taste  is  said  to  have  had  its  origin  from  the  circumstance  of  his 
having  shot  a  white  sparrow.  He  is  said  to  have  become  possessed 
of  one  of  the  finest  museums  in  the  world,  in  the  procuring  of  which 
he  spared  no  expense,  and  he  purchased  specimens  from  the  most 
distant  regions.  This  collection  was  removed  to  London  about  the  year 
1775,  and  opened  to  the  public  in  Leicester  House,  Leicester  Square. 
Unfortunately,  the  exhibition  does  not  appear  to  have  been  a  very 
successful  enterprise,  as  from  the  want  of  public  patronage  Sir  Ashton 
Lever  was  obliged  to  dispose  of  his  museum  by  lottery,  and  it  fell  to 
the  lot  of  a  Mr.  Parkinson,  who  built  rooms  on  the  Surrey  side  of  the 
Thames,  near  Blackfriars  Bridge,  for  its  reception,  and  did  everything 
in  his  power  to  render  it  interesting  to  the  public,  but  he  was  obliged 
to  dispose  of  it  by  auction  in  1806,  when  the  whole  of  it  was  dispersed. 
Between  the  years  1792  and  1796,  a  handsome  quarto  volume  was 
published,  entitled  "  Museum  Leverianum ;  containing  Select  Specimens 
from  the  Museum  of  the  late  Sir  Ashton  Lever,  Kt.,  with  Descriptions 
in  Latin  and  English.  By  George  Shaw,  M.D.,  F.R.S."  This  volume, 
which  was  published  by  James  Parkinson  the  proprietor  of  the  collection 
at  that  time,  was  richly  illustrated  with  full-page  coloured  engravings, 
some  of  which  are  very  fine,  but  there  does  not  appear  to  be  much 
method  in  their  arrangement.  According  to  the  report  of  Mr.  John 
Church  before  the  House  of  Commons,  which  is  quoted  in  the 
beginning  of  the  volume,  this  beautiful  collection  of  specimens  was  by 
careful  computation  estimated  to  be  of  the  value  of  upwards  of  £53,000. 
Dr.  George  Shaw,  who  was  the  author  of  numerous  works  upon  natural 
history,  and  a  lecturer  upon  the  same  subject,  delivered  several  lectures 
upon  the  Leverian  Museum,  both  before  and  after  that  collection  was 
removed  from  Leicester  House,  which  never  failed  to  attract  a  numerous 
and  scientific  audience. 

Sir    Ashton    Lever     died     in    1788,    of    an    apoplectic    attack,    while 
sitting   on    the   bench    with    the    other   magistrates   at    Manchester. 


About  the  year  1776,  Mr.  Waring,  father  of  the  well-known  bowyer 
of  Caroline  Street,  Bedford  Square,  being  then  resident  with  Sir  Ashton 
Lever  at  Leicester  House,  and  having  by  continued  application  to 
business  contracted  an  affection  of  the  chest  which  the  doctors  could 
not  relieve,  resolved  to  try  the  effect  of  archery.  He  commenced,  and 
continued  the  practice  regularly,  and  ascribed  his  cure,  which  was 
perfect,  solely  to  the  use  of  the  bow.  Sir  Ashton  Lever,  seeing  the 
good  effect  of  archery,  followed  Mr.  Waring's  example,  and  was  joined 
by  a  few  friends,  who  formed  themselves  into  the  Toxophilite  Society. 
The  practice  of  archery  took  place  on  the  lawn  at  the  back  of 
Leicester  House.  Prince  George  of  Wales  (afterwards  George  IV.),  who 
was  fond  of  archery,  shot  with  the  members  of  this  Society,  at 
Leicester  House,  and  on  his  becoming  patron  of  the  Society,  in  1787, 
it  assumed  the  title  of  "Royal,"  by  which  it  has  ever  since  been 
distinguished.  William  IV.,  the  Prince  Consort,  and  the  Prince  of 
Wales  have  been  patrons  subsequently. 

Among  the  plate  belonging  to  this  Society  are  the  large  silver 
shield  given  to  the  Archers'  Company  by  Queen  Catherine  of  Braganza, 
consort  of  Charles  II.,  and  silver  arrows  of  the  same  and  earlier  periods. 

In  1791,  the  Society  rented  from  the  Duke  of  Bedford  grounds 
lying  on  the  east  side  of  Gower  Street,  where  the  houses  on  the  west 
side  of  Torrington  Square  now  stand  ;  and  also  rented  rooms  and 
cellars  in  what  was  at  that  period  called  Charlotte  Street,  but  now 
Bloomsbury  Street  (not  many  doors  from  New  Oxford  Street). 

In  1805,  the  Archery  Grounds  being  required  for  buildings,  the 
Society's  property  remained  in  charge  of  Mr.  Waring,  in  Charlotte 
Street,  Bedford  Square,  until  1821,  when  Mr.  Waring  rented  a  piece  of 
ground  about  four  acres  in  extent,  at  £j  per  acre,  situated  at 
Bayswater,  on  the  estate  of  the  Bishop  of  London.  Its  exact  position 
was  opposite  the  point  of  separation  between  Hyde  Park  and  Kensington 
Gardens,  lying  on  the  east  side  of  Westbourne  Street,  and  extending 
from  the  Oxford  Road  northwards  to  the  Grand  Junction  Road  at 
Sussex  Gardens. 

In  the  year  1834,  the  Society  obtained  possession  of  a  most  eligible 
piece  of  ground,  of  about  six  acres  in  extent,  from  the  Department  of 
Woods  and  Forests.  This  is  situated  in  Regent's  Park,  near  the  Royal 





Botanic  Society's  Gardens,  and  upon  it  was  erected  a  building  known  as 
the  Archers'  Hall.  On  account  of  the  plantations,  the  ground  is  seldom 
seen  from  the  road.  There  is  a  gravelled  path  enclosing  the  whole 
area,  which,  excepting  the  greensward  reserved  for  the  targets,  is 
tastefully  laid  out  with  clumps  of  trees  and  flowering  shrubs,  and  beds 
with  a  profusion  of  flowers. 

The  ceiling  and  walls  of  the  hall  are  handsomely  panelled  and 
decorated  with  the  arms  of  the  Society.  The  lockers  around  the  hall 
bear  the  arms  of  the  members.  There  are  stags'  heads  upon  the  walls, 
and  the  windows  are  partially  filled  with  painted  glass,  representing  the 
arms  of  the  founder,  presidents,  and  patrons. 

The  London  Skating  Club  have  a  building  at  the  south-west  end 
of  the  Royal  Toxophilite  Society's  grounds,  which,  during  a  portion  of 
the  winter,  is  flooded  with  water  for  the  purpose  of  skating,  when  the 
weather  is  sufficiently  severe  to  render  that  sport  possible. 

"The  laws  of  the  Toxophilite  Society,"  instituted  in  the  year  1781, 
and  revised  and  altered  in  the  year  1791,  set  forth  that  the  members  of 
the  Society  are  limited  to  two  hundred,  and  "  shall  meet  every  Tuesday 
and  Friday,  from  the  Fifteenth  of  April  to  the  Fifteenth  of  October 
yearly,  at  Five  o'Clock  in  the  Afternoon,  upon  the  Toxophilite 
Ground,  Bedford  Square,  for  the  Purpose  of  shooting,  of  transacting 
the  Business  of  the  Society,  and  afterwards  of  supping  together  ; 
which  Meetings  shall  be  called  The  Summer  Meetings ;  and  on  the 
Third  Tuesday  in  the  Month  of  February,  yearly,  at  Three  o'Clock, 
for  the  Purpose  of  transacting  the  Business  of  the  Society,  and 
afterwards  of  dining  together  (at  such  House  as  the  Majority  of  the 
Members  present  at  the  last  Summer  Meeting  shall  agree  upon),  which 
Meeting  shall  be  called  The  Annual  Winter  Meeting;  and  also  on  such 
Target  Days  as  are  hereinafter  appointed.  That  there  shall  not  be 
any  Business  transacted  upon  any  Target  Day  except  the  particular 
Business  relating  to  the  Target,  nor  at  any  Summer  Meeting  before 
Eight  o'Clock,  or  after  Supper;  nor  at  the  Winter  Meeting  after  Dinner; 
nor  unless  there  shall  be  present,  at  such  Summer  or  Winter  Meeting, 
Nine  Members  or  more." 

The  admission  of  members  was  by  ballot,  two  black  balls  excluding 
the  candidate.  A  sum  of  three  guineas  entrance-fee  was  charged,  in 


addition  to  the  annual  subscription  of  three  guineas.  The  prescribed 
uniform  of  the  Society  was  as  follows :  "  A  Green  Cloth  Coat  and 
White  Waistcoat  and  Breeches  of  Cloth,  or  Kerseymere,  with  Gilt 
Arrow  Buttons,  White  Stockings,  and  Black  Hussar  Half  Boots;  a  Black 
Round  Hat,  with  the  Prince  of  \Vales's  Button,  a  double  Gold  Loop, 
and  One  Black  Cock  Feather ;  "  shooting  accoutrements,  "  A  Black 
Leather  Brace,  a  Buff-coloured  Leather  Belt,  with  a  Pouch  and  a 
Green  Tassel." 

Mr.  Thomas  Wearing,  who  in  1814  wrote  "  A  Treatise  on  Archery ;  or, 
The  Art  of  Shooting  with  the  Long  Bow,"  mentions,  in  a  list  of  model 
laws  for  the  government  of  archery  societies,  one  of  the  articles  of  the 
Toxophilite  Society,  which  was  "  that  if  any  Member  marry,  he  shall 
treat  the  rest  with  a  Marriage  Feast." 

The  same  writer,  at  the  end  of  the  book,  gives  a  list  of  thirty-three 
toxophilite  societies  which  had  been  or  were  in  existence  within  a  few 
years  of  the  compilation  of  the  list. 


The  mere  mention  of  this  famous  club  suggests  to  every  admirer  of 
our  national  game  many  interesting  memories  and  associations.  So  great 
a  part  has  this  club  played  in  the  cricket  of  the  past,  and  so  important 
is  its  position  at  present,  that  if  the  chapter  which  refers  to  its  doings 
were  eliminated,  the  history  of  English  cricket  would  be  shorn  of  one  of 
its  chief  glories.  The  rules  of  the  game  of  cricket,  as  made  by  this  club, 
are  followed  by  cricketers  in  all  parts  of  the  world,  and  so  great  and  uni- 
versal is  the  estimation  in  which  its  decisions  are  held,  that  it  has  justly 
acquired  a  right  to  the  proud  designation  of  the  "  Parliament  of  Cricket." 

Mr.  Andrew  Lang,  in  writing  about  the  history  of  cricket,  says  of  the 
M.C.C.,  "The  club  may  be  said  to  have  sprung  from  the  ashes  of  the 
White  Conduit  Club,  dissolved  in  1787.  One  Thomas  Lord,  by  the  aid 
of  some  members  of  the  older  association,  made  a  ground  in  the  space 
which  is  now  Dorset  Square.  This  was  the  first  '  Lord's.' ': 

Subsequently,  Thomas  Lord  found  it  necessary  to  remove  to  North 
Bank,  and  finally,  in  1814,  to  the  present  ground  at  St.  John's  Wood. 
Mr.  Ward  bought  the  lease  of  the  ground  from  Lord  in  1825,  "at  a  most 
exorbitant  rate;"  and,  in  1830,  Dark  bought  the  remainder  of  the  lease 



from  him.  The  first  recorded  cricket  match  played  on  the  new  ground 
was  M.C.C.  v.  Hertfordshire,  June  22,  1814.  In  1816,  the  club  reviewed 
its  "  laws,"  the  result  of  which  review  is  recorded  in  Lillywhite's 
"Scores,"  i.  285.  In  1825,  the  pavilion  was  burnt,  after  a  Winchester 
and  Harrow  match.  Upon  that  occasion  many  of  the  cricket  records 
were  destroyed,  and  no  complete  list  of  the  presidents  of  the  club  is 
known  to  exist.  Since  the  fire  the  most  notable  presidents  have  been 
Ponsonby,  Grimston,  Darnley,  and  Coventry.  The  renowned  Mr.  Aislabie 
was  secretary  till  his  death  in  1842.  Mr.  Kynaston  and  Mr.  Fitzgerald 
were  other  celebrated  secretaries. 

In  1868  the  club  purchased  a  lease  of  ninety-nine  years,  at  the 
cost  of  eleven  thousand  pounds.  There  have  been  recent  additions  to  the 
area,  which  is  now  six  or  seven  acres  in  extent,  and  permanent  stands 
are  erected  on  it,  by  means  of  which  visitors  can  sit  and  see  the  matches. 

Lord's  is  celebrated  as  the  scene  of  matches  between  Eton  and 
Harrow,  Oxford  and  Cambridge,  Gentlemen  and  Players,  &c. 

In  connection  with  the  old  cricket-ground,  now  known  as  Dorset 
Square,  it  may  be  recorded  that  it  was  occasionally  used  as  an  exercising 
ground  by  the  St.  Marylebone  Volunteers,  and  in  1799  the  stand  of 
colours  was  presented  to  the  regiment  in  that  ground,  in  the  presence  of 
a  vast  concourse  of  the  nobility  and  gentry  who  attended,  on  the  occasion. 

It  is  interesting,  too,  from  having  been  the  scene  of  M.  Garnerin's 
second  balloon  ascent  in  this  country.  In  the  early  part  of  the  present 
century,  bolloon  ascents  were  sufficiently  rare  to  cause  intense  popular 
excitement,  and  Garnerin's  ascent  on  the  5th  of  July,  1802,  was  an  event 
which  drew  an  immense  number  of  spectators,  including  a  large  number 
of  the  aristocracy  and  nobility ;  and  even  royalty  itself  was  represented 
in  the  person  of  H.R.H.  the  Prince  of  Wales,  who,  as  an  old  account 
says,  "  attended  several  ladies  of  distinction  in  the  ground."  Garnerin, 
who  was  accompanied  by  Edward  Hawke  Locker,  Esq.,  was  provided 
with  a  letter  of  recommendation  to  any  gentleman  in  whose  grounds  or 
neighbourhood  the  balloon  might  happen  to  descend.  The  following  is  a 

copy  :— 

"July  5,   1802. 

"  We   the  undersigned,  having  been   present   at   the  ascension 
of  M.  Garnerin,    with   his   balloon,   this   afternoon,    and   witnessed 


the  entire  satisfaction  of  the  public,  beg  leave  to  recommend 
him  to  the  notice  of  any  gentleman  in  whose  neighbourhood  he 
may  happen  to  descend. 

"  Signed,         "  GEORGE  P.  W.         "  G.  DEVONSHIRE. 

From  the  contents  of  this  letter  it  appears  probable  that  some 
preliminary  ascent  was  made,  perhaps  with  the  balloon  secured  by  ropes. 
At  any  rate,  when  the  balloon  was  liberated,  it  rose  in  a  beautiful  and 
majestic  manner.  Garnerin  had  a  parachute,  constructed  of  a  stout  cotton 
texture,  with  a  circular  aperture  of  a  foot  and  a  half  diameter  in  the  centre. 
In  this  aperture  terminated  the  tube  containing  the  rope  by  which  the 
parachute  was  annexed  to  the  balloon.  It  was  the  intention  of  this  daring 
aeronaut  to  descend  from  his  balloon  by  means  of  this  contrivance,  but 
he  was  prevented  by  the  disturbed  state  of  the  elements.  Owing  to  the 
density  of  the  atmosphere,  the  balloon  and  its  intrepid  passengers  were 
out  of  sight  within  three  minutes  from  the  time  of  starting,  and  an 
immense  number  of  people  were  left  gazing  upon  the  wide  expanse,  and 
greatly  excited.  Notwithstanding  the  violence  of  the  wind,  the  adventurers 
rose  to  the  height  of  a  mile  and  a  half,  and  descended  at  five  minutes 
past  five  o'clock,  without  the  least  injury,  at  Chingford,  near  Epping 
Forest,  having  travelled  a  space  of  seventeen  miles  in  a  little  more  than  a 
quarter  of  an  hour.  Such  interest  had  this  famous  aeronaut  excited,  that 
for  several  hours  before  the  ascent  all  the  metropolis  was  in  an  uproar; 
many  accidents  happened,  and  many  depredations  were  committed.  Mr. 
Locker  afterwards  published  an  account  of  his  aerial  voyage,  and  says 
in  conclusion : — "  Although  the  mob  which  surrounded  us  on  our  descent 
were,  as  usual,  both  troublesome  and  officiously  impertinent,  we  received 
great  attention  and  assistance  from  Mr.  Hughes  of  the  Stamp  Office, 
London,  and  several  other  gentlemen  who  beheld  our  arrival.  Attention 
would,  however,  have  been  insured  to  us,  if  necessary,  by  the  paper  put 
into  the  hands  of  M.  Garnerin,  signed  by  H.R.H.  the  Prince  of  Wales, 
and  other  persons  of  distinction." 


Although  from  a  scientific  and  recreative  point  of  view  this  institution 
is  of  great  popular  interest,  it  does  not  come  within  the  scope  of  the 


present  writer  to  give  anything  beyond  a  very  few  of  the  chief  facts  in 
relation  to  its  history. 

The  Zoological  Society  of  London  was  founded  in  1826  for  the 
advancement  of  Zoology,  and  the  introduction  and  exhibition  of  specimens 
of  the  animal  kingdom  alive  or  properly  preserved.  The  principal  founders 
were  Sir  Humphrey  Davey  and  Sir  Stamford  Raffles. 

At  the  present  time  the  President  of  the  Society  is  Professor  W.  H. 
Flower,  LL.D.,  F.R.S. 


This  society,  which  is  essentially  a  scientific  institution,  was  founded 
and  incorporated  in  the  year  1839  f°r  the  promotion  of  botany  in  all  its 
branches.  The  grounds,  about  eighteen  acres  in  extent,  and  occupying 
the  whole  of  the  area  enclosed  by  the  road  known  as  the  "  Inner  Circle," 
are  most  beautifully  laid  out  with  a  great  many  varieties  of  trees,  shrubs, 
and  plants.  The  conservatory,  which  was  designed  by  Decimus  Burton, 
affords  space  for  two  thousand  visitors.  One  small  house  is  specially 
devoted  to  the  cultivation  of  specimens  of  the  magnificent  "Victoria 
Regia."  There  is  a  museum  within  these  gardens,  in  which  are  exhibited 
an  interesting  series  of  woods ;  costumes  made  of  vegetable  substances, 
from  Tahiti  and  the  other  Society  Islands  ;  gums  ;  wax  models  of  fruits 
and  flowers,  including  those  of  the  leaves  and  blossoms  of  the  "  Victoria 
Regia  ;"  fossil  trees  and  plants  ;  and  numerous  other  objects  of  botanical 

Among  the  trees  in  the  gardens  is  one  not  very  vigorous  specimen, 
which  bears  the  following  descriptive  label : — 

"  Napoleon's    Willow,    grown    from    a    cutting    brought     from 
St.  Helena   by  Capt.  Shea    in    1821.     Planted   here    in    1842." 


The  following  interesting  particulars  of  this  institution  are  taken 
from  "  A  Brief  Historical  Account  of  the  Origin  and  Progress  of  the 
Middlesex  Hospital,"  prefixed  to  the  annual  report. 

The  Middlesex  Hospital  was  instituted  in  the  month  of  August, 
1745,  for  sick  and  lame  patients ;  and  in  1747  a  ward  was  opened  for 
the  reception  of  lying-in  married  women. 


The  hospital  consisted,  at  first,  of  a  building  in  Windmill  Street,  Tot- 
tenham Court  Road,  but  this  being  found  incommodious  and  inadequate, 
some  of  the  most  active  promoters  of  the  charity  proposed  to  build,  by  sub- 
scriptions among  the  nobility,  gentry  and  others,  a  new  and  commodious 
hospital  in  the  neighbourhoood.  A  convenient  site  presented  itself  in 
the  "  Mary-le-Bonc  Fields"  as  they  were  then  called,  and  a  lease  of  the 
same  having  been  obtained  from  Charles  Berners,  Esq.,  for  the  term  of 
999  years,  at  a  ground  rent  of  £15  per  annum,  the  building  was  com- 
menced after  the  design  of  J.  Paine,  Esq.,  Architect.  The  Right 
Honourable  Hugh,  then  Earl,  afterwards  Duke  of  Northumberland,  laid 
the  first  stone  of  the  present  structure,  with  the  customary  solemnities, 
on  the  I5th  May,  1755. 

It  became  necessary  in  the  course  of  time,  partly  from  want  of 
funds,  to  close  the  lying-in  wards,  and  since  the  year  1807,  the  mid- 
wifery patients,  instead  of  being  admitted  into  the  hospital,  have  been 
attended  at  their  own  habitations  under  the  direction  of  the  physician- 
accoucheur.  This  department  of  the  charity  has  so  greatly  increased, 
that  attendance  was  given  during  1870  to  992  poor  women  during  their 

In  the  year  1792  a  most  humane  and  charitable  benefactor,  whose 
name,  at  his  earnest  desire,  was  concealed,  fitted  up  a  ward  for  the 
admission  of  patients  afflicted  with  cancer,  and  settled  the  interest  of 
£4000  Three  per  Cent.  Consolidated  bank  annuities  for  ever,  by  way  of 
endowment,  in  aid  of  the  cancer  establishment.  The  death  of  Samuel 
Whitbread,  Esq.  (1796)  made  known  the  secret  that  he  was  the  munifi- 
cent benefactor  whose  name  had  been  so  far  concealed.  Since  his  death 
the  cancer  fund  has  been  augmented  by  other  donations  and  bequests, 
and  especially  by  a  legacy  bequeathed  by  Mrs.  Alithea  Maria  Stafford ;  and 
in  the  year  1854  by  a  bequest  in  the  will  of  Sir  Joseph  de  Courcy 
Laffan,  Bart. 

These  endowments  have  enabled  the  governors  to  appropriate  three 
wards,  viz.,  "  Whitbread,  Stafford,  and  Laffan,"  exclusively  to  females 
suffering  from  cancer,  besides  providing  accommodation  for  men  afflicted 
with  the  same  disease. 

This  charity  is  distinct  in  itself,  and  it  is  believed  unique  through- 
out the  world. 


Towards  the  close  of  the  past  century  causes,  not  now  very  distinctly 
known,  interrupted  the  favourable  progress  of  the  Middlesex  Hospital ; 
many  annual  governors  discontinued  their  subscriptions,  the  hospital  be- 
came involved  in  debt,  and  most  of  the  wards  were  shut  up. 

The  Revolution  in  France  drove  to  England  a  number  of  emigrants, 
and  of  these  many  were  French  clergymen,  in  a  state  of  utter  destitu- 
tion. The  western  wing  of  the  hospital  was  made  a  receptacle  for  a 
large  body  of  the  sick  French  clergy  and  lay  emigrants,  and  for  several 
years  they  here  enjoyed  freedom  from  persecution.  When,  after  a  long 
interval  of  exile,  permission  was  in  1814  given  to  them  to  return  to  their 
own  country,  those  who  survived  availed  themselves  of  the  privilege  and 
took  their  departure,  expressing  great  and  lasting  gratitude  for  the 
quietude  and  comforts  they  had  enjoyed. 

The  merit  of  having  retrieved  the  establishment  from  almost  com- 
plete ruin  is  due  to  the  late  Lord  Robert  Seymour,  who  interested  him- 
self in  its  behalf,  and  by  his  personal  influence  prevailed  upon  a  great 
number  of  the  nobility,  clergy,  and  gentry  to  join  in  the  good  cause.  He 
obtained  for  the  hospital  the  patronage  of  the  Prince  Regent,  afterwards 
George  IV.,  whose  example  was  followed  by  William  IV.,  and  her  majesty 
Queen  Victoria. 

In  the  year  1812,  a  Samaritan  Fund  was  proposed  by  Richard 
Cartwright,  Esq.,  one  of  the  surgeons,  which  has  since  been  established 
upon  an  enlarged  and  permanent  basis.  Its  objects  are  to  afford 
temporary  assistance  to  poor  convalescent  patients,  whose  residence  in 
the  .hospital  is  no  longer  necessary,  but  who  still  require  medical  aid 
as  out-patients ;  to  forward  poor  patients,  especially  cripples,  to  their 
homes;  to  supply  flannel,  linen,  or  other  necessaries  to  those  patients 
whose  diseased  condition  ma)-  require  such  comforts;  and  for  other 
charitable  purposes. 

The  Samaritan  Fund  is  altogether  a  distinct  and  separate  Fund, 
no  part  of  the  donations  or  subscriptions  for  the  general  support  or 
maintenance  of  the  hospital  being  applicable  to  it ;  it  is  not  distributed 
indiscriminately  to  all  applicants,  the  assistance  granted  being  voted  at 
the  weekly  board,  on  the  application  of  the  chaplain,  either  from  his 
own  knowledge  that  the  patient  is  deserving  and  necessitous,  or  at  the 
recommendation  of  one  of  the  physicians,  surgeons,  or  visiting  governors. 


During  the  year  1869,  seven  hundred  and  fifty  patients  were  relieved 
from  this  fund,  and  sixty-eight  were  sent  to  the  convalescent  hospitals 
at  Walton,  Seaford,  Margate,  Eastbourne,  etc. 

The  building  of  the  wings  was  not  completed  till  the  year  1775, 
since  which  time  no  addition  had  been  made  to  the  Middlesex  Hospital 
until  1834,  although  during  that  period  two  of  the  most  extensive 
parishes  in  the  metropolis  had  grown  up  about  it.  In  April,  1834,  the 
governors  deemed  it  expedient  to  extend  each  wing  of  the  hospital  thirty 
feet  towards  the  street,  and  the  whole  was  paid  for  by  subscriptions 
raised  for  that  specific  purpose,  without  trenching  upon  the  funds  of  the 

It  was  resolved,  at  a  quarterly  general  court  held  in  May,  1835,  that 
a  medical  school  should  be  erected  by  subscription.  The  buildings  were 
commenced  in  July,  and  completed  by  the  ist  of  October.  A  new 
operating  theatre  'was  built  upon  the  ground  floor  soon  after. 

A  charter  was  obtained,  through  the  exertions  of  William  Tooke,  Esq., 
on  the  3Oth  of  March,  1836. 

In  1848,  extensive  and  costly  improvements  were  made.  New 
rooms  were  provided  for  the  superior  nurses,  and  accommodation  was 
afforded  for  ninety  additional  patients,  so  that  the  hospital  now  contains 
310  beds,  instead  of  220,  as  formerly. 

In  1848,  a  ward  was  opened  for  the  reception  of  cases  of  diseases 
peculiar  to  women,  and  the  governors  were  enabled,  at  the  same  time, 
under  the  direction  of  the  will  of  the  late  Lady  Murray,  to  open  the 
Murray  Ward,  as  a  memorial  to  her  deceased  husband. 

The  museum  and  the  school  buildings  have  both  been  enlarged,  and 
at  the  present  time  the  inmates  treated  number  upwards  of  two  thousand, 
and  the  out-patients  over  twenty  thousand. 



Joanna  Southcott. — Mrs.  Siddons.— Anecdote  of  Handel. — Thomas  Holcroft. — Horatia  "  Nelson." 
— Marylebone  Celebrities: — Mary  Lamb,  Edward  Gibbon,  Henry  Fuseli,  "  Berners  Street 
Hoax,"  Faraday,  Wilkie,  Flaxman,  James  Barry,  Dr.  Johnson,  George  Romney,  John 
Constable,  Thomas  Hood,  Landseer,  Thomas  Moore,  Barry  Cornwall,  Lyell,  Leigh  Hunt, 
Dickens,  Macready,  Nollekens,  Anna  Jameson,  Samuel  Lover,  Benjamin  West,  Thomas 
Stothard,  J.  M.  W.  Turner,  Thomas  Campbell.  Frederick  Marryat,  Sydney  Smith,  J.  G. 
Lockhart,  Sir  Walter  Scott,  Henry  Hallam,  Admiral  Lord  Hood,  Elizabeth  Barrett 
Browning,  William  Pitt,  Lady  Hester  Stanhope. — Miscellanea. — Cato  Street  Conspiracy. — 
Verley's  Charity. — Marylebone  Rates,  &c. 

OANNA  SOUTHCOTT,  the  religious  fanatic  who 
made  so  such  commotion  in  her  day,  was  born  in 
Devonshire,  about  the  year  1750,  of  humble  parents, 
and  was  chiefly  employed  in  Exeter  as  a  domestic 
servant ;  but  having  joined  the  Methodists,  and 
become  acquainted  with  a  man  of  the  name  of 
Sanderson,  who  laid  claim  to  the  spirit  of  prophecy, 
she  advanced  to  a  like  pretension ;  and  wrote 
and  dictated  prophecies,  sometimes  in  prose,  and 
sometimes  in  rhymed  doggrel. 

In  one  of  her  publications  she  says:— "As  I 
have  began  to  publish  to  the  world,  I  shall  give 
some  short  account  of  my  Life,  which  hath  been 
singular,  from  my  youth  up  to  this  day.  I  shall 
omit  former  particulars,  and  begin  with  informing 
the  Reader,  that,  in  1792,  I  was  strangely  visited,  by 
day  and  night,  concerning  what  was  coming  upon 
the  whole  earth.  I  was  then  ordered  to  set  it 
down  in  writing.  I  obeyed,  though  not  without 
strong  external  opposition  ;  and  so  it  has  continued 
to  the  present  time."  She  appears  to  have  imagined 



herself  to    have   been   favoured   with   a   great  number  of  visions,  of  which 
the  following,  told  in  her  own  words,  will  serve  as  a  specimen  :— 

"  I  dreamed  I  saw  my  Father  sweeping  out  the  barn's  floor 
clean,  and  would  not  suffer  the  wheat  to  be  brought  in  the  barn. 
He  appeared  to  me  to  be  in  anger.  When  I  awaked,  I  was 
answered,  '  It  is  thy  Heavenly  Father  is  angry  with  the  land  ; 
and  if  they  do  not  repent  as  Nineveh  did,  they  shall  sow,  but 
not  reap ;  neither  shall  they  gather  into  their  barns.  Then  shall 
come  three  years,  wherein  there  shall  be  neither  eating  nor 

She  announced  herself  as  the  woman  spoken  of  in  the  I2th  chapter 
of  the  Revelation,  and  obtained  considerable  sums  by  the  sale  of  seals 
which  were  to  secure  the  salvation  of  those  who  purchased  them. 


The   accompanying   portrait    is  copied  from    an   old    engraving,    which 
bears  underneath  the  following  inscription: — "  The  Cunning  Woman,   who 



found  the  Philosopher's  Stone  in  the  shape  of  an  old  Seal ;  Saw  the  Devil 
in  the  shape  of  a  Pig ;  Two  needy  Apothecaries  in  the  shape  of  Spanish 
Trumpeters ;  Lives  comfortably  with  a  Laywer  constantly  at  her  Elbow. 
N.B. — No  Portrait  can  be  genuine  but  Mr.  Sharp's.  A.  Flat." 



Joanna  Southcott  came  up  to  London  upon  the  invitation  and  at 
the  expense  of  William  Sharp,  the  eminent  engraver,  who  is  evidently 
the  man  alluded  to  in  the  above  inscription.  Among  other  gross  and 
impious  absurdities  she  gave  out  that  she  was  to  be  delivered  of  the 


Prince  of  Peace,  at  midnight  on  the  igth  of  October,  1814,  and 
elaborate  preparations  were  made  in  consequence.  An  expensive  cradle 
\vas  made,  and  considerable  sums  were  contributed  by  her  followers,  in 
order  to  have  other  things  prepared  in  a  style  worthy  of  the  expected 
Shiloh.  When  the  stated  time  came,  no  birth  took  place.  Southcott, 
at  that  time  upwards  of  sixty  years  of  age,  took  to  her  bed,  and,  after 
a  confinement  there  of  ten  weeks,  died  on  the  2yth  of  December,  1814. 
Her  death  occurred  in  Manchester  Street,  Manchester  Square.  Her  body 
was  opened  after  her  decease,  and  the  appearance  of  pregnancy  which 
had  deceived  her  followers,  and  perhaps  herself,  was  found  to  have  arisen 
from  dropsy.  On  the  3ist  of  December,  her  body  was  removed  to  an 
undertaker's  in  Oxford  Street,  where  it  remained  until  the  interment. 
On  the  third  of  January,  it  was  carried  in  a  hearse,  so  remarkably  plain 
as  to  give  it  the  appearance  of  one  returning  from,  rather  than  proceeding 
to  church,  accompanied  by  one  coach,  equally  plain,  in  which  were 
three  mourners.  In  this  manner  they  proceeded  to  the  cemetery  adjoining 
St.  John's  Wood  Chapel.  So  well  had  their  arrangements  been  planned 
for  the  insurance  of  privacy,  that  there  was  scarcely  a  person  in  the 
ground  unconnected  with  the  funeral  party.  The  grave  was  taken,  and 
notice  given  of  the  funeral  under  the  name  of  Goddard.  Neither  the 
clergyman  of  St.  John's  who  read  the  service,  nor  any  of  the  subordinate 
persons  connected  with  the  chapel,  were  apprised  of  the  real  name  of 
the  person  about  to  be  buried,  till  the  funeral  reached  the  chapel. 

On  the  west  side  of  this  cemetery,  opposite  No.  44  on  the  wall,  and 
26  feet  from  it,  is  a  flat  stone  underneath  which  are  deposited  the 
remains  of  this  remarkable  woman.  The  stone  is  enclosed  within  plain 
iron  railings  and  bears  the  following  inscription  : — 

"In    Memory   of 


who  departed  this  life,  December  ayth,   1814,  aged  64  years. 

1  While  through  all  thy  wondrous  days, 
Heaven  and  Earth  enraptur'd  gaz'd 
While  vain   Sages  think  they  know 
Secrets,  Thou  Alone  canst  show. 
Time  alone  will  tell  what  hour, 
Thou'lt  appear  in    "Greater"   Power.' 




On  a  black  marble  tablet  let  into  the  wall  opposite  the  above  spot, 
is  the  following  inscription  : — 

"  Behold  the  time  shall  come,  that  these  Tokens  which  I 
have  told  Thee,  shall  come  to  pass,  and  the  Bride  shall  Appear, 
and  She,  coming  forth,  shall  be  seen,  that  now  is  withdrawn 
from  the  earth."  2d  of  Esdras,  Chap,  7th,  ver.  26th. 

"  For  the  Vision  is  yet  for  an  appointed  time,  but  at  the 
end  it  shall  speak,  and  Not  Lie,  though  it  tarry,  Wait  for  it ; 
Because  it  will  Surely  Come,  it  will  not  tarry." 

Habakkuk,  Chap.  2,  ver.  3d. 

"  And  whosoever  is  delivered  from  the  Foresaid  evils,  shall 
see  My  Wonders."  ad  of  Esdras,  Chap.  7,  ver.  27th. 

(See  her  Writings.) 
"This  Tablet  was  Erected 
By  the  sincere  Friends  of  the  above, 
Anno  Domini,  1828." 

It  may  be  added,  as  a  somewhat  curious  fact,  that  the  engraver, 
William  Sharp,  also  died  from  dropsy,  in  1824. 


Upper  Baker  Street  contains  the  house  in  which  this  celebrated  and 
talented  actress  lived  from  the  year  1817,  after  her  retirement  from  the 
stage,  until  her  death  (in  the  year  1831),  which  took  place  at  the  house 
numbered  27. 

The  fact  is  recorded  upon  an  inscribed  medallion  affixed  to  the  front 
of  the  house  by  the  Society  of  Arts.  The  house  still  contains  some 
memorials  of  Mrs.  Siddons.  On  the  staircase  is  a  small  side  window  of 
painted  glass,  containing  medallion  portraits  of  Shakspere,  Milton,  Spenser, 
Cowley,  and  Dryden.  This  is  chiefly  interesting  from  the  fact  that  it  is 
the  work  of  Mrs.  Siddons,  who  designed  it  and  put  it  up.  The  bow 
window  looking  north  commands  a  view  over  Regent's  Park  to  Hampstead  ; 
and  there  is  a  tradition  (in  all  likelihood  an  authentic  one)  to  the  effect 
that,  when  the  mansions  in  Cornwall  Terrace  were  about  to  be  brought 
up  to  the  very  gates  of  the  Park,  Mrs.  Siddons  made  a  pathetic  appeal 
to  the  Prince  Regent,  who  with  gracious  condescension  gave  orders 
that  her  "  country  view "  should  be  spared. 


Mrs.  Siddons  lived  a  simple,  unostentatious  life,  quite  content,  it  is 
said,  with  her  salary  of  twelve  pounds  a  week.  She  retired  from  the 
stage  in  1812  in  her  favourite  character  of  Lady  Macbeth,  but  she  appeared 
again  occasionally  on  special  occasions  between  1812  and  1817.  She  also 
gave  public  readings  from  Shakspere  at  the  Argyle  Rooms,  during  two 
seasons.  In  her  will  she  bequeathed  her  leasehold  house  in  Upper  Baker 
Street  to  her  daughter,  together  with  all  her  pictures  and  furniture ;  and 
to  her  son  she  left  an  inkstand  made  from  Shakspere's  mulberry  tree, 
and  a  pair  of  gloves  said  to  have  been  worn  by  the  poet  himself,  which 
had  been  presented  to  her  by  Mrs.  Garrick. 

Mrs.  Siddons  was  buried  at  Paddington  in  a  now  obsolete  cemetery, 
recently  converted  into  a  very  pretty  ornamental  garden  and  promenade, 
brilliant  with  flowery  parterres,  and  trim  with  neat  gravel  walks.  Her 
grave  is  marked  only  by  a  slab  of  cement,  bearing  no  legible  inscription 
on  its  face,  and  distinguished  only  by  a  half  obliterated  legend  cut 
in  its  upper  edge. 


The  following  amusing  anecdote  of  Handel  was  communicated  to  one 
of  Hone's  publications  by  a  writer  signing  himself  "J.  H."  He  was  a 
grandson  of  the  Rev.  John  Fountayne,  who  rented  Marylebone  Manor 
House,  and  used  it  as  a  school  for  young  gentlemen  : — 

"  Having  been  at  this  school  from  my  infancy  almost,  down  to  1790, 
I  have  a  perfect  recollection  of  this  fine  and  interesting  house,  with  its 
beautiful  saloon  and  gallery,  in  which  private  concerts  were  held  occa- 
sionally, and  the  first  instrumental  performers  attended.  My  grandfather, 
as  I  have  been  told,  was  an  enthusiast  in  music,  and  cultivated,  most  of 
all,  the  friendship  of  musical  men,  especially  of  Handel,  who  visited  him 
often,  and  had  a  great  predilection  for  his  society.  This  leads  me  to 
relate  an  anecdote  which  I  had  on  the  best  authority.  .  .  .  While 
Marylebone  Gardens  were  flourishing,  the  enchanting  music  of  Handel, 
and  probably  of  Arne,  was  often  heard  from  the  orchestra  there.  One 
evening,  as  my  grandfather  and  Handel  were  walking  together  and 
alone,  a  new  piece  was  struck  up  by  the  band.  '  Come,  Mr.  Fountayne,' 
said  Handel,  '  let  us  sit  down  and  listen  to  this  piece — I  want  to  know 
your  opinion  of  it.'  Down  they  sat,  and  after  some  time  the  old  parson, 


(From  an  Engraving  after  SlR  JOSHUA  REYNOLDS^. 


turning  to  his  companion,  said,  '  It  is  not  worth  listening  to — it's  very 
poor  stuff.'  '  You  are  right,  Mr.  Fountayne,'  said  Handel,  '  it  is  very 
poor  stuff — I  thought  so  myself  when  I  had  finished  it.'  The  old 
gentleman,  being  taken  by  surprise,  was  beginning  to  apologise,  but 
Handel  assured  him  there  was  no  necessity ;  that  the  music  was  really 
bad,  having  been  composed  hastily,  and  his  time  for  the  production 
limited ;  and  that  the  opinion  given  was  as  correct  as  it  was  honest." 


This  well-known  writer  was  of  humble  origin,  having  been  originally, 
it  was  said,  a  shoemaker  in  the  north.  Possessing  great  natural 
endowments,  and  much  industry,  he  acquired  such  a  knowledge  of  the 
modern  languages  as  enabled  him  to  translate  from  them  with  great 
facility.  He  was  for  some  time  a  performer  in  the  provincial  theatres, 
and  soon  after  his  coming  up  to  London,  in  1778,  he  obtained  an 
inferior  engagement  at  Drury  Lane  Theatre,  but  never  distinguished 
himself  as  an  actor.  He  produced  several  pieces  for  the  stage,  one  of 
which,  "  The  Road  to  Ruin,"  had  a  great  run,  and  is  still  deservedly 
very  popular.  Holcroft  was  the  author  of  "The  Adventures  of  Hugh 
Trevor,"  "  Memoirs  of  Bryan  Perdue,"  some  poems,  and  numerous 
translations  from  the  French  and  German.  He  died  at  his  house  in 
Clipstone  Street,  Marylebone,  on  the  23rd  of  March,  1809,  and  was 
buried  in  the  larger  cemetery  at  Marylebone  on  the  ist  of  April. 


Lady  Hamilton's  daughter  by  Lord  Nelson  was  baptized  in  the  old 
church  at  Marylebone  on  the  3rd  of  May,  1803.  The  birth  took  place  in 
Sir  William  Hamilton's  own  house,  where  every  care  and  precaution 
had  been  adopted  to  keep  the  matter  as  secret  as  possible  from  him 
and  one  or  two  members  of  his  own  family.  Professional  attendance 
was  not  necessary,  where  a  skilful  and  well-practised  mother  resided  on 
the  spot ;  and  as  soon  as  the  patient  was  capable  of  moving  about, 
which,  owing  to  her  remarkable  constitution,  was  tolerably  early,  the 
infant  was  conveyed  by  her  in  a  large  muff,  and  in  her  own  carriage, 
to  the  house  of  the  person  who  had  been  provided  to  take  charge 
of  it  in  Little  Titchfield  Street.  On  this  occasion,  her  ladyship  was 


accompanied  by  Lord  Nelson's  confidential  agent,  Mr.  Oliver,  who  had 
been  brought  up  from  the  age  of  twelve  years  in  the  house  and  under 
the  protection  of  Sir  Wiliam  Hamilton  at  Naples,  and  was  afterwards 
employed  on  various  kinds  of  missions  in  that  country,  Germany,  and 
England.  The  condition  of  the  infant,  when  brought  in  this  manner 
to  the  appointed  nurse,  was  deplorable  enough,  and  plainly  showed  the 
hurried  process  by  which  it  had  been  ushered  into  the  world.  Now  it 
is  for  the  reader  to  judge  whether  anyone  but  a  mother  would  have 
conveyed  a  new-born  babe  in  this  extraordinary  manner,  in  her  own 
carriage,  to  the  house  of  a  woman  with  whom  she  had  no  acquaintance, 
and  that  too  accompanied  by  an  old  confidential  steward. 

But  should  any  doubt  still  be  started  on  the  subject,  after  such 
palpable  evidence,  the  subsequent  acknowledgment  of  the  infant  by 
the  parties  who  were  most  concerned  in  the  history  of  her  origin  must 
wholly  remove  the  smallest  shade  of  scepticism  from  the  mind  of  the 
incredulous.  That  Lady  Hamilton  made  no  scruple  of  admitting  the 
relation,  after  the  death  of  her  husband,  can  be  easily  proved ;  and 
in  what  a  tender  estimation  the  noble  lord  regarded  the  child,  the 
world  has  not  to  learn.  It  has  been  said,  indeed,  that  being  his 
god-child,  and  adopted  by  him  on  that  account,  his  affection  for  her 
became  ardent  even  to  a  degree  of  paternal  fondness.  But  the  truth 
is,  that  in  the  proper  sense  of  the  word,  she  was  not  his  god-child, 
for  he  neither  appeared  at  the  font  in  person,  nor  by  proxy.  About 
a  fortnight  after  the  birth,  indeed,  the  child  was  taken  in  a  coach  to 
Sir  William  Hamilton's  house,  that  she  might  be  shown  to  Lord 
Nelson,  who  actually  came  to  town  for  that  purpose.  At  this  time 
also  the  child  certainly  was  baptised,  but  not  by  the  curate  or  minister 
of  the  parish.  That  ceremony,  in  whatever  way  it  was  performed, 
had  not  been  conducted  according  to  the  legitimate  rules  of  the  church, 
which  could  authorize  a  registry  of  the  fact ;  and,  therefore,  it  was 
found  expedient,  about  two  years  afterwards,  to  have  the  rite  duly 
solemnized  in  the  parish  Church  of  St.  Marylebone,  where  a  curious 
difficulty  occurred  for  the  want  of  proper  instructions  being  given  to  the 
person  whose  place  it  was  to  mention  the  name,  and  to  describe  the 
parents.  It  is  not  a  little  remarkable,  that  the  friend  of  his  lordship, 
who  privately  baptised  the  infant,  and  who  might  be  supposed  to  have 


a  thorough  knowledge  of  the  forms  and  orders  of  the  church,  did  not 
take  due  care  to  give  the  necessary  directions  with  respect  to  the 
name  and  parentage  of  the  child. 

When  the  usual  question  was  asked  by  the  officiating  minister,  he 
received  for  answer,  that  the  name  of  the  child  was  "  Horatia  Nelson,"  by 
which  he  accordingly  baptised  her,  though  it  was  intended  by  her  friends 
that  the  first  should  have  been  the  Christian,  and  the  latter  the  surname. 
At  the  time  of  the  registry  this  error  was  discovered  when  too  late,  and 
as  the  parents  could  not  be  stated  with  safety,  the  entry  presents  the 
peculiarity  of  a  child  regularly  baptised,  and  registered  without  the  name 
of  either  father  or  mother.  The  name  of  Thompson,  afterwards  added  to 
the  baptismal  one  of  Horatia  Nelson,  was  merely  adopted  from  necessity 
to  complete  the  registry. 


The  large  number  of  celebrated  literary,  artistic,  dramatic,  and  other 
characters  who,  at  one  time  or  other,  have  made  their  home  in  Maryle- 
bone,  renders  it  impossible  to  give,  in  the  present  place,  anything  more 
than  the  following  brief  details,  which,  for  convenience  of  reference,  are 
placed  under  an  alphabetical  arrangement.  The  list  is  certainly  far  from 
complete,  as  all  such  lists  must  be  more  or  less,  but  it  is  hoped  that 
such  facts  as  are  given  will  have  some  interest  for  the  inhabitants  of 
the  district. 


Mary  Lamb  died  in  Alpha  Road,  St.  John's  Wood,  and  was  buried 
in  the  same  grave  as  her  brother  Charles,  28th  May,  1847. 


In  1772,  Edward  Gibbon  took  the  house  No.  7,  Bentinck  Street, 
Manchester  Square,  where  some  of  the  happiest  years  of  his  life  were 
spent,  and  where  wrere  written  the  first  volumes  of  The  Decline  and 
Fall  of  the  Roman  Empire.  Gibbon  himself  describes  this  house  as  "  the 
best  house  in  the  world." 

In   his    Correspondence   he   writes,    September    10,    1774 :~ 

"  Yesterday    morning,   about    half  an   hour    after   seven,    as    I 
was    destroying    an   army    of    barbarians,    I    heard   a    double    rap 


at  the  door,  and  my  friend was  introduced.      After  some  idle 

conversation,  he  told  me  that  if  I  was  desirous  of  being  in  Parlia- 
ment, he  had  an  independent  seat  very  much  at  my  service.  This 
is  a  fine  opening  for  me,  and  if  next  spring  I  should  take  my 
seat  and  publish  my  book,  it  will  be  a  very  memorable  era  in 
my  life.'' 

Both  anticipations  were  realized.  The  first  edition  of  "  The  Decline 
and  Fall "  was  exhausted  in  a  few  days,  and  his  fame  as  one  of  the 
most  distinguished  of  English  historians  became  well  established. 


Henry  Fuseli,  the  eminent  painter,  was,  in  1804,  living  at  No.  13, 
in  this  street,  where  he  was  visited  by  Haydon,  who,  in  his  Auto- 
biography, writes : — 

"  I  followed  her  (the  maid-servant)  into  a  gallery  or  show- 
room, enough  to  frighten  anybody  away  at  twilight.  Galvanized 
devils,  malicious  witches  brewing  their  incantations,  Satan  bridging 
chaos,  and  springing  upwards  like  a  pyramid  of  fire,  Lady 
Macbeth,  Paolo  and  Francesca,  Falstaff  and  Mrs.  Quickly — 
humour,  pathos,  terror,  blood,  and  murder  met  me  at  every  look. 
I  expected  the  floor  to  give  way.  I  fancied  Fuseli  himself  to 
be  a  giant.  I  heard  his  footstep,  and  saw  a  little  bony  hand 
slide  round  the  edge  of  the  door,  followed  by  a  little  white-headed, 
lion-faced  man  in  an  old  flannel  dressing-gown  tied  round  his 
waist  with  a  piece  of  rope,  and  upon  his  head  the  bottom  of  Mrs. 
Fuseli's  work-basket." 

Berners  Street  is  also  celebrated  as  the  scene  of  Hook's  "  Berners 
Street  Hoax."  In  1810,  when  Hook  was  in  London  (although  he  had 
no  settled  home  there  at  that  time),  he  spent  six  weeks  in  concocting 
and  elaborating  a  hoax,  the  effects  of  which  he  is  said  to  have  wit- 
nessed from  a  safe  window  over  the  way.  Mrs.  Tottingham,  the 
unhappy  victim,  lived  at  No.  54,  Berners  Street,  when  there  came  to 
her  door  hundreds  of  tradespeople  bearing  goods  of  all  sizes  and  descrip- 
tions, from  a  mahogany  coffin  to  an  ounce  of  snuff,  ordered  by  Hook 
in  her  name,  to  be  delivered  at  the  same  hour  ;  while  at  the  same 
hour,  at  the  invitation  of  Mrs.  Tottingham  (per  T.  H.),  came  as  well 


bishops,  ministers  of  State,  doctors  in  haste  to  cure  her  bodily  ailments, 
lawyers  to  make  her  will,  barbers  to  shave  her,  mantua-makers  to  fit  her, 
—men,  women,  and  children  on  every  conceivable  errand.  The  damage 
done  and  the  confusion  created  were  very  great. 

Michael   Faraday  lived  at  No.  2,  Blandford  Street. 


David  Wilkie  was  residing  at  No.  8,  Bolsover  Street  (then  known  as 
Norton  Street)  when  the  exhibition  of  his  picture,  The  Village  Politicians, 
at  the  Royal  Academy  Exhibition,  attracted  so  much  attention. 


No.  7,  Buckingham  Street,  distinguished  by  a  memorial  tablet,  was 
the  house  in  which  John  Flaxman  lived  and,  in  1820,  died. 


James  Barry,  the  artist,  lived  at  No.  36,  Castle  Street  East.  The 
following  amusing  details  of  his  method  of  living  are  taken  from  Wilmot 
Harrison's  Memorable  London  Houses : — 

"  From  thence  he  emerged  morning  after  morning  (in  summer  at  five 
o'clock)  and  thither  he  returned  usually  at  dusk  during  the  six  years — 
1 777-83 — that  he  was  engaged  on  his  colossal  work  of  decoration  at  the 
Society  of  Arts,  where,  according  to  the  housekeeper,  '  his  violence  was 
dreadful,  his  oaths  horrid,  and  his  temper  like  insanity.'  He  is  described 
as  '  a  little  shabby  pock-marked  man,  in  an  old  dirty  coat  with  a  scare- 
crow wig,'  living  for  the  most  part  on  bread  and  apples,  and  working 
for  the  print-sellers  at  night — either  at  home  or  at  the  Society  of  Arts 
(where  tea  was  made  for  him  in  a  quart  pot) — to  keep  the  wolf  from  the 
door,  until  the  payment  of  the  sum  of  £750  at  the  expiration  of  his 
gigantic  task  enabled  him  to  buy  an  annuity  of  £60  a  year.  It  is 
recorded  that  Burke,  who  was  a  great  friend  to  the  struggling  artist, 
and  had  assisted  in  sending  him  for  improvement  to  Italy  in  1765-1770, 
once  dined  with  Barry  in  his  painting  loft  on  beef  steaks,  of  which  he 
superintended  the  cooking,  while  Barry  went  to  a  neighbouring  public- 
house  to  fetch  porter,  the  foaming  head  of  which  he  lamented  on  his 
return  that  a  high  wind  had  carried  off  as  he  crossed  Titchfield  Street." 


In  the  year  1737,  or  shortly  after,  Dr.  Samuel  Johnson  had  lodgings 
in  this  street,  but  the  actual  house  in  which  he  resided  has  not  been 



George  Romney,  the  artist,  towards  the  close  of  the  last  century, 
lived  at  No.  32,  Cavendish  Square.  "The  man  in  Cavendish  Square" 
was  his  customary  designation  by  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds,  his  rival  in  the 
early  part  of  his  career. 

Romney's  studios  still  exist.  He  was  preceded  in  the  tenancy  of 
the  house  by  Francis  Cotes,  R.A.,  and  succeeded  by  Sir  M.  A.  Shee,  P.R.A., 
and  afterwards  by  Sir  Jones  Quain  and  Richard  Quain.  E.  D.  Mapother, 
Esq.,  M.D.,  purchased  the  house  in  1887,  and  I  am  indebted  to  that 
gentleman  for  these  facts  about  the  history  of  his  interesting  home. 

John  Constable,  artist,  for  many  years  resided  at  76,  Charlotte  Street. 


Thomas  Hood  lived,  and  wrote  The  Song  of  the  Shirt,  at  No.  17, 
Elm  Tree  Road,  St.  John's  Wood. 


No.  33,  Foley  Street,  was  the  home  of  Sir  Edwin  Landseer,  R.A., 
the  great  animal  painter  and  sculptor. 

No.  37  and  No.  40  were  occupied  by  Henry  Fuseli  ;  the  first  from 
1788  to  1792,  the  second  in  1800. 


No.  85,  George  Street,  near  Montague  Square,  was  the  house  in 
which  lodged  Thomas  Moore,  on  his  first  coming  to  London  at  twenty 
years  of  age,  to  be  entered  as  a  student  at  the  Middle  Temple. 


No.  38,  Harley  Street,  was  for  some  years  prior  to  1861  the 
residence  of  Barry  Cornwall  (Bryan  Waller  Procter.) 

Sir   Charles  Lyell  lived  at   No.   73,   Harley  Street  from  1854  to  1875. 


From  1817  to  1819,  Leigh  Hunt  resided  at  No.  77,  on  the  south 
side  of  Marylebone  Road. 


At  the  corner  of  High  Street  is  No.  i,  Devonshire  Terrace,  a  double- 
bow-fronted  house  wherein  Charles  Dickens  lived  from  1840  to  1850,  and 
wrote  many  of  his  best  known  works. 

At  No.  i,  York  Gate,  William  Charles  Macready  lived. 


Joseph  Nollekens,  the  eminent  sculptor,  lived,  and  in  1823  died,  in 
a  house  in  this  street  formerly  known  as  No.  9,  and  subsequently 
converted  into  two  houses,  and  numbered  44  and  45.  The  corner 
room  —  now  one  of  the  two  shops  into  which  the  house  is  divided  - 
which  had  two  windows,  was  dining  and  sitting-room  and  sitters' 
parlour.  For  many  years  two  pieces  of  old  green  canvas  were  festooned 
at  the  lower  parts  of  the  windows  as  blinds. 

Mrs.  Anna  Jameson  lived  for  many  years  in  the  house  of  her  sister, 
No.  7,  Mortimer  Street,  but  all  of  the  houses  have  been  renumbered 
since  that  time. 

Samuel  Lover  lived  in  Mortimer  Street  subsequently  to  the  year  1834. 


Benjamin  West,  P.R.A.,  lived  and  had  his  studio  at  No.  14,  Newman 
Street.  Wrest  died  in  the  drawing  room  in  1820.  His  studio  was  used 
in  1830  as  a  place  of  worship  by  Edward  Irving  after  his  condemna- 
tion by  the  Presbytery,  and  is  now  called  St.  Andrew's  Hall. 

Thomas  Stothard  lived  at  No.  28,  Newman  Street,  from  1794  until 
his  death,  which  took  place  in  1834. 


Joseph  Mallord  William  Turner  resided  in  a  house  in  this  street, 
which  is  described  as  having  been  in  a  very  neglected  condition  during 
that  artist's  tenancy  of  it,  and  having  a  blistered  dirty  house-door  and 
black-crusted  windows.  The  house  is  gone,  and  Nos.  22  and  23  now 
occupy  its  site. 


Between  the  years  1822  and  1828,  Thomas  Campbell  lived  at 
No.  18,  Seymour  Street. 


Frederick  Marryat  lived  at  No.  3,  Spanish  Place,  in  1842. 


At  No.  18,  Stratford  Place,  Sydney  Smith  lived  for  some  months 
about  the  year  1834. 


No.  24,  Sussex  Place,  was,  in  1820,  the  residence  of  John  Gibson 
Lockhart,  the  biographer  of  Sir  Walter  Scott,  and  here,  on  what  was 
then  the  very  verge  of  the  metropolis,  Sir  Walter  was  accustomed  to 
stay  with  his  daughter,  Mrs.  Lockhart,  on  his  visits  to  London. 


Henry  Hallam-  resided  and  wrote  his  great  works,  The  History  of  the 
Middle  Ages  and  Constitutional  History  of  England,  at  No.  67,  Wimpole 

In  the  house  No.   12  in  the  same  street  lived  Admiral  Lord  Hood. 

Elizabeth  Barrett  Browning,  at  that  time  Miss  Barrett,  was  living 
at  No.  50,  Wimpole  Street,  from  1836  until  her  marriage  ten  years 
later.  The  Cry  of  the  Children  was  written  in  this  house. 

The  name  of  the  street  is  taken  from  Wimpole,  in  Cambridgeshire, 
sold  by  the  second  Earl  of  Oxford  to  Lord  Chancellor  Hardwicke. 


No.  14,  York  Place,  was  the  residence  from  1802  to  1806,  of 
William  Pitt.  Pitt's  niece,  Lady  Hester  Lucy  Stanhope,  then  twenty- 
three  years  of  age,  came  to  live  with  him  here  in  1803. 



The  street  from  whence  this  extravagant  conspiracy  is  named  is 
situated  in  Marylebone,  near  the  Edgeware  Road,  but  was  afterwards 
named  Horace  Street. 

The  immediate  object  of  this  plot  was  the  assassination  of  the 
ministers  of  state.  The  originator  of  the  idea  was  one  Arthur  Thistlewood^ 
who  was  a  man  of  some  fortune  and  education.  He  was  a  subaltern 



officer,  first,  in  the  militia,  and  afterwards  in  a  regiment  of  the  line, 
stationed  in  the  West  Indies.  After  resigning  his  commission,  and 
spending  some  time  in  America,  he  passed  into  France,  where  he 
arrived  shortly  after  the  fall  of  Robespierre.  There  he  imbibed  revo- 
lutionary ideas,  and  adopted  the  belief  that  the  destruction  of  the 
institutions  of  his  country  was  the  only  object  worthy  of  the  labours 
of  a  man.  He  sent  a  challenge  to  Lord  Sidmouth,  for  which  he  was 
tried,  and  punished. 


After  his  liberation  in  August,  1819,  Thistlewood,  actuated  by  a 
spirit  of  revenge,  employed  himself  in  forming  connections  with  the  most 
degraded  of  the  lowest  and  poorest  class.  Ings,  a  butcher,  Tidd  and 
Brunt,  shoemakers,  and  a  man  of  colour  named  Davison,  were  his 
principal  confidants.  These  men  held  meetings  in  a  hired  room  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Gray's  Inn  Lane,  where  the  necessity  of  murdering 
the  ministers,  and  subverting  the  Government,  was  frequently  discussed. 
At  length,  at  a  meeting  held  on  Saturday,  the  igth  February,  1820, 
it  was  resolved  that  poverty  did  not  allow  them  to  delay  their  purposes 
any  longer,  and  that,  therefore,  the  ministers  should  be  murdered 



separately,  each  in  his  own  house,  on  the  following  Wednesday.  Meet- 
ings were  held  on  the  Sunday,  Monday,  and  Tuesday,  and  the  whole 
plan  was  arranged.  On  the  last  named  day,  however,  Thistlewood  was 
informed  by  a  conspirator  named  Edwards,  who  was  a  spy  in  the  pay 
of  Government,  that  a  cabinet  dinner  was  to  take  place  at  Lord 
Harrowby's  house  in  Grosvenor  Square  on  the  morrow.  Thistlewood 
immediately  procured  a  newspaper,  and,  on  reading  the  announcement, 
exclaimed,  "  It  will  be  a  rare  haul  to  murder  them  altogether!  "  Fresh 
arrangements  were  determined  upon,  and  it  was  agreed  that  one  of 
their  number  was  to  go  to  the  door  with  a  note,  and  when  it  was 
opened,  the  others  were  to  rush  in ;  and  while  a  part  secured  the 
servants,  the  remainder  were  to  force  themselves  into  the  apartment 
where  the  ministers  were  assembled,  and  murder  them  without  mercy ; 
it  was  particularly  specified  that  the  heads  of  Lords  Sidmouth  and 
Castlereagh  were  to  be  brought  away  in  a  bag. 


The  \V  ednesday  was  spent  in  preparing  weapons  and  ammunition, 
and  in  writing  proclamations ;  and  towards  six  in  the  evening,  the 
conspirators  assembled  in  a  stable  situated  in  Cato  Street.  The 
building  contained  two  rooms  over  the  stable,  accessible  only  by  a 


ladder ;  in  the  larger  of  which,  a  sentinel  having  been  stationed  below, 
the  conspirators  mustered,  to  the  number  of  twenty-four  or  twenty- 
five,  all  busy  in  preparing  for  their  sanguinary  plot. 

The  ministers,  however,  had  been  made  acquainted  by  Edwards, 
with  every  step  that  had  hitherto  been  taken ;  and  a  man  named 
Hidon,  who  had  been  solicited  to  join  in  the  plot,  had  warned  Lord 
Harrowby  of  it,  on  Tuesday.  The  preparations  for  the  dinner  were 
continued,  lest  the  conspirators  should  take  alarm,  though  no  dinner 
was  in  fact  to  be  given. 

In  the  meantime  a  strong  party  of  Bow  Street  Officers,  headed  by 
Mr.  Birnie,  proceeded  to  Cato  Street,  where  they  were  met  and  supported 
by  a  detachment  of  Coldstream  Guards,  under  the  command  of  Captain 
Fitzclarence.  The  officers  arrived  about  8  o'clock,  and  entering  the 
stable,  mounted  the  ladder,  and  found  the  conspirators  in  the  loft,  on 
the  point  of  proceeding  to  the  execution  of  their  scheme.  Smithers, 
one  of  the  officers,  in  attempting  to  seize  Thistlewood,  was  pierced  by 
him  through  the  body,  and  immediately  fell.  The  lights  were  then 
extinguished,  and  some  of  the  conspirators  escaped  through  a  window 
at  the  back  of  the  premises.  The  military  detachment  now  arrived, 
and  by  the  joint  exertions  of  the  soldiers  and  officers,  nine  were  taken 
that  evening  and  conveyed  to  Bow  Street.  Thistlewood,  among  others, 
had  escaped,  but  he  was  arrested  next  morning,  in  bed,  in  a  house 
near  Fitzroy  Square.  He  was  tried,  condemned  and,  with  four  of  his 
companions,  executed  on  the  ist  of  May,  1820,  for  high  treason. 


Upon  a  benefaction  table,  affixed  to  the  wall  of  a  room  adjoining 
the  vestry  of  the  old  parish  church,  is  the  following  inscription  :— 

''Thomas  Yerley,  late  of  this  parish,  gave  £50,  the  interest  to  be 
given  in  bread,  viz.,  12  penny  loaves  to  the  poor  every  Sabbath-day  for 
ever,  1692." 

This  money  appears  to  have  been  received  into  the  parish  fund, 
and  from  the  parish  funds  there  are  now  provided  every  week  12  penny- 
loaves,  which  are  given  away  by  the  churchwardens  every  Sunday  after 
morning  service  to  poor  old  women  of  the  parish,  who  attend  at  the 
church. — Further  Report  of  the  Chanty  Commissioners  (1825)  Vol.  14,  p.  198. 




The  following  official  returns  to  Parliament  made  in  1762  by  John 
Austen,  the  vestry  clerk  of  Marylebone  at  that  period,  will  no  doubt  be 
read  by  many  of  the  present  ratepayers  of  Marylebone  with  considerable 
interest  and  curiosity. 

"The  first  rate  for  the  poor  made  in  May,  1761. — At  6d.  in  the 

"  Total   of  the   rent-charge    / 18,920. — At    7d.    in    the   pound. 

"  The  second  rate  for  the  poor  made  in  November,  1761.  The  rates 
having  increased,  the  total  of  the  rent-charge  amounts  to  £20,194. — At 
6d.  in  the  pound. 

"The  total  rent-charge  of  the  rate  for  cleansing  the  streets  and 
repairing  the  highways,  consolidated  pursuant  to  Act  of  Parliament  in 
which  is  included  the  landholders,  amounts  to  £18,960. — At  is.  6d.  in 
the  pound. 

"The  lamp  rate,  by  29  George  II.,  is  directed  to  be  made  on  all 
persons  inhabiting  the  streets,  £c.,  where  lamps  are  or  shall  be  erected 
by  order  of  the  committee  therein  mentioned  ;  but  as  most  of  the 
inhabitants  (especially  persons  of  quality  and  distinction)  chose  to  put 
up  lamps  at  their  own  expense,  which  they  may  do  upon  giving  proper 
notice,  the  burthen  at  present  lies  chiefly  upon  the  poorer  sort  of 

"  The   rent-charge    fluctuates ;    but    is   at    present    about    £206. 

"  The  present  contractor  has  agreed  with  the  committee  to  cleanse 
the  streets  for  one  year  for  £170. 

"  The  composition  with  the  trustees  of  the  Turnpike  road  from  St. 
Giles's  pound  to  Kilburn  bridge,  in  lieu  of  statute-work,  and  towards 
repairing  the  pavement  of  Oxford  Street,  is  £75. 

"  The  present  contract  with  the  lamp-lighter,  for  lighting  about  112 
lamps,  is  £i  125.  per  annum  each." 

In  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Middlesex  Hospital  there  was  in  the 
last  century  a  rope-walk,  extending  north  to  a  considerable  distance 
under  the  shade  of  two  magnificent  rows  of  elms.  This  was  a  favorite 
spot  of  Richard  \Yilson  and  Baretti,  who  frequently  took  a  walk  there 

BURIAL     OF     A     SUICIDE.  in 

A  curious  instance  of  the  burial  of  a  suicide  at  cross-roads  took 
place  at  St.  John's  Wood  in  the  first  quarter  of  the  present  century. 
Sir  Charles  Warwick  Bampfylde,  Bart.,  was  shot  in  the  street,  in  the 
open  day,  shortly  after  he  had  come  out  of  his  house  in  Montague 
Square,  on  the  7th  of  April,  1823.  Morland,  the  assassin,  had  formerly 
been  in  his  service,  and  his  wife  was  in  Sir  Charles's  service  at  the 
time.  Upon  seeing  that  his  aim  had  taken  effect,  Morland  discharged 
a  second  pistol  into  his  own  mouth,  which  killed  him  on  the  spot. 
This  murder  was  committed  while  under  the  influence  of  jealousy,  which 
was  afterwards  proved  to  have  been  entirely  groundless.  Sir  Charles 
lingered  till  the  igth  of  April,  when  he  expired  in  great  agony.  The 
jury  which  sat  upon  the  body  of  the  murderer,  having  returned  a  verdict 
of  fclo  dc  sc,  his  body  was  buried  in  the  cross  road,  opposite  St.  John's 
Wood  Chapel.  Sir  Charles  was  descended  from  one  of  the  most  dis- 
tinguished families  in  Devonshire,  and  was  in  the  7ist  year  of  his  age. 

The  unsafe  condition  of  the  country-lanes  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
Marylebone  early  last  century  is  illustrated  in  the  following  extract  from 
The  Evening  Post  newspaper  (March  16,  1715): — "On  Wednesday  last, 
four  gentlemen  were  robbed  and  stripped  in  the  fields  between  London 
and  Mary-le-bon." 

On  the  2ist  of  June,  1825,  the  square  of  houses  formed  by  Great 
Titchfield  Street,  Wells  Street,  Mortimer  Street,  and  Margaret  Street, 
was  nearly  all  destroyed  by  a  dreadful  fire,  which  commenced  in  the 
workshops  of  Mr.  Crozet,  carver  and  gilder,  in  Great  Titchfield  Street ; 
caused  by  a  kettle  containing  a  compound  called  French  polish,  boiling 
over,  which  set  fire  to  some  shavings  of  wood.  The  flames  spread 
rapidly  to  the  premises  of  Mr.  Woolley,  a  stable-keeper  ;  Mr.  Stoddart,  a 
pianoforte  maker ;  Mr.  Stout,  who  had  a  mahogany  and  timber-yard ; 
Mr.  Messer,  a  coachmaker ;  Messrs.  Bolton  and  Sparrow,  upholsterers ; 
the  Chapel  of  Ease  in  Margaret  Street  ;  Mr.  Pears,  perfumer  ;  Mr.  Arnold, 
grocer;  Miss  Storer  and  Miss  Vennes.  In  Mortimer  Street,  the  houses 
of  Mr.  Wales,  cabinet-maker;  Mr.  Hunt,  card-maker;  Mr.  Reid,  sofa 
and  chair-maker;  Mr.  Kensett,  cabinet-maker;  and  Messrs.  Holt  and 
Scheffer,  were  in  a  short  time  reduced  to  ruins. 



A  part\-  of  the  Guards  soon  arrived  at  the  spot,  and  assisted  the 
police  officers  in  aiding  the  firemen,  and  preventing  plunder.  But  all 
the  exertions  of  the  firemen,  with  a  plentiful  supply  of  water,  appeared 
to  have  no  effect  in  extinguishing  the  flames.  In  the  whole,  not  less 
than  thirty  houses  and  shops  were  destroyed.  More  than  one  hundred 
families  were  thus  deprived  of  a  home,  and  many,  who  were  lodgers, 
lost  all  they  possessed,  excepting  the  property  they  carried  about  their 
persons.  Among  the  property  burnt  were  some  of  the  valuable  carvings 
belonging  to  the  Duke  of  Rutland,  which  were  deposited  in  one  of  the 
warehouses,  and  on  which  an  insurance  to  a  large  amount  had  been 
effected  in  the  Westminster  Fire  Office.  The  Duke  of  York,  and  several 
of  the  nobility,  visited  the  ruins,  and  set  on  foot  a  subscription  for  the 
relief  of  those  who  had  suffered  loss  or  injury  by  the  fire. 



CESAR'S     CAMP    AT     ST.    PANCRAS, 
From  rt  Drawing  by  DR.  STUKELEY. 


The  Brill;  Dr.  Stukeley's  theory  of  its  having  been  a  Roman  camp — Defensive  works  in  1643. — 
Pastoral  character  of  the  district. —Value  of  land. —The  name  St.  Pancras.  —  Manors  of 
Cantelows  (Kentish  Town),  Totenhall,  Pancras,  and  Ruggemere.  —  King  John's  Palace.— The 
Adam  and  Eve.  —  "  The  Paddington  Drag."— The  Pinder  of  Wakefield.  —Battle  Bridge  and 
King's  Cross. 


)  PART  of  Somers  Town  is  built  upon  the 
site  of  some  ancient  earthworks  formerly 
known  as  "  The  Brill,"  the  origin  of  which 
name  has,  with  great  probability,  been  sup- 
posed by  Dr.  Stukeley  to  be  a  contraction 
of  Bury  Hill.  The  same  learned  anti- 
quarian, who  sometimes  allowed  his  specu- 
lations to  be  unduly  influenced  by  his 
imagination,  supposed  these  earthworks  to 
be  the  remains  of  a  Roman  camp.  He 
wrote  sixteen  pages  in  folio  upon  this  entrenchment, 
which  he  expressly  affirms  to  have  been  the  camp  of 
Caesar.  He  supposes  it  to  have  extended  five  hundred 
paces  by  four  hundred,  including  a  small  moated  site 
to  the  south  of  the  church,  and  another  to  the 
north.  "  Quitting  the  language  of  conjecture,"  says 
Lysons,  "  the  doctor  points  out  the  disposition  of  the 
troops,  and  the  situation  of  each  general's  tent,  with 
as  much  confidence  as  if  he  had  himself  been  in  the 
camp.  Here  was  Caesar's  praetorium ;  here  was  stationed  Mandubrace, 
King  of  London ;  here  were  the  quarters  of  M.  Crassus,  the  Quaestor ; 
here  was  Cominius  ;  there  the  Gaulish  princes,  &c.,  &c.  It  is  but 



justice  to  Dr.  Stukeley's  memory  to  mention  that  this  account  of 
Caesar's  camp  was  not  printed  in  his  lifetime  ;  as  he  withheld  it  from 
the  public,  it  is  probable  he  was  convinced  that  his  imagination  had 
carried  him  too  far  on  this  subject."  Lysons  remarks  that  probably 
the  moated  areas  above  mentioned  near  the  church  were  the  sites  of 
the  vicarage  and  rectory-house,  a  supposition  which  is  extremely  pro- 
bable from  the  fact  that  indications  of  this  moat  remained  until 
comparatively  recent  times,  and  were  doubtless  sufficiently  important  to 
arrest  the  attention  of  Dr.  Stukeley  in  his  day,  who  says  that  over 
against  the  church,  in  the  footpath  on  the  west  side  of  the  brook,  the 
ditch  was  perfectly  visible.  "  North  of  the  church,"  adds  Lysons,  "  was  a 
square,  moated  about,  originally  the  residence  of  the  English  King,  and 
there  Caesar  made  the  British  kings  Cavselhan  and  Mundabrace,  as  good 
friends  as  ever,  the  latter  presenting  Caesar  with  that  famous  corslet  of 
pearls  which  the  Conqueror  afterwards  bestowed  upon  Venus  in  her 
temple  at  Rome." 

There  is  good  reason  for  thinking  that  the  earthworks  at  the  Brill 
were  of  great  antiquity,  although  the  evidence  brought  forward  is  not 
sufficiently  clear  to  determine  in  what  age  they  were  constructed.  The 
theory  of  their  having  been  a  Roman  camp  is,  however,  entirely  exploded. 

THE     BRILL.  117 

In  1643,  when  an  attack  upon  London  by  the  king's  party  seemed 
imminent,  the  Parliament  ordered  that  defensive  works  should  be 
constructed,  and  fortified  lines  were  thrown  up.  "Many  thousands  of 
men  and  women  (good  housekeepers),"  says  a  contemporary  account, 
"  their  children,  and  servants,  went  out  of  the  several  parishes  of 
London  with  spades,  shovels,  pickaxes,  and  baskets,  and  drums  and 
colours  before  them,  some  of  the  chief  men  of  every  parish  marching 
before  them,  and  so  went  into  the  fields,  and  worked  hard  all  day  in 
digging  and  making  up  trenches,  from  fort  to  fort,  wherebie  to  entrench 
the  citie  round  from  one  end  to  the  other." 

A  fort,  consisting  of  two  batteries  and  a  breastwork,  for  the 
defence  of  London,  was  constructed  upon  that  occasion  in  the  grounds 
of  Southampton  House,  Bloomsbury ;  and  it  is  not  improbable  that  the 
works  at  the  Brill  were  adapted  for  use  for  the  same  purpose. 

Until  about  the  year  1790,  this  locality  was  almost  exclusively 
pastoral,  and,  with  the  exception  of  a  few  houses  near  the  "  Mother 
Redcap  "  at  Camden  Town,  and  the  old  church  of  St.  Pancras,  there  was 
nothing  to  intercept  the  view  of  the  country  from  Queen  Square  and 
the  Foundling  Hospital.  The  extraordinary  change  which  has  taken 
place  in  the  character  of  this  neighbourhood  during  the  last  hundred 
years  is  most  remarkable,  and  it  seems  almost  incredible  that  at  a 
period  no  longer  ago  than  a  hundred  years,  the  crowded  and  busy 
environs  of  King's  Cross  were  absolutely  rural,  and  lonely  and  secluded 
to  a  dangerous  degree. 

The  gradual  rise  in  the  value  of  property  is  also  noteworthy.  In 
a  will  of  1588,  the  testator  says,  "  I  give  and  bequeath  my  estate 
called  Sandhills,  consisting  of  a  close  of  pasture,  situate  at  the  back 
side  of  Holborn,  in  the  parish  of  Pancras,  and  valued  at  £13  6s.  8d. 
per  annum,  to  the  Company  of  Skinners,  on  behalf  of  my  school  at 
Tonbridge,  in  Kent."  One  part  only  of  this  property  (the  whole  of 
which  was  valued  at  £13  6s.  Sd.)  was,  on  September  2gth,  1807, 
leased  to  Mr.  Burton  for  99  years  at  £2,500.  What  its  value  may 
be  when  that  lease  expires  in  1906,  it  is  not  possible  to  estimate. 

A  trace  of  the  Brill  exists  in  the  street  which  is  known  as  Brill 
Street,  leading  from  Phrenix  Street  to  Goldington  Street. 

In   the    Domesday   Book    this    place   was   designated    St.    Pancras,   a 

n8  ST.    PANCRAS. 

name  which  it  doubtless  received  from  the  name  of  the  saint  to  whom 
the  church  was  dedicated.  This  circumstance  renders  it  extremely 
probable  that  the  church  was  one  of  the  most  ancient  institutions  in 
the  parish,  and  that  the  houses  have  been  built  around  it  as  time 
went  on. 


Two  manors,  besides  that  of  Totenhall,  are,  in  the  Domesday  Book, 
described  as  being  in  the  parish  of  St.  Pancras.  The  canons  of  St. 
Paul's,  says  that  record,  hold  four  hides  at  Pancras  for  a  manor.  The 
land  is  of  two  carucates.  The  villans  employ  only  one  plough,  but 
might  employ  another.  There  is  timber  in  the  hedgerows ;  pasture  for 
the  cattle,  and  2od.  rents.  Four  villans  hold  this  land  under  the  canons, 
and  there  are  seven  cottars.  In  the  whole,  valued  at  405. ;  in  King 
Edward's  time  at  6os.  Lysons  supposes  this  to  have  been  the  pre- 
bendal  manor  of  Kentish  Town,  or  Cantelows.  The  name  of  Kaunteloe, 
or  de  Kaunteloe,  occurs  in  some  of  the  most  ancient  court-rolls  of  the 
manor  of  Totenhall.  According  to  the  survey  taken  by  order  of  Parlia- 
ment in  1649,  the  demesne  lands  consisted  of  about  210  acres.  The 
manor  house  was  then  sold  to  Richard  Hill,  merchant,  of  London,  and 
the  manor  (which  had  been  demised  to  Philip  King  and  George 
Duncomb  for  three  lives,  all  then  surviving)  to  Richard  Utber,  draper. 
After  the  Restoration,  the  lessees,  or  their  representatives,  were  reinstated 
in  their  property.  About  the  year  1670  the  lease  came  into  the 
possession  of  John  Jeffreys,  Esq.,  father  of  Sir  Jeffrey  Jeffreys,  of  Roe- 
hampton,  Alderman  of  London.  By  the  intermarriage  of  Earl  Camden 
with  Elizabeth,  one  of  the  daughters  and  co-heirs  of  Nicholas  Jeffrey, 
Esq.,  grandson  of  Sir  John,  it  became  vested  in  him  in  right  of  his 


The  manor  of  Totenhall  (from  whence  the  modern  name  of  Totten- 
ham Court  Road  is  derived)  was  described  in  the  record  of  Domesday 
as  containing  five  hides.  The  land  is  of  four  carucates  (says  that 
account),  but  only  seven  parts  in  eight  are  cultivated.  There  are  four 
villans  and  four  Bordars,  wood  for  150  hogs,  and  405.  arising  from  the 
herbage.  In  the  whole  valued  at  £4,  in  King  Edward's  time  at  £5. 

MANOR    OF    PANCRAS.  119 

This  manor  was  formerly  kept  by  the  prebendary  of  Totenhall  in  his 
own  hands.  In  1343,  John  de  Carleton  held  a  court  baron  as  lessee, 
and  the  prebendary  the  same  year  held  a  view  of  frank-plege.  In  the 
year  1560,  the  manor  of  Totenhall,  or  Tottenham,  was  demised  to 
Queen  Elizabeth  for  99  years,  in  the  name  of  Sir  Robert  Dudley. 
In  the  year  1639,  twenty  years  before  the  expiration  of  Queen 
Elizabeth's  term,  a  lease  was  granted  to  Charles  I.,  in  the  name  of 
Sir  Harry  Vane,  for  three  lives.  In  1649,  this  manor  being  seized 
as  crown  land,  was  sold  to  Ralph  Harrison,  Esq.,  of  London, 
for  the  sum  of  £3,318  35.  lid.  At  the  Restoration  it  reverted  to  the 
Crown ;  and  in  the  year  1661,  two  of  the  lives  in  King  Charles's 
lease  being  surviving,  it  was  granted  by  Charles  II.  in  payment  of  a 
debt  to  Sir  Harry  Wood,  for  the  term  of  41  years,  if  the  said 
survivors  should  live  so  long.  After  that  the  lease  became  the  property 
of  Isabella  Countess*  of  Arlington,  from  whom  it  was  inherited  by  her 
son,  Charles  Duke  of  Grafton.  In  1768,  the  lease  being  then  vested 
in  the  Hon.  Charles  Fitzroy  (afterwards  Lord  Southampton),  an  Act 
of  Parliament  was  passed  by  which  the  fee-simple  of  the  manor 
was  invested  in  him  subject  to  the  payment  of  £300  per  annum,  in 
lieu  of  the  ancient  reserved  rent  of  £46,  and  all  fines  for  renewals. 

According  to  the  survey  of  1649,  the  demesne  lands  of  this  manor 
comprised  about  240  acres. 


The  third  great  manor  into  which  the  parish  of  St.  Pancras  was 
anciently  divided,  consisting  of  the  land  near  the  old  church  and  round 
about  Somers  Town,  was  called  Pancras  Manor.  When  the  great 
survey  of  Domesday  was  taken,  Walter,  a  Canon  of  St.  Paul's,  held 
two  hides  of  land  in  Pancras.  The  land  in  this  manor  (says  that 
record)  is  of  one  carucate,  and  employs  one  plough.  On  this  estate 
are  24  men,  who  pay  a  rent  of  305.  per  annum.  In  the  year  1375, 
Joan,  widow  of  Robert  Lord  Ferrers,  of  Chartley,  died  possessing  an 
estate,  called  the  Manor  of  Pancras  (held  under  the  dean  and  chapter 
of  St.  Paul's,  by  a  rent  of  30$.),  being  probably  the  same  which 
belonged  to  Walter  the  canon. 

In   the  year    1381,    the   reversion,  which   belonged  to  the  Crown,  was 

120  ST.    PAXCRAS. 

granted  after  the  death  of  Sir  Robert  and  his  wife  Custancia,  to  the 
prior  and  convent  of  the  house  of  Carthusian  monks,  built  in  honour 
of  the  holy  salutation. 


This  manor  is  mentioned  in  the  survey  of  the  parish  in  1251,  as 
can  be  seen  from  the  records  of  the  Dean  and  Chapter  at  St.  Paul's : 
Norden  also  mentions  it.  Its  exact  situation,  however,  is  not  known. 
Very  possibly  at  the  breaking  up  of  the  monasteries  it  reverted  to  the 
crown,  and  was  granted  by  Henry  VIII.  to  some  court  favourite.  The 
property  of  the  Bedford  family  was  acquired  in  a  great  measure  from  that 
monarch's  hands.  It  is,  therefore,  very  probable  that  the  manor  of 
Ruggemere  consisted  of  all  that  land  lying  at  the  south-east  of  the 
parish,  no  portion  of  that  district  lying  in  either  of  the  other  manors. 

Among  the  names  of  fields  at  Marylebone  Farm,  referred  to  at 
PP-  5°'52  °f  the  present  volume,  was  one  "  Rugg  Moor,"  described  as 
having  been  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  Richard  Kendall.  The  name 
resembles  Ruggemere  so  closely  that  one  feels  inclined  to  enquire  whether 
it  may  not  be  in  some  way  connected  with  that  ancient  manor. 


The  house  at  Tottenham  Court,  known  as  King  John's  Palace,  was 
of  great  antiquity,  and  had  undergone  many  repairs  and  patchings  up 
previous  to  its  demolition  in  1808.  The  portion  shown  in  the  illustra- 
tion made  but  a  small  part  of  the  building,  there  being  in  front,  at 
about  twenty  yards  distance,  a  house  of  thrice  its  dimensions,  and  of 
as  ancient  a  foundation,  evidently  connecting  with  this  and  making 
part  thereof.  The  interior  seemed  to  have  undergone  no  alteration 
since  the  reign  of  Elizabeth  or  James  I.,  and  the  oaken  panels,  about 
twelve  inches  by  eight  in  size,  were  neatly  executed.  There  was  a  very 
curiously  carved  mantel-piece  of  oak,  much  resembling  that  at  the 
"  Pyed  Bull,''  at  Islington,  formerly  ^  the  residence  of  the  illustrious  Sir 
Walter  Raleigh  ;  and  several  fragments  of  antique  ornaments  indicated 
it  to  have  been  formerly  a  place  of  some  consequence.  The  apartments 
were  more  spacious  than  the  appearance  in  the  view  would  lead  the 

THE     ADAM    AXD     EVE.  121 

spectator  to  imagine,  particularly  in  the  back,  where  the  rooms  were 
nearly  double  the  size  of  those  in  front. 

The  tradition  is  that  this  was  one  of  the  palaces  of  King  John, 
and,  later  on,  the  residence  of  Oliver  Cromwell. 

At  the  extremity  of  the  building,  through  the  Gothic  arch  (see  the 
view)  was  a  door,  very  rarely  opened,  that  led  by  a  gradual  descent 
to  a  subterraneous  passage,  traditionally  said  to  lead  to  the  old  church 
of  St.  Pancras,  with  which,  in  former  times,  it  is  said,  this  building 
had  a  communication,  although  the  two  places  were  nearly  a  mile 
apart.  This  subterraneous  passage  was  the  subject  of  conversation  of 
neighbours  for  many  years  before  the  demolition  of  the  premises,  and 
several  persons  were  led  by  curiosity  to  explore  the  passage,  but  few 
had  courage  to  venture  a  distance  of  more  than  twenty  yards  before 
they  turned  back,  resigning  the  task  to  others  who  might  possess  more 
courage.  A  man  named  Price,  a  smith,  who  lived  in  the  neighbour- 
hood, was  at  length  resolved  to  discover  the  termination  of  the  passage, 
if  possible,  and  provided  himself  with  a  quantity  of  blazing  links  to 
subdue  the  damps  of  the  earth,  as  well  as  guide  him  in  his  way.  He 
returned,  however,  unsuccessful,  but  with  the  best  account  that  had 
hitherto  been  given  of  the  obstructions  that  lay  in  the  way.  He  pro- 
ceeded, as  far  as  he  was  able  to  judge,  a  distance  of  from  thirty  to 
fort}7  yards  with  some  difficulty,  from  the  falling-in  of  the  earth,  but 
was  unable  to  proceed  any  farther  by  reason  of  a  pool  of  water,  which 
entirely  stopped  any  further  progress. 

THE     ADAM     AND     EVE. 

This  celebrated  inn  was  built  upon  the  site  of  the  ancient  manor 
house  of  Totenhall,  and  its  walls  were  in  fact  portions  of  that  house. 
It  was  situated  at  the  north-western  extremity  of  Tottenham  Court  Road. 

As  early  as  the  time  of  Henry  III.,  the  house,  the  property  of 
William  de  Tottenhall,  was  a  mansion  of  eminence,  and  was  probably  the 
court-house  of  the  manor  of  the  same  name. 

It  was  of  course  much  later  when  the  old  mansion  was  turned  into 
an  inn.  Its  situation,  a  little  way  out  in  the  pleasant  fields,  doubtless 
attracted  many  visitors  and  customers,  especially  on  Sundays,  when 
freedom  from  work  gave  a  little  leisure  for  pleasure  and  wholesome 



recreation.      There  is  a  curious  entry  in  the  parish  books  of  St.  Giles-in- 
the-Fields,  to  the  following  effect  :— 

"  1645.  Recd  of  Mr.  Bringhurst,  constable,  whch  he  had 
of  Mrs.  Stacye's  maid  and  others,  for  drinking  at  Tottenhall 
court  on  the  Sabbath  daie  xij(l  apiece  ...  ...  ...  ...  35." 

The  building  represented  in  the  accompanying  illustration  formed  but 
a  small  part  of  the  ancient  mansion,  and  appears,  indeed,  to  have  been 
only  a  part  of  the  lodgings  or  offices  appropriated  to  the  use  of  the 
domestics.  In  the  year  1813  it  was  used  as  a  sort  of  drinking  parlour, 
being  detached  from  the  dwelling  of  the  "  Adam  and  Eve "  public-house 
and  wine-vaults,  which  were  built  on  the  site  of  the  old  manor-house 

/\PM-A  <, 


The  "Adam  and  Eve"  is  supposed  to  have  acquired  its  sign  from 
the  ancient  mysteries  ard  moralities  which  were  formerly  exhibited  in  inn 

"Those  shows  which  once  profaned  the  sacred  page, 
The  barb'rous  mysteries  of  our  infant  stage." 

The  house  was  for  a  long  time  celebrated  for  its  tea  gardens,  which 
were  similar  to  those  of  the  White  Conduit  House  and  Bagnigge  Wells. 
The  grounds  were  extensive  and  convenient,  and  a  part  of  them  were 
devoted  to  the  uses  of  those  who  chose  to  play  at  skittles,  Dutch-pins, 
bumble-puppy,  &c. 

There  were  spacious  gardens  at  the  rear  and  at  the  sides,  and  a 
fore-court,  with  large  elm-trees,  and  tables  and  benches  for  out-door 

"THE     PADDINGTON    DRAG."  123 

customers,  who  preferred  to  smoke  their  pipes  and  enjoy  the  fresh  air 
from  Marylebone  Park  in  front  of  the  road.  Inside  the  gardens  were 
fruit-trees  and  bowers  and  arbours,  with  every  accommodation  for  tea- 
drinking  parties.  In  the  long-room  there  was  an  excellent  organ,  and  it 
was  generally  well  attended,  and  the  company  respectable,  until  the  last 
few  years  in  the  eighteenth  century ;  but  in  consequence  of  the  accumu- 
lation of  buildings  in  the  neighbourhood,  it  became  a  place  of  more 
promiscuous  resort,  and  persons  of  the  worst  character  and  description 
were  in  the  constant  habit  of  frequenting  it ;  highwaymen,  footpads, 
pickpockets,  and  common  women,  formed  its  leading  visitants,  and  it 
became  so  great  a  nuisance  to  the  neighbourhood,  that  the  magistrates 
interfered,  the  organ  was  banished,  the  skittle-grounds  destroyed,  and  the 
gardens  dug  up  for  the  foundation  of  Eden  Street,  which  was  built  on 
their  site. 

Hogarth  has  made  the  "  Adam  and  Eve "  the  place  of  rendezvous 
for  the  "  March  of  the  Guards  to  Finchley ; "  and  upon  the  sign- 
board of  the  house  is  inscribed  "  Totenham  Court  Nursery,  1745," 
in  allusion  to  the  famous  Broughton's  Amphitheatre  for  boxing. 

At  the  commencement  of  the  present  century  there  was  only  one 
conveyance  a  day  between  Paddington  and  the  City.  This  conveyance 
was  known  as  the  "  Paddington  Drag,"  and  called  to  take  up  passengers 
at  the  "  Adam  and  Eve,"  whose  doors  it  passed  twice  a  day.  It  was 
driven  by  its  proprietor,  performing  the  journey  in  two  hours  and  a 
half  quick  time,  returning  to  Paddington  in  the  evening  within  three 
hours  of  its  leaving  the  City,  which  was  considered  fair  time  considering 
the  necessity  for  precaution  against  the  accidents  of  night  travelling. 

We  cannot  do  better  than  borrow  the  following  extracts  from  some 
most  interesting  communications  published  in  Hone's  Year  Book  (pp. 
317-318): — "It  may  be  recollected  that  the  'Paddington  Drag'  made 
its  way  to  the  City,  down  the  defile  called  Gray's  Inn  Lane,  and  gave 
the  passengers  an  opportunity  for  '  shopping,'  by  waiting  an  hour  or 
more  at  the  Blue  Posts,  Holborn  Bars.  The  route  to  the  Bank,  by 
the  way  of  the  City  Road,  was  then  a  thing  unthought  of;  and  the 
Hampstead  coachman  who  first  achieved  this  daring  feat  was  regarded 
with  admiration,  somewhat  akin  to  that  bestowed  on  him  who  first 
doubled  the  Cape  in  search  of  a  passage  to  India. 

124  ST.    PAXCRAS. 

"  The  spot  which  you  recollect  as  a  rural  suburb,  and  which  is 
now  surrounded  on  every  side  by  streets  and  squares,  was  once 
numbered  among  the  common  boundaries  of  a  Cockney's  Sunday  walk. 
George  Wither,  in  his  '  Britain's  Remembrancer,'  1628,  has  this 

passage :— 

'  Some  by   the  bancks  of    Thames   their  pleasure   taking  ; 
Some,   sullibubs   among   the   milkmaids  making ; 
With   musique  some,   upon   the  waters   rowing ; 
Some   to   the   next   adjoyning   hamlet   going ; 
And   Hogsdone,   Islington,   and   Tothnam-Court, 
For  cakes  and   creame,   had   then   no  small   resort.'  " 

Further   he   says  :— 

"Those  who  did   never   travel,   till  of    late, 
Half  way   to   Pancridge   from   the  City   gate." 

Broome,   in  his    "  New  Academy,"    1658,    Act    2,    has   this  passage  :— 

'  When   shall   we  walk   to   Totnam,   or  crosse  ore 
The  water  ?    or  take  coach   to   Kensington, 
Or   Paddington,   or   to   some  one   or  other 
O'   the  City   out-leaps,   for  an   afternoon?1" 

Another   writer    in    Hone's    Year   Book    (p.    318)    says  :— 

"  MR.  HONE, 

"  Your  brief  notice  of  the  Adam  and  Eve,  Hampstead-road, 
has  awakened  many  a  pleasant  reminiscence  of  a  suburb  which 
was  the  frequent  haunt  of  my  boyish  days,  and  the  scene  of 
some  of  the  happiest  hours  of  my  existence  at  a  more  mature 
age.  But  it  has  also  kindled  a  very  earnest  desire  for  a  more 
particular  inspection  into  the  store-house  of  your  memory,  re- 
specting this  subject ;  and  it  has  occurred  to  me,  that  you  could 
scarcely  fill  a  sheet  or  two  of  your  Year  Book  with  matter  more 
generally  interesting,  to  the  majority  of  your  readers,  than  your 
own  recollection  of  the  northern  suburb  of  London  would  supply. 
Few  places  afford  more  scope  for  pleasant  writing,  and  for  the 
indulgence  of  personal  feeling;  for  not  many  places  have  under- 
gone, within  the  space  of  a  few  years,  a  more  entire,  and,  to 
me,  scarcely  pleasing,  transmutation.  I  am  almost  afraid  to 
own  that  '  Mary-le-bone  Park '  holds  a  dearer  place  in  my 
affections  than  its  more  splendid,  but  less  rural  successor. 
When  too  I  remember  the  lowly,  but  picturesque,  old  '  Queen's 
Head  and  Artichoke,'  with  its  long  skittle,  and  '  bumble-puppy ' 


















grounds,  and  the  '  Jew's  Harp,1  with  its  bowery  tea-gardens, 
I  have  little  pleasure  in  the  sight  of  the  gin-shop-looking  places 
which  now  bear  the  names.  Neither  does  the  new  '  Haymarket ' 
compensate  me  for  the  fields  in  which  I  made  my  earliest 
studies  of  cattle,  and  once  received  from  the  sculptor,  Nollekens, 
an  approving  word,  and  pat  on  the  head,  as  he  returned  from 
his  customary  morning  walk." 


From  the  old  inscription,  dated  1660,  upon  a  stone  forming  a  portion 
of  old  Bagnigge  House,  it  appears  that  the  Finder  of  Wakefield  was  a 
public-house  at  that  early  date,  and  there  is  evidence  that  it  was  in 
existence  as  early  as  the  year  1577. 

A  pinder  was  the  petty  officer  of  a  manor,  whose  duty  it  was  to 
impound  all  strange  cattle  straying  upon  the  common  land.  Such  cattle 
were  kept  in  bondage  in  the  pound  until  they  were  claimed  and  the 
expenses  paid.  It  was  the  pinder's  duty  to  attend  to  the  wants  of 
impounded  cattle  during  their  period  of  detention. 

In  the  year  above-mentioned,  1577,  this  is  said  to  have  been  the 
only  house  of  entertainment  between  Holborn  and  Highgate.  It  seems 
as  if  the  proprietor  of  Bagnigge  House  was  concerned  in  the  "  Pinder," 
as  he  would  scarcely  have  allowed  a  slab  of  stone  to  have  remained 
on  the  front  of  his  house,  pointing  it  out  as  a  well-known  place,  unless 
he  had  some  interest  in  it. 

Aubrey  mentions  that  in  the  "  spring  after  the  conflagration  at 
London,  all  the  ruins  were  overgrown  with  an  herbe  or  two ;  but 
especially  one  with  a  yellow  flower :  and  on  the  south  side  of  St.  Paul's 
Church  it  grew  as  thick  as  could  be ;  nay,  on  the  very  top  of  the 
tower.  The  herbalists  call  it  Ericolevis  Neapolitana,  small  bank  cresses  of 
Naples ;  which  plant  Tho.  Willis  (the  famous  physician)  told  me  he 
knew  before  but  in  one  place  about  towne ;  and  that  was  at  Battle 
Bridge,  by  the  Pindar  of  Wakefield,  and  that  in  no  great  quantity." 


Until  about  the  year  1830  the  locality  now  known  as  King's  Cross 
was  called  Battle  Bridge,  and  the  tradition  is  that  this  name  was  given 
in  consequence  of  it  having  been  the  site  of  the  great  battle  in  which 

126  ST.    PANCRAS. 

Queen  Boadicea  played  so  prominent  a  part.  The  second  portion  of 
the  name  was  doubtless  applied  in  allusion  to  the  bridge  in  continuation 
of  Gray's  Inn  Road,  which  at  that  point  crossed  the  river  Holebourne  or 

King's  Cross  took  its  name  from  a  structure  which  formerly  stood  in 
the  middle  of  the  spot  where  several  roads  crossed  at  Battle  Bridge.  It 
was  of  no  great  antiquity,  and,  indeed,  was  not  a  cross  at  all  in  the 
proper  meaning  of  the  word.  It  was  really  a  national  monument,  and 
certainly  it  possessed  no  feature  which  could  be  called  ecclesiastical. 

It  was  erected  by  public  subscription  in  the  year  1830,  in  order  to  do 
honour,  as  a  contemporary  circular  announced,  to  "  His  Most  Gracious 
Majesty  William  the  Fourth,  his  late  Majesty  George  the  Fourth,  and  the 
preceding  kings  of  the  Royal  House  of  Brunswick."  The  same  circular 
sets  forth  various  reasons  for  the  erection  of  this  national  memorial,  as 
follows  : — 

"  A  splendid  monument  is  now  erecting,  by  public  sub- 
scription, to  be  called  King's  Cross,  in  the  centre  of  the  six  roads 
uniting  at  Battle  Bridge,  in  conformity  to  the  model  presented 
and  approved  by  the  Right  Honorable  the  Secretary  of  State  for 
the  Home  Department ;  the  honorable  the  Commissioners  of  the 
Metropolitan  Roads  ;  the  Commissioners  of  the  New  Police ;  and 
the  Nobility  in  general. 

"  The  situation  selected  is,  perhaps  above  all  others,  the  most 
appropriate  for  the  purpose,  from  the  many  memorable  events 
that  have  occurred  upon  the  spot,  which  the  history  of  the  country 
will  fully  explain.  Around  it,  Julius  Caesar,  with  Marc  Anthony 
and  Cicero,  were  in  encampment  for  two  years ;  when  the  laws 
and  mandates  issued  by  Caesar,  tended  in  a  great  measure  to 
civilize  the  Ancient  Britons. 

"  On  the  site  was  fought  the  Grand  Battle,  in  which  Queen 
Boadicea  so  greatly  signalised  herself,  from  which  emanated  the 
name  of  Battle  Bridge. 

"  Near  it  was  erected  the  famous  Observatory  of  Oliver 

"  From  it  commenced  the  original  Roman  North  Road,  and 
Great  Pass  or  Barrier,  to  the  Metropolis,  bounded  by  the  River 

ELEVATION    OF    KING'S   CROSS,   1830. 


"  And  even  at  the  present  day,  the  spot  is  eminently  distin- 
guished, as  it  forms  the  centre  of  the  finest  and  most  frequented 
public  road  round  the  Metropolis. 

"  Description  of  King's  Cross. — The  Base  or  Lodge  is  of  an 
Octagonal  form,  and  is  ornamented  by  Eight  Grecian  Doric 
Columns,  two  at  each  corner,  supporting,  above  the  Entablature, 
the  four  late  Kings  of  England,  which  will  occupy  the  North- 
West,  South-West,  South-East,  and  North-East  Corners.  From 
the  Cornice  of  the  Columns  rises  a  Bold  Plinth  and  Subplinth 
with  a  Balustrade.  Between  the  opening  over  the  Doors  fronting 
East  and  West,  is  a  richly  sculptured  National  Coat  of  Arms; 
above  is  the  station  for  the  Illuminated  Clock,  fronting  the 
Paddington  and  Pentonville  Roads ;  the  upper  part  forms  the 
Base  of  the  rich  Ornamental  Grecian  Pedestal,  on  which  will  be 
placed  the  colossal  statue  of  his  Majesty,  in  full  Robes.  The 
lower  part  will  be  splendidly  Illuminated  by  Gas  Lamps :  the 
whole  forming  not  only  an  imposing  ornament,  but  a  protection 
to  the  Public  from  danger  in  crossing  the  six  roads  uniting  at 
this  spot. 

"  The  Proprietors  and  others  interested  in  the  Estates  sur- 
rounding King's  Cross,  have  already  rendered  liberal  Subscriptions 
in  order  to  carry  on  the  undertaking  ;  it  is  presumed  that  every 
loyal  subject  will  embrace  this  opportunity  of  evincing  his 
attachment  to  his  late  Majesty,  and  our  present  beloved  Sovereign, 
by  subscribing  in  aid  of  the  funds  for  the  completion  of  King's 

"  Each  subscriber  of  One  Guinea  and  under  Five,  will  be  pre- 
sented with  a  Gilt  Medal  of  the  Cross ;  and  of  Five  Guineas  and 
upwards,  with  a  Silver  Medal,  with  his  Name  inscribed  thereon. 

"  Subscriptions  received  at  the  Banking  Houses  of  Messrs. 
Robarts,  Curtis,  and  Co.,  Lombard  Street ;  Messrs.  Williams  and 
Co.,  Birchin  Lane;  Messrs.  Coutts  and  Co.,  Strand;  Sir  Claude 
Scott  and  Co.,  Cavendish  Square ;  at  Sam's  Royal  Library,  St. 
James's  Street;  Messrs.  Rushworth  and  Co.,  12,  Haymarket ;  of 
the  Treasurer;  and  at  the  Office,  n,  Liverpool  Street,  King's 


"  JOHN  ROBSON,  Esqr.,  Treasurer, 

"  Hamilton  Place,  New  Road." 




Tlierc  is  a  little  doubt  as  to  whom  it  was  intended  to  represent  by 
the  four  figures,  as  another  account  describes  them  as  the  effigies  of  St. 
George  of  England,  St.  Patrick  of  Ireland,  St.  Andrew  of  Scotland,  and 
St.  David  of  Wales.  There  is  reason  even  to  doubt  whether  the 
figures  were  ever  put  up  at  all;  for  in  a  view  of  King's  Cross,  published 
in  the  year  1836,  the  structure  shewn  is  devoid  of  these  appendages.  It 
is  certain,  however,  that  there  was  a  colossal  figure  of  George  IV.  upon 
an  ornamental  Grecian  pedestal. 

The  architectural  features  of  King's  Cross  have  been  made  the  subject 
of  severe  sarcasm  by  Pugin  in  his  Contrasts;  or  a  Parallel  between  the 
Architecture  of  the  i^th  and  igth  Centuries.  It  is  figured  in  one  of  the 
plates  of  that  work  side  by  side  with  the  beautiful  Gothic  cross  of 
Chichester.  The  architect  of  King's  Cross  was  Mr.  Stephen  Geary. 

King's  Cross  was  not  destined  to  stand  for  many  years.  It  was  in 
the  way ;  and,  to  tell  the  truth,  the  public  did  not  seem  very  much  in  love 
with  their  bargain.  In  the  year  1845  it  was  pulled  down  in  connection 
with  some  public  improvements. 

A  contemporary  newspaper,  in  commenting  upon  its  demolition,  says: 
"  The  pennyworths  of  artistical  information,  doled  out  from  week  to  week, 
soon  taught  the  people  that  the  above  was  a  very  uncomplimentary  effigy 
of  majesty ;  even  the  very  cabmen  grew  critical ;  the  watermen  jeered ; 
the  omnibus  drivers  ridiculed  royalty  in  so  parlous  a  state ;  at  length 
the  statue  was  removed  in  toto,  or  rather  in  piecemeal. 

"  We  cannot  tax  our  memories  with  the  uses  to  which  the  building 
itself  has  been  appropriated  ;  now  a  place  of  exhibition,  then  a  police 
station,  and  last  of  all  (to  come  to  the  dregs  of  the  subject),  a  beer-shop." 



The  old  Church  of  St.  Pancras  — Quaint  description  in  1593. — Antiquity  of  St.  Pancras  Church. 
— French  Refugees.  —  Benefactions  to  the  church.  —  Renovation  in  1848.  —  Altar  Stone. — 
Epitaphs. — Epigram  in  St  Pancras  Churchyard. — Anecdote  of  the  Poet  Chatterton.— The 
New  Church  of  St.  Pancras.  —  St.  James's  Church,  Hampstead  Road.  —  Whitefield's 
Tabernacle.  —  "  Resurrection- Men  "  —  Monuments.  —  Demolition  of  the  Tabernacle,  1890. — 
Presbyterian  Church,  Regent  Square. — Catholic  Apostolic  Church,  Gordon  Square. 

THE    OLD    CHURCH    OF    ST.    PANCRAS. 

HERE    is    some    uncertainty    about    the    date 
when    this    church    was    built.      A    period 
somewhere   about   the   year    1350  has   been 
assigned  to  it ;    but   however   that   may  be, 
it      is      certain     there     was     a     church     at 
St.    Pancras   before    that    date,    for   in   the 
records  belonging  to  the  dean  and  chapter 
of     St.     Paul's    there     is     a    notice     of    a 
visitation    made    to    this   church    in    1251. 
It    states   that    it     had    a    very    small    tower,    a    little 
belfry,    a   good    stone    font    for   baptisms,   and    a  small 
marble    stone   to    carry   the   pax. 

The  following  quaint  description  of  the  church  of 
St.  Pancras  is  taken  from  John  Norden's  Speculum 
Britannia,  1593  : — 

"  Pancras  Church  standeth  all  alone  as  utterly 
forsaken,  old,  and  weatherbeaten,  which  for  the 
antiquitie  thereof,  it  is  thought  not  to  yield  to  Paules 
in  London;  about  this  Church  have  bin  manie 
buildings,  now  decaied,  leaving  poore  Pancras  without 
companie  or  comfort ;  yet  it  is  now  and  then  visited 
with  Kentish  towne  and  Highgate  which  are  members 



thereof;  but  they  seldome  come  there,  for  that  they  have  chappels  of 
ease  within  themselves,  but  when  there  is  a  corps  to  be  interred,  they 
are  forced  to  leave  the  same  in  this  forsaken  church  or  churchyard, 
where  (no  doubt)  it  resteth  as  secure  against  the  day  of  resurrection 
as  if  it  laie  in  stately  Panics. 

"  Pancras  as  desolate  as  it  standeth  is  not  forsaken  of  all ;  a  prebend 
of  Panics  accepteth  it  in  right  of  his  office." 

The  list  of  the  prebends  of  St.  Pancras  includes  the  eminent 
names  of  Paley  and  William  Sherlock. 

\>  %}>, 


^IA*};  -V, 


Lysons  describes  it  as  a  church  "  of  Gothic  architecture,  built  of 
stones  and  flints,  which  are  now  covered  with  plaster.  It  is  certainly 
not  older  than  the  I4th  century,  perhaps  in  Norden's  time  it  had  the 
appearance  of  great  decay  ;  the  same  building,  nevertheless,  repaired  from 
time  to  time,  still  remains  ;  looks  no  longer  '  old  and  weatherbeaten,' 
and  may  exist  perhaps  to  be  spoken  of  by  some  antiquary  of  a  future 

The  church  was  probably  of  Gothic  style  originally,  but  it  had 
been  patched  up  so  often,  in  so  many  ways,  and  with  such  a  variety 
of  materials,  that  it  had  lost  all  its  original  architectural  features. 

ST.    PANCRAS     OLD     CHURCH.  131 

A  writer  in  the  Builder  (of  February  4th,  1888)  says : — "  This  little 
church,  standing  against  Pancras-road,  and  northwards  of  its  ancient 
burial  ground,  presents  externally  but  few  indications  of  its  venerable 
history.  The  existing  fabric  indeed  dates  from  the  end  of  the  twelfth 
century.  In  1848,  the  old  tower  was  pulled  down,  when  its  stones 
were  used  for  recasing  the  body  of  the  church,  which  at  the  same 
time  was  repaired  and  enlarged  by  Mr.  A.  D.  Gough  and  Mr.  Roumieu 
in  the  Anglo-Norman  manner.  That  was  the  precursor  of  the  very 
small  tower  and  little  belfry,  which  are  described  in  a  schedule  of  the 
visitation  made  hither  in  1251,  whereof  a  record  is  preserved  in  the 
archives  of  St.  Paul's.  Norden,  writing  in  1593,  claims  for  the  church 
an  antiquity  rivalling,  if  not  excelling,  that  of  St.  Paul's  itself. 

"  There  can  be  no  question  that  Saint  Pancras-in-the-Fields  yields 
to  very  few  churches  in  our  country  as  touching  the  antiquity  of  its 
foundation.  Some  would  connect  its  dedication  to  the  Phrygian  boy- 
martyr,  with  a  cherished  memory  of  the  three  Pagan  boys,  captives 
from  Ella's  northern  province  of  Deira,  whose  fair  beauty  and  slavedom 
excited  the  pity  of  Gregory  the  Great  when  yet  a  monk  of  St.  Andrew's 
convent  on  the  Crelian  Mount  at  Rome.  Pancratius  was  the  patron 
saint  in  particular  of  children.  His  name  was  taken  for  the  place  of 
his  burial, — the  Calepodian  Cemetery  in  Rome.  There  the  church  of 
S.  Pancrazio,  behind  the  Vatican,  marks  the  scene  of  his  sufferings 
and  death  under  Diocletian,  in  the  year  304.  ...  A  long-lived 
tradition  avers  that  here,  on  the  site  of  this  little  church  in  London, 
hard  by  the  shore  of  the  Fleet,  was  raised  the  first  altar  to  Christ  in 
Britain,  that  is  to  say,  anterior  to  the  Saxon  Invasion.  This  cannot 
now  be  either  contradicted  or  confirmed." 

The  exact  date  when  St.  Pancras  became  a  parish,  with  defined 
boundaries,  has  not  been  ascertained. 

Weever,  in  his  Funerall  Monuments,  speaks  of  a  wondrous  ancient 
monument  in  this  church,  by  tradition  said  to  belong  to  the  family 
of  Gray,  of  Gray's  Inn.  "  If  it  be  that  which  now  remains  in  the 
north  wall  of  the  chancel,"  says  Lysons,  "  I  should  suppose  it  not  to 
to  be  older  than  the  year  1500.  It  is  of  purbeck  marble,  and  has  an 
elliptical  arch  ornamented  with  quatrefoils.  No  inscription  or  arms 
remain."  Weever  mentions  also  the  tomb  of  Robert  Eve,  and 

132  ST.    PANCRAS. 

Laurentia  his  sister,  daughter  of  Francis,  son  of  Thomas  Eve,  clerk 
of  the  crown.  The  family  of  Eve,  or  Ive,  were  of  great  antiquity 
in  this  parish.  In  the  year  1458,  King  Henry  VI.  granted  leave  to 
Thomas  Ive  to  enclose  a  portion  of  the  highway  adjoining  his  mansion 
at  Kentessetonne.  Richard  Ive,  about  the  middle  of  the  last  century, 
had  the  manor  of  Toppesfield,  in  the  parish  of  Hornsey,  and  died 
without  male  issue. 

The  church  and  churchyard  of  St.  Pancras  were  for  many  years 
noted  as  the  burial  place  of  such  Roman  Catholics  as  died  in  London 
and  its  vicinity.  The  reason  assigned  for  this  preference  for  St.  Pancras 
Church  as  a  burial  place  was  that  masses  were  said  in  a  church  in 
the  south  of  France,  dedicated  to  the  same  saint,  for  the  souls  of  the 
deceased  interred  at  St.  Pancras  in  England. 

Some  persons  aver  that  at  St.  Pancras  Church  mass  was  sung  since 
the  Reformation ;  others  claim  unusual  sanctity  for  a  spot  where  a  few 
Roman  Catholics  are  supposed  to  have  been  burnt  in  Queen  Elizabeth's 
day, — the  martyrs  whose  recollection  evoked  the  prayers  of  Dr.  Johnson 
as  he  twice  passed  the  church  when  out  walking  with  Dr.  Brocklesby. 

Since  the  French  Revolution,  a  large  number  of  clergy,  and  other 
refugees,  some  of  them  of  high  rank,  made  their  residence  at 
St.  Pancras.  It  has  been  computed  that  on  the  average  thirty, 
probably  of  the  French  clergy,  were  annually  buried  at  St.  Pancras 
in  the  early  part  of  the  present  century.  In  1801,  the  number  of 
French  refugees  buried  there  was  41 ;  in  1802,  32. 

This  circumstance  may  account  for  the  burial  of  many  Roman 
Catholics  there,  but  according  to  a  note  in  Croker's  edition  of  Boswell's 
Life  of  Dr.  Johnson,  the  Roman  Catholics  are  prejudiced  in  favour  of  St. 
Pancras  for  some  reason  or  other  which  has  not  yet  been  explained, 
just  as  is  the  case  with  respect  to  other  places  of  burial  in  various 
parts  of  the  kingdom. 

The  rectory  of  St.  Pancras  was  valued  at  thirteen  marks  per 
annum  in  1327.  It  appears,  by  the  visitation  of  the  church  in  1251, 
that  the  vicar  had  all  the  small  tithes,  a  pension  of  £5  per  annum 
out  of  the  great  tithes,  four  acres  of  glebe,  and  a  vicarage  house  near 
the  church. 

Richard    Cloudesley  of  Islington,   by   will,   dated    I3th   January,   1517, 


gave  as  follows : — "  Item — I  give  and  bequeath  to  the  Church  of  St. 
Pancras,  two  torches,  price  xivd.,  and  two  poor  men  of  the  same 
parish  two  gowns,  price  the  piece  vis.  viiid.  Item — I  give  and  bequeath 
to  the  priest  of  the  church  aforesaid  xxd.,  to  ye  intent  yt  he  shall 
pray  for  me  by  name  openly  in  his  church  every  Sunday,  and  to  pray 
his  parishioners  to  pray  for  me  and  forgive  me,  as  I  forgive  them  and 
all  the  world." 

From  the  certificates  of  the  commissioners  for  dissolving  colleges  and 
chantries,  in  the  first  year  of  the  reign  of  Edward  VI.,  it  appears  that 
John  Morrant  gave  unto  the  parson  and  churchwardens  of  St.  Pancras, 
for  the  intent  that  they  should  keep  an  obit  yearly,  for  ever,  four  acres  of 
meadow  land,  called  Kilbornecroft,  valued  in  1547  at  sixteen  shillings  per 
annum,  whereof,  at  the  obit,  the  sum  of  twelve  shillings  was  to  be  given 
to  the  priest,  and  four  shillings  to  the  poor  in  recreation. 

In  the  inventory  of  the  ornaments,  bells,  &c.,  belonging  to  the  parish 
church  of  St.  Pancras-in-the-Fields,  made  in  the  time  of  Edward  VI., 
mention  is  made  of  "a  hearse  cloth  of  sattyn  of  Brydges,  and  four 
standards  for  the  hearse  of  latten." 

Phillis  Oldernshaw,  wife  of  William  Oldernshaw,  gentleman,  of  Toten- 
hall  Court,  in  this  parish,  gave  on  the  gth  of  February,  1627,  a  black 
cloth  for  ever,  to  be  laid  on  the  poor  deceased  people  of  this  parish, 
without  fee,  and  all  others  to  pay  for  the  use  of  it  to  the  churchwardens. 

Mrs.  Rose  Knightly,  of  Green  Street,  Kentish  Town,  gave  on  the 
25th  of  September,  1632,  to  this  parish  for  ever,  a  fair  gilt  plate,  to  be 
only  used  for  the  bread  at  the  Holy  Sacrament,  in  the  same  parish. 

Before  the  renovation  of  1848,  the  church  contained  no  galleries,  and 
was  capable  of  accommodating  not  more  than  about  one  hundred  and 
twenty  persons.  It  was  usual  formerly  to  perform  service  in  this  church 
only  on  the  first  Sunday  in  each  month ;  on  other  Sundays  in  Kentish 
Town  Chapel. 

By  the  enlargement  and  reconstruction  of  the  church  in  the  year 
1848,  as  above  mentioned,  sitting  room  was  provided  for  about  five 
hundred  persons.  The  exterior  wras  entirely  faced  with  ragstone,  prin- 
cipally obtained  in  rough  unhewn  masses  from  the  old  tower,  which  was 
removed  to  effect  an  elongation  of  the  church,  so  that  no  new  stone  of 
this  description  was  required ;  but  the  old  stone  which  had  existed  for 

i34  ST.    PANCRAS. 

many  centuries  in   the  fabric  was  re-worked   and   re-applied   to  the  entire 
casing  of  the  structure  throughout. 

The  arrangement  of  the  church,  as  then  restored,  consists  of  an 
elongation  westward ;  a  new  tower  occupying  a  central  position  on  the 
south  side  of  that  part  which  constituted  the  old  church ;  and  a  stair 
turret  in  a  corresponding  position  in  that,  which  was  entirely  new.  The 
west  front  and  tower  were  the  main  features  of  the  structure.  The  internal 
fittings  were  those  of  the  old  structure,  retained,  altered,  and  adapted  to 
the  new  church.  The  oak  carvings  of  Gibbon's  time  were  preserved 
and  applied,  the  whole  being  treated  as  the  furniture  of  the  church 
rather  than  as  part  of  the  structure  itself. 

The  windows  of  the  chancel  are  filled  with  stained  glass.  The  east 
window  consists  of  three  compartments,  the  subjects  being  the  crucifixion 
in  the  centre,  and  effigies  of  St.  Peter  and  St.  Paul  on  either  side ;  and 
in  the  windows  of  the  north  and  south  side  of  the  chancel  are  repre- 
sentations of  the  conversion  of  St.  Paul,  and  his  appearance  before 
Agrippa.  The  small  circular  windows  have  the  emblem  of  the  Trinity, 
the  Agnus  Dei,  and  the  Alpha  and  Omega.  The  large  wheel  window  in 
the  west  front  is  also  filled  with  stained  glass. 

An  old  altar-stone,  found  during  the  progress  of  the  works,  has  been 
preserved  and  inlaid,  and  placed  in  position  so  as  to  be  slightly  raised 
above  the  chancel  flooring.  The  many  sepulchral  monuments  have  been 
carefully  restored  and  refixed  as  nearly  as  possible  in  their  original 

In  the  year  1850  the  churchyard  was  closed  by  Act  of  Parliament. 
In  1868  the  Midland  Railway  Company  made  a  cutting  through  the 
churchyard  and  a  viaduct  over. 

The  tombs  in  and  around  old  St.  Pancras  Church  in  many  cases  bear 
most  interesting  inscriptions,  but  it  will  be  impossible  to  give  more  than 
a  small  selection  in  this  place.  Nothing  more  than  that  is  desirable 
either,  as  a  large  number  of  the  inscriptions  were  brought  together  by 
Frederick  Teague  Cansick,  and  printed  in  the  years  1869  and  1872. 

The  first  inscription  quoted  is  in  black  letter,  and  reads  as  follows  : — 

"  At  this  pues  end  here  lyeth  buryed  MARYE  BERESFORD, 
the    daughter     of     Alexander     Elonore,     of     Tottenham 

ST.    PA  NCR  AS    OLD    CHURCH.  135 

Courte  and  the  late  dear  and  wellbeloved  wife  of  John 
Beresford  gentleman  and  ouster  barester  of  Staple 
Inne  who  departed  this  life  the  xxi.  day  of  August  in 
the  year  of  our  Lorde  God  1588 ;  whose  soul  is  with 
God  for  she  trusted  in  the  Lorde  and  reposed  her  salva- 
tion wholye  in  Jesus  Christ  in  whom  is  all  peace  and 
rest  all  joye  and  consolation  all  felicitye  and  salvation 
and  in  whom  are  all  the  promises.  Yea  and  amen." 


Author  of 

A   Vindication 

of  the  Rights   of  Woman. 

Born   27th   of  April,    1759: 

Died    loth  of  September,    1797." 

Engraver   to    His   Majesty, 

was  born   at 

Maidstone   in    Kent, 

upon   the    i5th   of    August, 


He   died   the   23rd   and 

was   interred    in   this    place 

on   the   28th    Day   of    May, 


ELIZABETH    WOOLLETT,   Widow   of  the  above, 
Died    December   the    i5th,    1819. 
Aged   73   years." 

On  this  tombstone  were   formerly  written  with  a  pencil   the  following 
lines,  which  have  long  since  been  defaced : — 

"  Here  Woollett  rests  expecting  to  be  sav'd, 
He  graved  well,  but  is  not   well  engrav'd." 

It   has   been   suggested   as   not  improbable   that  these  lines  gave  rise 
to    a    subscription   for    erecting   a    monument    in   Westminster   Abbey    to 

136  ST.    PANCRAS. 

Woollett's  memory,  and  to  which  Benjamin  West,  P.R.A.,  and  Alderman 
Boydell  were  liberal  contributors.  The  monument  was  placed  in  the 
cloisters  of  the  Abbey. 

"  Here  lie  the  remains  of  MR.  JOHN  WALKER,  author  of  the 
Pronouncing  Dictionary  of  the  English  Language,  and  other 
valuable  works  on  Grammar  and  Elocution,  of  which  he  was 
for  many  years  a  very  distinguished  Professor.  He  closed  a 
life  devoted  to  piety  and  virtue  on  the  first  of  August,  1807, 
aged  75. 

"  Also  in  the  same  grave  are  interred  the  remains  of  Sybylla 
Walker,  wife  of  the  above  John  Walker,  who  died  on  the  2gth 
of  April,  1802,  aged  79.  I  cling  to  the  foot  of  the  Cross." 

"  Underneathe   thys   stone  doth   lye 
The  Body  of    Mr.   Humphrie 
Jones,   who   was  of    late 
By  Trade  a  plate- 
Worker  in   Barbicanne ; 
Well  known   to  be  a  good   manne 
By  all  his   Friends  and   Neighbours   toe 
And   paid  every  bodie   their  due. 
He  died   in   the  year   1737 
Aug.  4th,  aged  80,  his  soule  we  hope's  in  heaven." 


The    following    epigram,    said    to   be   in    St.    Pancras    Churchyard,    is 
copied   from    Samuel   Palmer's  History  of  St.  Pancras: — 

Thro'   Pancras  Church-yard  as   two  Taylors   were   walking, 
Of   trade,   news,   and  politics  earnestly   talking, 
Says  one,    "These  fine  rains,"    and   looking  around, 
"Will  bring  all   things  charmingly   out   of    the   ground." 
"Marry,   Heaven   forbid!"    says   the  other,    "for  here 
I   buried   two  wives   without   shedding  a  tear." 

A  curious  anecdote  is  told  of  Chatterton,  the  poet,  who  was  amusing 
himself  one  day,  in  company  with  a  friend,  by  reading  epitaphs  in 
St.  Pancras  Churchyard.  He  was  so  much  absorbed  in  thought  as  he 
walked  along,  that,  not  perceiving  an  open  grave  in  his  way  just  dug, 
he  tumbled  into  it.  His  companion,  observing  his  situation,  ran  to 

ST.    PANCRAS    NEW    CHURCH.  137 

his  assistance,  and  as  he  helped  him  out,  told  him  in  a  jocular 
manner,  he  was  happy  in  assisting  at  the  resurrection  of  genius.  Poor 
Chatterton  smiled,  and,  taking  his  friend  by  the  arm,  replied,  "  My 
dear  friend,  I  feel  the  sting  of  a  speedy  dissolution.  I  have  been  at 
war  with  the  grave  some  time,  and  find  it  not  so  easy  to  vanquish  as 
I  imagined  ;  we  can  find  an  asylum  from  every  creditor  but  that." 

Three  days  afterwards  the  neglected  and  disconsolate  youth 
committed  suicide  by  poison. 

THE     NEW     CHURCH     OF     ST.     PANCRAS. 

The  Duke  of  York  laid  the  foundation  stone  of  the  new  Church  of 
St.  Pancras  on  the  ist  of  July,  1819 ;  and  in  April,  1822,  the  Bishop  of 
London  consecrated  it.  It  was  built,  from  the  designs  of  Mr.  William 
Inwood,  in  imitation  of  the  Erechtheium  at  Athens,  and  it  is  said 
to  have  been  the  first  place  of  Christian  worship  erected  in  Great 
Britain  in  the  strict  Grecian  style.  The  steeple,  upwards  of  160 
feet  in  height,  is  from  an  Athenian  model,  the  Temple  of  the  Winds, 
built  by  Pericles ;  it  is,  however,  surmounted  by  a  cross  in  lieu  of  the 
Triton  and  his  wand,  the  symbols  of  the  winds,  in  the  original.  There 
is  a  very  fine  portico  of  six  columns  at  the  west  end  of  the  church. 
Towards  the  east  end  are  lateral  porticoes,  each  supported  by  colossal 
female  statues  on  a  plinth,  in  which  are  entrances  to  the  catacombs 
beneath  the  church.  Each  of  the  figures  bears  an  ewer  in  one  hand, 
and  rests  the  other  on  an  inverted  torch,  the  emblem  of  death.  These 
figures  are  composed  of  terra-cotta,  formed  in  pieces,  and  cemented  round 
cast-iron  pillars,  which  in  reality  support  the  entablatures. 

The  eastern  end  of  the  church  differs  from  the  ancient  temple  in 
having  a  semi-circular,  or  apsidal  termination,  around  which,  and  along 
the  sides,  are  terra-cotta  imitations  of  Greek  tiles. 

The  interior  of  the  church  is  in  keeping  with  its  exterior.  The 
pulpit  and  reading  desk  were  made  of  the  celebrated  "  Fairlop  oak,"  which 
formerly  stood  in  Hainault  Forest,  Essex,  and  gave  its  name  to  the  fair 
at  Easter-tide  long  held  beneath  its  branches.  Gilpin  mentions  this  tree 
in  his  Forest  Scenery.  "  The  tradition  of  the  country,"  he  says,  "  traces 
it  half  way  up  the  Christian  era."  The  old  oak  tree  was  blown  down 
in  1820, 

i38  ST.    PANCRAS. 


In  or  about  the  year  1792,  St.  James's  Chapel  was  built  upon  the 
eastern  side  of  Hampstead  Road,  and  an  adjoining  cemetery  in  connection 
with  it  was  formed  about  the  same  time.  Both  chapel  and  cemetery 
were,  by  Act  of  Parliament,  made  to  belong  to  the  parish  of  St.  James, 

Among  the  celebrated  persons  buried  in  the  cemetery  attached  to  St. 
James's  Chapel  were  the  celebrated  fanatic,  Lord  George  Gordon,  1797 ; 
Matthias  Tomick,  of  Broad  Street,  Carnaby  Market,  seven  feet  ten 
inches  in  height,  who  died  at  the  age  of  66,  of  a  decline,  in  1794 ;  Dr. 
Rowley,  the  physician ;  Count  de  Welderen,  many  years  ambassador 
to  this  country  from  the  Hague ;  John  Hoppner,  the  portrait  painter ; 
George  Morland,  a  skilful  painter  who  was  particularly  happy  in  his 
representations  of  rural  nature  and  animals ;  Dr.  Dickson,  Bishop  of 
Down ;  and  many  others. 


In  1741  the  friends  of  Rev.  George  Whitefield,  the  eminent  Calvinist 
preacher,  procured  a  piece  of  ground  close  to  Wesley's  Foundry,  and 
employed  a  carpenter  to  build  a  large  temporary  shed  to  screen  his 
Moorfields  congregations  from  the  cold  and  rain.  For  twelve  years  this 
wooden  shed  served  as  Whitefield's  metropolitan  church.  In  1753  it  was 
superseded  by  the  erection,  on  the  same  site,  of  the  substantial  brick 
building  which,  for  more  than  a  hundred  years,  was  used  by  Whitefield's 

In  the  year  1756,  Whitefield  set  about  collecting  funds  for  a  proposed 
new  chapel  in  Tottenham  Court  Road,  upon  a  site  which  at  that  time 
was  surrounded  by  fields  and  gardens.  On  the  north  side  of  it  there 
were  but  two  houses,  and  the  next  after  them,  half  a  mile  further,  was 
the  "  Adam  and  Eve "  public  house.  The  chapel,  when  first  erected, 
was  seventy  feet  square  within  the  walls.  Over  the  door  were  the  arms 
of  Whitefield.  Two  years  after  it  was  opened,  twelve  almshouses  and  a 
minister's  house  were  added.  The  inhabitants  of  the  almshouses  were 
allowed  35.  weekly,  and  candles,  out  of  the  sacramental  collections  at  the 


chapel.  About  a  year  after  that,  the  chapel  was  found  to  be  too  small, 
and  it  was  enlarged  to  the  size  of  a  hundred  and  twenty-seven  feet  long, 
and  seventy  feet  broad,  with  a  dome  a  hundred  and  fourteen  feet  in 
height.  Beneath  it  were  vaults  for  the  burial  of  the  dead,  in  which 
Whitefield  intended  that  himself  and  his  friends,  John  and  Charles  Wesley, 
should  be  buried.  "  I  have  prepared  a  vault  in  this  chapel,"  Whitefield 
used  to  say  to  his  somewhat  bigotted  congregation,  "  where  I  intend  to 
be  buried,  and  Messrs.  John  and  Charles  Wesley  shall  also  be  buried 
there.  We  will  all  lie  together.  You  will  not  let  them  enter  your 
chapel  while  they  are  alive  ;  they  can  do  you  no  harm  when  they  are 

The  lease  of  the  ground  was  granted  to  Whitefield  by  General  George 
Fitzroy,  and  on  its  expiration  in  1828,  the  freehold  was  purchased  for 

The  foundation  stone  of  the  chapel  was  laid  in  the  beginning  of  June, 
1756,  upon  which  occasion  Whitefield  preached.  Among  those  who 
attended  the  service  were  the  Rev.  Thomas  Gibbons ;  Dr.  Andrew 
Giffard,  Assistant- Librarian  of  the  British  Museum;  and  the  Rev.  Benjamin 
Grosvenor,  D.D.,  for  many  years  the  pastor  of  the  Presbyterian  congrega- 
tion in  Crosby  Square,  and  who,  after  preaching  in  London  for  half  a 
century,  had  recently  retired  into  private  life. 

On  the  7th  of  November,  1756,  the  new  chapel  was  opened,  and 
Whitefield  again  preached  a  sermon. 

Among  the  distinguished  preachers  who,  in  olden  days,  occupied  the 
pulpit  at  Whitefield's  Tabernacle,  were : — Dr.  Peckwell,  De  Courcy, 
Berridge,  Walter  Shirley,  Piercy  (chaplain  to  General  Washington), 
Rowland  Hill,  Torial  Joss,  West,  Kinsman,  Beck,  Medley,  Edward 
Parsons,  Matthew  Wilks,  Joel  Knight,  John  Hyatt,  and  many  others. 
Tottenham  Court  Road  Chapel  has  a  history  which  is,  indeed,  well 
worthy  of  being  written.  From  this  venerable  sanctuary  sprang  separate 
congregations  in  Shepherd's  Market,  Kentish  Town,  Paddington,  Tonbridge 
Chapel,  Robert  Street,  Crown  Street,  and  Craven  Chapel. 

The  following  account  is  given  of  the  discovery  of  "resurrection- 
men  "  at  WThitefield's  Tabernacle  : — 

"  It  appears  that  on  Friday,  March  13,  1798,  the  watchman  on 
going  his  round  perceived  a  hackney  coach  waiting  near  the  chapel, 

i4o  ST.    PANCRAS. 

and  he  at  once  concluded  that  some  resurrection-men  were  at  work  in 
the  burial  ground.  Acting  on  this  supposition  he  gave  notice  to  one  of 
the  patrols,  who,  going  to  the  spot,  saw  three  men  in  conversation  with 
the  coachman,  but  who,  on  his  approach,  decamped.  He,  however, 
secured  the  coachman,  and,  on  searching  the  coach,  discovered  the  body 
of  a  male  child  wrapt  up  in  a  cloth.  He  then  went  to  examine  the 
burying  ground,  when,  finding  several  graves  open,  he  went  to  the 
sexton's  house,  which  adjoined  the  ground,  but  found  that  he  had  gone 
to  stay  at  Westminster. 

"  At  daylight  a  further  search  took  place,  when  eight  other  bodies 
(four  women,  three  children,  and  one  man)  were  found  tied  up  in  sacks 
for  removal.  The  coachman,  whose  name  was  John  Peake,  was  brought 
before  the  magistrate  at  Bow  Street  on  the  following  morning,  and, 
after  the  parties  had  identified  the  bodies,  the  magistrate  proceeded  to 
examine  the  prisoner. 

"  He  said,  in  his  defence,  that  about  three  o'clock  he  was  called 
off  the  stand  near  the  Hatton  Street  end  of  Holborn  by  three  men, 
who  ordered  him  to  drive  to  Pitt  Street,  Tottenham  Court  Road,  and 
there,  getting  out,  desired  him  to  wait  for  him  near  the  Chapel. 
That  one  of  them  continued  by  the  coach  the  whole  time,  but  he 
denied  seeing  anything  put  into  the  coach,  or  even  that  the  doors  were 
opened  after  the  men  first  got  out.  The  sexton  was  then  examined, 
but  nothing  could  be  collected  from  him,  he  having  slept  from  home 
that  night.  After  considerable  investigation,  it  at  length  came  out  that 
the  prisoner  was  well  known  as  connected  with  resurrection-men,  that 
he  was  nick-named  '  Lousy  Jack,'  and  had  been  implicated  in  the 
robbery  at  Hampstead  Churchyard. 

"  There  had  been  six  funerals  on  that  afternoon,  and  the  whole  of 
the  bodies  were  in  the  sacks.  Among  them  was  a  woman,  who,  dying 
in  her  lying-in,  was  interred  with  her  infant.  The  greatest  scene  of 
distress  was  exhibited  round  the  Chapel  by  the  relatives  of  those  who 
had  lately  been  buried  in  that  ground." 

The  chapel  contained  memorials,  among  others,  to  the  following: — 
Mason  Jenkin,  limner,  1758 ;  Matthew  Pearce,  builder  of  the  chapel,  1775 ; 
Rev.  A.  M.  Toplady,  aged  38,  1778  ;  Anna  Cecilia,  daughter  of  Chris- 
topher Rhodes,  Esq.,  of  Chatham  (a  monument  by  Bacon,  with  a 


bas  relief  of  the  woman  touching  the  hem  of  the  Saviour's  garment),  1796 ; 
John  Bacon,  R.A.,  1797,  with  the  following  inscription  : — 

"  Near  this  place  lies  John  Bacon,  R.A.,  sculptor,  who  died 
Aug.  7,  1799,  aged  59  years,  and  left  the  following  inscription  for 
this  tablet,  '  What  I  was  as  an  artist  seemed  to  me  of  some 
importance,  while  I  lived,  but  what  I  really  was,  as  a  believer  in 
Christ  Jesus,  is  the  only  thing  of  importance  to  me  now.'  " 

There  were  also  monuments  for  Elizabeth,  wife  of  John  Bacon,  R.A., 
who  died  in  1782  ;  and  for  Samuel  Foyster,  Esq.,  one  of  the  trustees  of 
the  chapel,  1805. 

It  is  a  somewhat  remarkable  circumstance  that  neither  John  nor 
Charles  Wesley,  nor  Whitefield  himself,  were  buried  at  Tottenham  Court 
Road  Chapel,  according  to  Whitefield's  intention.  Whitefield's  wife, 
however,  was  buried  there,  and  is  commemorated  by  the  following 
inscription  : — 

"  In  memory  of  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Whitefield,  aged  62,  who, 
after  upwards  of  thirty  years'  Strong  and  frequent  manifestations 
of  a  Redeemer's  love  and  as  Strong  and  frequent  strugglings  with 
the  buffettings  of  Satan,  Bodily  Sicknesses,  and  the  remains  of 
indwelling  Sin,  finished  her  course  with  joy,  August  gth,  Anno 
Domini  1768. 

"  Also  to  the  Memory  of  the  Revd.  Mr.  George  Whitefield, 
A.M.,  late  Chaplain  to  the  Right  Honourable  the  Countess  ot 
Huntingdon,  whose  Soul  made  meet  for  glory  was  taken  to 
Imanuel's  Bosom  the  3oth  of  Sept.,  1770,  and  whose  Body  now 
lies  in  the  silent  grave  at  Newbury  Port,  near  Boston,  in  New 
England,  there  deposited  in  sure  and  certain  hope  of  a  joyful! 
Resurrection  to  Eternal  life  and  Glory. 

"  He  was  a  man  Eminent  for  Piety,  of  an  Humane,  Benevo- 
lent and  Charitable  Disposition.  His  zeal  in  the  Cause  of  God 
was  Singular  ;  His  labours  indefatigable,  and  his  success  in 
preaching  the  gospell  remarkable  and  astonishing.  He  departed 
this  life  in  the  56th  year  of  his  Age. 

"  And,  like  his  Master,  was  by  some  despis'd, 
Like  him  by  many  others  lov'd  and  priz'd ; 
But  their's  shall  be  the  everlasting  crown, 
Not  whom  the  world,  but  Jesus  Christ  shall  own." 

I42  ST.    PANCRAS. 

In  consequence  of  the  insecure  nature  of  the  foundations,  the  entire 
structure  of  Whitefield's  Tabernacle  had  to  be  taken  down  in  the  year 
1890.  Preparations  are  now  being  made  for  the  rebuilding  of  the  chapel. 


The  foundation-stone  of  this  church  was  laid  in  October,  1824,  by 
the  Earl  of  Breadalbane,  who  acted  in  the  capacity  of  proxy  for  the 
Duke  of  Clarence,  whose  indisposition  prevented  him  laying  the  stone 
in  person.  The  Regent  Square  Church  was  erected  in  consequence  of 
the  Caledonian  Church  in  Hatton  Garden  being  too  small  for  the  large 
congregations  who  assembled  to  hear  the  eloquent  preacher,  Rev.  Edward 

The  building  was  completed  in  1827,  and  opened  according  to 
the  manner  of  the  National  Scotch  Presbyterian  Church.  It  cost  over 
£25,000 ;  was  built  to  accommodate  about  three  thousand  persons ;  and 
for  many  years  had  Mr.  Irving  for  its  minister. 


The  members  of  the  Catholic  Apostolic  Church,  often  called  Irvingites 
in  allusion  to  their  founder,  Rev.  Edward  Irving,  seem  to  have  consisted 
originally  of  the  bulk  of  the  congregation  attending  Regent  Square 
Presbyterian  Church,  who  accompanied  Irving  when  he  was  expelled 
from  the  Scottish  Church  in  1833.  A  building  in  Newman  Street, 
formerly  the  studio  of  Benjamin  West,  P.R.A.,  was  taken  by  the  new  sect 
soon  after  that  date. 

For  the  service  of  the  church  a  comprehensive  book  of  liturgies 
and  offices  was  provided  by  the  "apostles;"  and  lights,  incense,  vest- 
ments, holy  oil,  water,  chrism,  and  other  adjuncts  of  worship  have 
been  appointed  by  their  authority. 

Each  congregation  in  the  Catholic  Apostolic  Church  is  presided  over 
by  its  "angel"  or  bishop  (who  ranks  as  pastor  in  the  Universal  Church); 
under  him  are  four-and-twenty  priests,  divided  into  four  ministries  of 
"  elders,  prophets,  evangelists,  and  pastors,"  and  with  these  are  the 
deacons,  seven  of  whom  regulate  the  temporal  affairs  of  the  church — 
besides  whom  there  are  also  "  sub-deacons,  acolytes,  singers,  and  door- 



The  fine  church  in  Gordon  Square  is  the  Metropolitan  Church  or 
Cathedral  of  the  Catholic  Apostolic  Church.  It  was  built  about  the 
year  1853,  from  the  designs  of  Mr.  R.  Brandon  and  Mr.  Ritchie. 

The  exterior  is  of  Early  English  design,  and  the  decorated  interior 
has  a  triforium  in  the  aisle-roof,  after  the  manner  of  our  early  churches 
and  cathedrals.  The  ceilings  are  highly  enriched,  and  some  of  the 
windows  are  filled  with  stained  glass.  The  northern  doorway  and  porch 
and  the  southern  wheel-window,  are  very  fine.  A  beautiful  side  chapel, 
called  a  "  Lady  Chapel,"  has  been  added  on  the  south. 



Lamb's  Conduit.— William  Lamb.— Public  rejoicings —The  Lamb  Public  House.— The  River 
Holebourne.  — Black  Mary's  Hole.  —  Bagnigge  Wells.  — The  Finder  of  Wakefield.  — Nell 
Gwynne.  — Properties  of  the  waters.  — Bagnigge  Wells  Tea-gardens.  — "  The  Bagnigge 
Organfist."— Pancras  Wells —The  Adam  and  Eve,  Pancras.— St.  Chad's  Well.— Portrait  of 
St.  Chad.— Tottenham  Court  Fair.— Smock  Race. 


AMB'S  CONDUIT  was  situated  above  the 
north  end    of    Red    Lion    Street,  Holborn, 
and  was   celebrated    for   the  abundance  of 
water,    clear   as    crystal,    and    suitable    for 
drinking      purposes,     which      it      afforded. 
"  The    Fountain    Head,"    says   the    writer 
of    the   New    View   of   London,    "  is   under 
a    stone    marked    S.  P.  P.,    in    the    vacant 
Ground    a    little     Southward    of    Ormond 
Street,    whence    the     Water    comes    in    a    Drein     to    this 
Conduit,     and     it     runs     thence     in     Lead     Pipes     to    the 
Conduit   on   Snow   Hill,   which    has   the   figure  of  a   Lamb 
on  it,  denoting  that  its  Water  come  from  Lamb's  Conduit." 
It    was     erected     for     the     use     of     Londoners    by    a 
gentleman    of    the    riame    of    William    Lamb,    of    whom, 
notwithstanding   his    munificence,  but   little   of    his   history 
is  known  at  the  present  day.     In  addition  to   the  erection 
of  this  conduit,  he  endowed  a  chapel    in    the    City,    which 
was  destroyed   at   the   great    fire  of  London. 

When  the  New  River  Company  commenced  to  supply 
the  metropolis  with  water,  the  conduit  pipes  got  neglected  and  stopped  up, 
and  the  water  ceased  to  run  to  Snow  Hill,  though  it  was  still  useful 

LAMB'S    CONDUIT.  145 

to  the  inhabitants  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  streets  to  the  north 
of  Holborn.  The  stone  at  the  source  of  the  conduit  itself  was  taken 
down  at  the  time  of  the  erection  of  the  Foundling  Hospital,  and  the 
water  caused  to  run  a  little  more  to  the  east,  from  whence,  for  a 
long  time,  the  inhabitants  had  access  to  the  spring.  The  supplies  of  the 
pumps  in  Mecklenberg  and  Brunswick  Squares  are  derived  from  the 
springs  which  supplied  Lamb's  Conduit. 

In  the  year  1800  access  to  the  water  was  gained  by  means  of  steps 
descending  to  the  pipe  whence  it  issued.  The  following  inscription  was 
placed  upon  a  part  of  the  Conduit : — 

"  On   this  spot   stood  the   Conduit, 

Commonly   called   and   known 

By   the   name   of  Lamb's   Conduit, 

The    Property   of  the   City   of  London ; 

Which   was   rebuilt   in   the   year   MDCCXLVI., 

At   the   request   of  the   Governor   and   Guardians 

Of  the    Hospital   for    the   maintenance 
And    education    of    exposed    and    deserted 

Young   Children. 
In  order  to  lay  the  way 
And   make  the   same   more  commodious ; 
The    waters  thereof    are  still    preserved, 
And  continued  for  the  public  emolument, 
By  building  an   arch  over  the  same  ; 
And   this   compartment   is   erected 
To  preserve  the   City's   right  and  interest 
In   the  said  ground,   water,    and   springs." 

Upon  certain  occasions  of  public  rejoicing,  Lamb's  Conduit,  like 
many  other  conduits  in  London,  was  made  to  flow  with  wine  instead 
of  water.  A  hogshead  of  wine  was  put  in  communication  with  the 
conduit  and  allowed  to  run  out,  but  the  aperture  from  which  the 
people  filled  their  vessels  is  said  to  have  been  never  larger  than  that 
of  a  straw,  so  that  this  apparent  prodigality  was  regulated  upon  strictly 
economical  principles,  and  the  flow  of  wine  was  made  to  last  a  long 



146  ST.    PANCRAS. 

The  sign  of  the  Lamb  public-house  at  the  north-eastern  end  of 
Lamb's  Conduit  Street  was  the  effigy  of  a  lamb  cut  in  stone,  which 
was  believed  to  have  been  one  of  the  figures  which  stood  upon  Lamb's 
Conduit,  as  a  rebus  upon  the  name  of  William  Lamb. 

The  fields  around  Lamb's  Conduit  formed  a  favourite  promenade 
on  a  summer's  evening  for  the  inhabitants  of  St.  Andrew's,  Holborn, 
and  St.  Giles's.  William  Wycherley  alludes  to  them  in  his  Love  in  a  Wood, 
or  St.  James's  Park  (1672).  They  were  first  curtailed  in  1714,  by  the 
formation  of  a  new  burying-ground  for  the  parish  of  St.  George's, 
Bloomsbury,  and  again  in  1739,  by  the  erection  of  the  Foundling 


Among  the  rivers  which  formerly  supplied  London  with  water,  the 
Holebourne  occupied  an  important  place.  As  we  have  already  said  in  an 
earlier  chapter  in  this  volume  (p.  10),  this  stream  arose  in  and  around  the 
ponds  at  Hampstead  and  Highgate,  and  flowed  through  Kentish  Town, 
Camden  Town,  Somers  Town,  Battle  Bridge,  Farringdon  Road,  Farringdon 
Street,  and  into  the  Thames  at  the  point  where  Blackfriars  Bridge  now  is. 
"  Holebourne "  is  the  ancient  form  of  the  name,  and  Holborn  is  a 
corruption  of  it.  Throughout  its  course  its  physical  character  justified 
its  name.  It  was  strictly  the  brook  or  bourne  in  the  hole  or  hollow. 
It  was  also  called  "Turnmill  Brook,"  "The  River  of  Wells,"  and  "The 
River  Fleet."  But  the  term  "  fleet,"  as  Mr.  J.  G.  Waller  has  pointed 
out,  could  only  be  properly  applied  where  it  was  influenced  by  the  tidal 
flow  of  the  Thames.  A  "fleet"  is  a  channel  covered  with  shallow  water 
at  high  tide,  and  frequent  examples  of  the  use  of  the  term  are  to  be 
found  in  the  names  of  places  upon  the  banks  of  the  Thames  and  the 

The  designation,  "The  River  of  Wells,"  was  an  appropriate  name  for 
the  Holebourne,  which  received  the  waters  of  Clerkenwell,  Skinners-well, 
Fags-well,  Tode-well,  Loders-well,  and  Rad-well. 

The  Holebourne  received  a  small  stream  a  little  north  of  Battle 
Bridge  arising  from  some  springs  near  Tottenham  Court  Road.  At 
Battle  Bridge,  the  stream,  which  ran  along  the  south  side  of  the  road, 
frequently  overflowed,  and  at  times  the  inundations  were  so  serious  as 
to  occasion  much  loss  to  the  dwellers  in  the  neighbourhood.  Just  about 


this  locality  there  was  but  little  fall  in  the  ground,  and  the  spring  moved 
sluggishly,  spreading  itself  out  as  it  bent  round  the  end  of  Gray's  Inn 
Road,  which  was  here  carried  over  the  bridge  which  gave  name  to  the 

There  was  a  serious  inundation  in  January,  1809,  which  is  thus 
related  in  Nelson's  Islington  : — "  At  this  period,  when  the  snow  was  lying 
very  deep,  a  rapid  thaw  come  on,  and,  the  arches  not  affording  a 
sufficient  passage  for  the  increased  current,  the  whole  space  between 
Pancras,  Somers  Town,  and  the  bottom  of  the  hill  at  Pentonville,  was 
in  a  short  time  covered  with  water.  The  flood  rose  to  the  height  of 
three  feet  in  the  middle  of  the  highway,  the  lower  rooms  of  all  the 
houses  within  that  space  were  completely  inundated,  and  the  inhabitants 
sustained  considerable  damage  in  their  goods  and  furniture,  which  many 
of  them  had  not  time  to  remove.  Two  cart-horses  were  drowned,  and 
for  several  days  persons  were  obliged  to  be  conveyed  to  and  from  their 
houses,  and  receive  their  provisions  in  at  the  windows,  by  means  of 

It  appears  that  this  stream  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Bagnigge  Wells, 
through  the  gardens  of  which  it  flowed,  was  sometimes  known  as 
Bagnigge  River.  It  is  recorded  that,  in  1761,  on  "  Saturday  night  the 
waters  were  so  high  at  'Black  Mary's  Hole,'  that  the  inhabitants  of 
Bagnigge  Wells  and  in  the  neighbourhood  suffered  greatly.  About  seven 
o'clock  a  coach,  with  five  gentlemen  within,  and  three  on  the  outside, 
was  overturned  by  the  height  of  the  water  in  the  road  just  by,  and 
with  great  difficulty  escaped  being  drowned." 

Black  Mary's  Hole  was  the  name  applied  to  a  very  few  small 
houses  at  Bagnigge  Wash,  the  origin  of  which  is  thus  described.  The 
land  here  was  called  Bagnigge  Wash,  from  the  River  Bagnigge,  which 
passed  through  it,  and  subsequently  people  resorting  thither  to  drink 
the  waters  of  the  conduit,  which  was  then  leased  to  one  Mary,  who 
kept  a  black  cow,  whose  milk  was  drunk  with  the  waters  of  the  conduit ; 
the  wits  of  that  age  used  to  say,  "  Come,  let  us  go  to  Black  Mary's 
Hole."  However,  Mary  dying,  and  the  place  degenerating  into  licen- 
tiousness, about  1687,  Walter  Baynes,  Esq.,  of  the  Inner  Temple, 
enclosed  the  conduit,  which  is  said  to  have  had  the  appearance  of  a 
great  oven.  He  is  supposed  to  have  left  a  fund  for  keeping  the  same 

148  ST.    PANCRAS. 

in  perpetual  repair.  The  stone  with  the  inscription  was  carried  away 
during  the  night. 

There  was  a  tradition  that  the  name  Black  Mary's  Hole  was  a 
corruption  of  Blessed  Mary's  Well — a  highly  probable  explanation. 

In  April,  1756,  a  newspaper  states:  —  A  few  days  since  the  water 
was  so  deep  in  Pancras  Wash  as  to  drown  a  horse  which  fell  into  the 
same  with  a  load  on  his  back." 


The  Hole-bourne,  or  Fleet  River,  was  locally  called  the  "  River 
Bagnigge,"  and  hence  a  well  near  at  hand  was  called  "  Bagnigge  Wells," 
and  ultimately  there  arose  Bagnigge  Tea  Gardens.  The  name  Bagnigge 
is  derived  from  that  of  a  family  to  whom  the  property  belonged  in  the 
1 7th  century.  It  is  supposed,  with  some  degree  of  probability,  that 
the  house  originally  called  "  Bagnigge  House "  was  a  country  residence 
of  Nell  Gwynne,  the  celebrated  mistress  of  Charles  II.  In  some  ancient 
deeds,  the  ground  where  this  house  stood  is  called  Bagnigge  Vale.  On 
a  square  stone,  over  an  old  Gothic  portal  taken  down  about  the  year 
1763,  and  afterwards  replaced  over  the  door  from  the  high  road  to  the 
house,  was  cut  the  following  inscription : — 


S.    T. 


THE      FINDER      A 



Over  one  of  the  chimney-pieces  was  the  garter  of  the  Order  of  St. 
George  in  raised  work ;  and  over  another,  the  royal  arms  on  one  side, 
and  on  the  other  side  the  same  arms  joined  with  several  more. 
Between  them  was  the  bust  of  a  woman  in  Roman  costume,  "  let  deep 
into  a  circular  cavity  of  the  wall,  bordered  with  festoons  of  delf  earth, 
in  the  natural  colours,  and  glazed.  It  is  said  to  represent  Mrs.  Eleanor 
Gwin,  a  favourite  of  Charles  the  Second,  who  sometimes  made  this 
place  her  summer  residence."  The  bust  is  said  to  have  been  the  work 


of  Sir   P.    Lely.      This   quotation   is   from    Dr.    Bevis's   account,  to  which 
we   are  just   about   to   refer. 

Beyond  this  there  does  not  appear  to  have  been  anything  of  a 
remarkable  character  in  connection  with  the  history  of  the  house  until 
the  year  1756,  when  the  discovery  there  of  medicinal  springs  formed 
the  commencement  of  a  new  epoch  in  its  history.  In  the  year  1760, 
John  Bevis,  M.D.,  published  An  Experimental  Enquiry  concerning  the 
Contents,  Qualities,  and  Medicinal  Virtues  of  the  two  Mineral  Waters,  lately 
discovered  at  Bagnigge  Wells,  near  London.  In  1767,  a  second  edition, 
with  additions,  was  published,  from  whence  the  following  curious  facts 
are  extracted  : — 

"These  wells  are  situated  a  little  way  out  of  London,  in  the  high 
road  from  Coppice  Row,  or  Sir  John  Oldcastle's,  which,  about  a  quarter 
of  a  mile  further,  at  Battle-Bridge  turnpike,  comes  into  the  great  new 
road  from  Paddington  to  Islington,  affording  an  easy  access  to  the  spring 
for  coaches  from  all  parts :  And  the  foot  path  from  Tottenham  Court 
Road,  by  Southampton  Row,  Red  Lion  Street  and  the  Foundling  Hospital, 
to  Islington,  Clerkenwell,  and  Old  Street,  running  close  by  the  wells,  is 
no  less  convenient  for  such  as  prefer  walking  exercise. 

"  The  place  where  the  waters  issue,  is  environed  with  hills  and 
rising  ground  every  way  but  to  the  south,  and,  consequently,  screened 
from  the  inclemency  of  the  more  chilling  winds.  Primrose  Hill  rises 
westward  ;  on  the  north-west  are  the  more  distant  elevations  of  Hamp- 
stead  and  Highgate ;  on  the  north  and  north-east  there  is  a  pretty  sudden 
ascent  to  Islington  and  the  New  River  Head,  and  a  near  prospect  of 
London  makes  up  the  rest  of  the  circumference,  with  the  magnificent 
structure  of  St.  Paul's,  full  in  front,  and  nearly  upon  a  level  with 
Bagnigge  House. 

"Such  a  situation,  however  agreeable  in  itself,  and  favourable  to 
the  production  and  maintenance  of  springs,  should  seem,  nevertheless,  to 
expose  their  waters  to  be  frequently  contaminated  and  spoiled  by  in- 
undations from  large  and  sudden  rains :  And  yet  that  these  springs  ever 
suffer  the  least  damage  on  that  account  does  not  appear;  since  they 
are  found  to  retain  their  genuine  clearness,  mineral  flavours,  and  virtues, 
through  all  seasons  and  vicissitudes  of  weather.  The  floods  which,  at 
times  roll  down  toward  this  spot,  are  all  received  and  carried  off  quick, 

150  ST.    PANCRAS. 

without  ponding,  by  a  rivulet,  anciently  called  the  River  Fleet,  which 
running  near  Pancras  Church,  and  the  Brill,  passes  under  Battle  Bridge, 
and  so  hard  by  the  wells,  to  London,  discharging  itself  into  Fleet-ditch, 
and  at  last  into  the  Thames.  Add  to  this,  that  although  it  be  difficult 
to  dig  hereabouts  two  or  three  feet  deep  without  encountering  springs, 
yet  do  the  sources  of  the  wells  lye  so  low,  as  to  be  inaccessible  to  any 
percolations  of  rain  or  other  waters,  from  or  near  the  surface. 

"  At  what  time  these  waters  were  first  known  to  be  possessed  of 
salutary  qualities,  cannot  be  made  out  with  any  degree  of  evidence.  A 
tradition  goes,  that  the  place  of  old  was  called  Blessed  Mary's  Well ; 
but  that  the  name  of  the  Holy  Virgin  having  in  some  measure  fallen 
into  disesteem  after  the  Reformation,  the  title  was  altered  to  Black 
Mary's  Well,  as  it  now  stands  upon  Mr.  Rocque's  map,  and  then  to 
Black  Mary's  Hole ;  though  there  is  a  very  different  account  of  these 
later  appellations :  For  there  are  those  who  insist  they  were  taken 
from  one  Mary  Woolaston,  whose  occupation  was  attending  at  a  well, 
now  covered  in,  on  an  opposite  eminence,  by  the  footway  from  Bagnigge 
to  Islington,  to  supply  the  soldiery,  encamped  in  the  adjacent  fields, 
with  water.  But  waiving  such  uncertainties,  it  may  be  relied  on  for 
truth  that  the  present  proprietor,  upon  taking  possession  of  the  estate, 
found  two  wells  thereon,  both  steaned  in  a  workmanlike  manner;  but 
when,  or  for  what  purpose  they  were  sunk,  he  is  entirely  ignorant." 

The  water  of  these  wells  was  of  two  kinds  ;  one  had  aperient  quali- 
ties; the  other  tonic,  being  of  a  chalybeate  nature.  It  will  be  unnecessary 
to  give  any  account  of  the  various  experiments  made  by  Dr.  Bevis  in 
his  studies  of  the  properties  of  these  waters,  and  of  which  he  has  given 
full  details  in  his  book ;  but  a  few  interesting  particulars  of  the  acci- 
dents which  led  to  the  discovery  of  the  medicinal  characteristics  of  the 
waters  may  be  added. 

In  the  year  1757,  upon  boiling  some  of  the  laxative  sort  of  water 
in  a  tea  kettle,  it  was  observed  to  turn  whitish  and  foul,  which  caused 
it  to  be  rejected  for  culinary  uses.  The  same  year,  a  man  who  was 
employed  at  some  snuff-mills,  then  erected  close  to  the  well,  happening 
to  be  feverish  and  thirsty,  drank  plentifully  of  the  water,  and  found 
himself  immoderately  purged  by  it,  which  gave  the  first  intimation  of 
its  cathartic  quality. 


The  well  from  whence  this  water  was  obtained  was  about  twenty- 
two  feet  deep.  There  was  not  the  least  appearance  of  any  water 
trickling  in  through  the  junctures  of  the  steining ;  it  clearly  arose  from 
the  very  bottom  of  the  shaft,  and  came  in  slowly  through  a  blue  clay. 
This  was  discovered  when  continued  pumping  had  almost  entirely 
exhausted  the  supply  of  water. 

As  the  pump  brought  it  up  from  the  well  the  water  was  remarkably 
clear  and  limpid,  and  it  is  said  to  have  discharged  more  air  bubbles 
at  the  surface  than  most  waters  do  at  the  spring  head,  although  it  was 
less  remarkable  in  this  respect  than  the  Bagnigge  chalybeate  waters.  It 
never  turned  foul  or  deposited  any  sediment,  or  threw  up  any  scum, 
if  kept  in  clean  vessels,  unless  heated  to  a  degree  much  beyond  that  of 
the  warmth  of  any  known  climate.  It  did  not  taste  disagreebly  in  the 
mouth  ;  but  being  swallowed,  left  a  distinguishable  brackish  bitterness  on 
the  palate ;  and  there  was  nothing  remarkable  in  it  as  to  smell,  when 

As  far  as  the  chalybeate  waters  are  concerned,  it  appears  that  in  the 
year  1757,  the  spot  of  ground  in  which  this  well  was  sunk,  was  let  out 
to  a  gentleman  curious  in  gardening,  who  observed  that  the  oftener  he 
watered  his  flowers  with  it  the  less  they  throve.  "  I  happened,"  says 
Dr.  Bevis,  in  his  interesting  account,  "towards  the  end  of  that  summer 
to  be  in  company  with  a  friend  or  two  who  made  a  transient  visit  to 
Mr.  Hughes,  was  asked  to  taste  the  water  ;  and  being  surprised  to  find 
its  flavour  so  near  that  of  the  best  German  chalybeats,  did  not  hesitate 
to  declare  my  opinion  that  it  might  be  made  of  great  benefit  both  to 
the  public  and  himself.  At  my  request  he  sent  me  some  of  the  water 
in  a  large  stone  bottle,  well  corked,  the  next  day ;  a  gallon  whereof  I 
immediately  set  over  the  fire,  and  by  a  hasty  evaporation  found  it 
very  rich  in  mineral  contents,  though  much  less  so  than  I  afterwards 
experienced  it  to  be  when  more  leisurely  exhaled  by  a  gentle  heat. 
Whilst  this  operation  was  carrying  on,  I  made  some  experiments  on  the 
remainder  of  the  water,  particularly  with  powdered  galls,  which  I  found 
to  give,  in  less  than  a  minute,  a  very  rich  and  deep  purple  tincture  to  it, 
that  lasted  many  days  without  any  great  alteration.  I  reported  these 
matters  to  Mr.  Hughes,  but  soon  after  a  very  dangerous  fit  of  sickness 
put  a  stop  to  my  experiments,  which  I  resumed  not  that  year,  nor 


S7\    PANCRAS. 

till  lately,  when  the  proprietor  called  and  told  me  his  waters  were  got 
into  very  great  vogue,  and  known  by  the  name  of  the  Bagnigge  Wells, 
which  indeed  I  remembered  to  have  seen  in  the  newspapers,  without 
so  much  as  guessing  it  had  been  given  to  these  springs.  Mr.  Hughes 
took  me  to  his  wells,  where  I  was  not  a  little  pleased  with  the  elegant 
accommodation  he  had  provided  for  company  in  so  short  a  time. 
Upon  intimating  his  desire  that  I  would  proceed  to  complete  a  proper 
series  of  experiments  on  the  waters,  and  draw  up  some  rational  account 
of  them,  I  consented  to  do  so ;  the  result  of  all  which  is  the  little 
treatise  now  humbly  submitted  to  the  public. 

"  The  chalybeat  well  is  just  behind  the  pump  room,  about  forty 
yards  south  of  the  purging  well,  being  almost  twenty  feet  deep,  and 
near  two  yards  in  diameter  within  the  steaning.  It  is  fed  by  no  less 
than  four  springs  drilling  through  the  steaning,  the  strongest  and  purest 
of  which  is  one  that  runs  in  plentifully  from  the  north.  It  has  been 
found  upon  exhausting  this  well  that  it  replenishes  at  the  rate  of  three 
feet  in  an  hour. 

"  The  water  fresh  pumped  up  is  exceeding  clear,  and  much  of  the 
complexion  of  pure  rain  water ;  has  something  of  a  sulphury  smell  as  it 
issues  out,  and  discharges  great  quantity  of  air-bubbles  at  the  surface.  Its 


taste  is  highly  ferrugineous,  with  an  agreeable  and  sprightly  subacid 

In  an  appendix  to  the  book,  the  author  gives  particulars  of  several 
remarkable  cures  which  had  been  effected  by  the  use  of  these  mineral 

Very  soon  after  the  house  was  opened  as  a  public  spa,  it  rose  into 
notoriety  also  on  account  of  its  tea-gardens,  which  became  a  highly 
popular  place  of  resort  on  Sundays.  The  gardens  covered  an  extensive 
piece  of  ground,  and  were  decorated  in  the  old-fashioned  manner,  with 
walks  in  formal  lines,  a  profusion  of  leaden  statues,  alcoves,  and  fountains. 
They  were  much  frequented  by  the  lower  sort  of  tradesmen.  The 
following  was  a  popular  comic  song  in  those  days  : — 


"  Come,  come,  Miss  Prissy,  make  it  up,  and  we  will  lovers  be, 
And  we  will  go  to  Bagnigge  Wells,  and  there  will  have  some  tea ; 
It's  there  you'll  see  the  lady-birds  upon  the  stinging  nettles, 
And  there  you'll  see  the  waiters,  ma'am,  with  all  their  shining  kettles. 
Oh  la  !     Oh  dear,  O  dash  my  vig,  how  funny. 

It's  there  you'll  see  the  waiters,  ma'am,  will  serve  you  in  a  trice, 

With  rolls  all  hot  and  butter  pats  serv'd  up  so  neat  and  nice  : 

And  there  you'll  see  the  fishes,  ma'am,  more  curioser  than  whales, 

Oh !  they're  made  of  gold  and  silver,  ma'am,  and  they  wag  their  little  tails. 

And  they're  you'll  hear  the  organ,  ma'am,  and  see  the  water-spouts, 
Oh,  we'll  have  some  rum  and  water,  ma'am,  before  that  we  go  out, 
We'll  coach  it  into  town,  ma'am,  we  won't  return  to  shop. 
But  we'll  go  to  thingimy  hall,  ma'am,  and  there  we'll  have  a  drop. 
Oh  la!     Oh  dear!"  &c. 

A  humorous  engraving  showing  Charles  Griffith,  the  Bagnigge  Wells 
organist,  seated  and  performing  upon  an  organ,  was  published  about  the 
time  when  these  gardens  enjoyed  the  greatest  share  of  popular  support. 
The  following  lines  are  engraved  beneath  the  picture : 


What  passion  cannot  Music  raise  &  quell ! 
When  G[rirfith]   struck  his  corded  shell, 
The  listning  Drunkards  stood  around, 
And  wondring  on  their  faces  fell. 

Vide  Dry  [den] 's  Ode  to  S.  Cecillia's  Night 
Pubd  for  the  Benefit  of  decayed  Musicians." 

ST-    P 

An  account  published  in  1788,  says  of  Bagnigge  Wells :  "  It  is  a 
place  of  Health,  like  most  of  those  in  or  about  this  metropolis,  because 
a  place  of  relaxation  and  amusement,  and  a  tea-drinking  convenience  for 
Sundays,  &c. 

"  There  is  a  handsome  long  room,  the  organ  in  which  was  once  a 
favourite  part  of  the  amusement  of  such  as  resorted  thither  in  motley 
crowds  '  to  kill  an  idle  hour.' 

"  But  what  seems  most  attractive  to  company  (if  we  except  the  desire 
of  seeing  and  being  seen,  of  appointed  interviews,  or  the  attractions  they 
appear  to  have  for  each  other)  is  the  circumstance  of  gardens  laid  out 
prettily  enough  in  what  is  called  the  miniature  taste,  with  convenient 
boxes  for  the  company  :  but  being  situate  on  low  ground,  are  subject  to 
be  frequently  overflowed. 

"  Having  already  observed  what  a  motley  groupe  the  company  forms, 
it  may  be  expected  that  too  many  among  them  are  of  very  indifferent 
characters,  a  consideration  which  has  contributed  much  to  bring  the 
place  into  disrepute ; — in  the  mean  time  its  being  particularly  open  on 
Sundays,  appears  lately  to  have  drawn  the  attention  of  the  magistrates. 
Better  order  is  to  be  kept,  and  special  care  taken  that  none  are 
admitted  during  the  hours  of  divine  service. 

"  Perhaps  it  may  be  thought  not  a  little  remarkable  that  the 
proprietor  of  these  Wells  is  ranked  with  the  people  called  methodists, 
and  was  a  constant  attendant  at  a  certain  well-known  neighbouring 
chapel,  where  the  congregation  was  of  that  description,  whilst  he 
suffered  the  sabbath  to  be  incroached  on,  and  scenes  of  dissipation  to 
prevail  on  his  own  premises.  \Ve  mean  not  to  be  invidious ;  but  the 
remark  is  obvious,  and  seems  to  carry  its  comment  with  it." 

In  1779,  a  poem  entitled  "Bagnigge  Wells"  was  issued,  in  quarto 
size,  at  one  shilling.  It  is  supposed  to  have  been  written  by  Hawkins, 
but  the  copy  I  have  examined  unfortunately  has  lost  its  title  page. 
The  poem  is  unfit  for  quotation,  but  the  copious  foot-notes  are 
remarkable  for  their  humour  and  sarcasm. 

In  the  year  1813,  a  new  tenant  took  Bagnigge  Wells,  and  the 
grounds  were  made  considerably  smaller.  In  the  sale  that  then  took 
place,  the  catalogue  described  the  fixtures  and  fittings  as  comprising  a 
temple,  a  grotto,  arbours,  boxes,  large  lead  figures,  pumps,  shrubs,  two 


hundred  drinking  tables,  three  hundred  and  fifty  wooden  seats,  etc.  The 
temple  and  grotto  were  purchased  by  the  new  proprietor,  and  remained  on 
the  grounds  till  the  entire  breaking  up  of  the  house  in  1844.  The  temple 
consisted  of  a  roofed  and  circular  kind  of  colonnade,  formed  by  a 
double  row  of  pillars  and  pilasters  with  an  interior  balustrade  — a 
building  much  like  the  water-temples  at  the  Crystal  Palace.  In  its 
centre  was  a  double  pump,  one  piston  of  which  supplied  the  chalybeate 
water,  and  the  other  the  cathartic  water.  The  grotto  was  a  little 
castellated  building,  of  two  apartments,  open  to  the  gardens,  in  the 
form  of  a  sexagon,  and  covered  for  the  most  part  with  shells,  pebble- 
stones, and  bits  of  glass  stuck  in  compo.  In  the  long  room  was  an 
organ,  and  a  bust  of  Nell  Gwynne,  in  a  circular  border  composed  of 
a  variety  of  fruits,  supposed  to  be  in  allusion  to  her  original  occupation 
of  selling  fruit  at  the  playhouse.  These  specimens  of  carved  work 
were  originally  over  a  chimneypiece  in  the  ancient  mansion,  and  being 
sold  by  auction,  were  restored,  painted,  regilt,  and  put  up  in  the 
room  by  the  proprietor  of  Bagnigge  Wells. 

It  appears  that  the  gardens,  after  the  curtailment  of  their  fair  pro- 
portions, soon  began  to  decline  in  the  popular  favour,  or  at  least  they 
appealed  to  the  tastes  of  a  lower  class  of  visitors.  The  once  famous 
resort  sank  down  to  a  "  three-penny "  concert-room.  Mr.  Allcock  was  the 
performer  upon  the  organ,  but  the  main  attraction  was  Paddy  O'Rourke; 
some  singers  named  Alford,  Ozealey,  Prynn,  Box,  Sloman,  Booth,  Gibbs, 
Dickie,  and  others,  also  gave  their  aid.  The  songs  and  duets  were 
diversified  by  the  delivery  of  portions  of  plays,  but  without  scenery  or 
dresses.  This  place  was,  in  fact,  the  precursor  of  the  Grecian,  the 
Britannia,  and  other  saloons,  the  Bower  at  Westminster  Bridge,  etc.  It 
was  kept  for  many  years  by  a  man  named  Thoroughgood.  Soon  after 
the  Battle  of  Waterloo,  he  obtained  one  of  the  hoofs  of  the  horse  shot 
under  the  unfortunate  Duke  of  Brunswick.  This  he  converted  into  a 
snuff-box,  which  he  handed  round  to  the  visitors,  male  and  female,  who 
attended  his  room.  But  the  attraction  of  the  relic  seems  to  have  been 
inconsiderable,  or  only  short-lived,  for  the  place  did  not  pay ;  it  was,  in 
fact,  a  ruinous  concern,  and  his  successors  did  little  better  than  he. 
About  the  year  1870,  Messrs.  Gardiner,  the  brewers,  of  St.  John  Street, 
Clerkenwell,  erected  a  gin  palace  upon  the  site  of  the  gardens. 

156  ST.    PANCRAS. 


At  what  date  the  virtues  of  Pancras  Wells  first  became  known  is 
a  matter  of  some  doubt,  but  it  is  pretty  certain  that  they  were  favoured 
with  a  considerable  share  of  public  patronage  early  in  the  i8th  century. 

The  wells  were  situated  a  little  to  the  south  of  the  old  church  of 
St.  Pancras,  at  that  time  described  as  being  "  about  a  mile  to  the  north 
of  London."  The  gardens  around  the  wells  were  extensive  and  admirably 
laid  out  as  walks  for  those  who  visited  the  place  for  the  purpose  of 
drinking  the  waters.  The  buildings  belonging  to  the  establishment,  too, 
appear  to  have  been  sufficiently  extensive  to  accommodate  a  large 
number  of  visitors.  The  accompanying  reproduction  of  an  Indian -ink 
drawing  in  the  Grace  Collection  at  the  British  Museum  will  be  sufficient 
to  give  a  pretty  clear  view  of  the  locality.  The  following  references 
answer  to  the  numbers  marked  in  the  bird's-eye  view : — 

1.  The  New  Plantation. 

2.  The  Bed  Walk. 

3.  The  Long  Room,  60  feet  by  18  feet. 
4  &  5.     The  Pump  Rooms. 

6.  House  of  Entertainment. 

7.  Ladies'  Walk  and  Hall. 

8.  Two  Kitchen  Gardens. 

9.  Road  to  Highgate,  &c. 

10  &  ii.     Coach  ways  to  the  Wells. 

12.  Footway  from  Red  Lion  St.,  Southampton  Row, 
and  Tottenham  Court. 

13.  Footway  from  Gray's  Inn. 

14.  Footway  from  Islington. 

15.  St.  Pancras  Church. 

1 6.  Old  Church  Yard. 

17.  New  Church  Yard. 

1 8.  Kentish  Town. 

19.  Primrose  Hill. 

20.  Hampstead. 

21.  Highgate. 

A  description  of  the  waters  attached  to  this  view  informs  us  that 
they  "are  Surprisingly  Successful  in  Curing  the  most  Obstinate  Scurvy, 

PA  NCR  AS     WELLS.  157 

King's  Evil,  Leprosy,  and  all  other  breakings  out  and  defilements  of  the 
skin  :  Running  Sores,  Cancers,  Eating  Ulcers,  the  Piles  (herein  far 
excelling  the  Waters  Holt),  Surfeits  or  any  Corruption  of  the  Blood 
and  Juices,  the  Rheumatism  and  all  Inflamatory  Distempers,  most  Dis- 
orders of  the  Eyes  or  Pains  of  the  Stomach  and  Bowels,  loss  of  Appetite, 
sinking  of  the  Spirits  and  Vapours,  the  most  Violent  Colds,  Worms  of 
all  kinds  in  either  young  or  old,  &c." 

In  an  advertisement  displaying  the  virtues  of  these  waters  published 
in  The  Craftsman  of  July  5th,  1722,  there  is  a  note  to  the  following 
effect:  — "  N.B.  As  the  credit  of  these  wells  hath  much  suffered  for 
some  late  years,  by  encouraging  of  scandalous  company,  and  making  the 
long  room  a  common  dancing  room,  originally  built  and  designed  only 
for  the  use  of  gentlemen  and  ladies  that  drink  the  waters  ;  due  care 
will  be  taken  for  the  future,  that  nothing  of  the  kind  shall  be  allowed, 
or  any  disorderly  person  permitted  to  be  in  the  walks." 

Very  near  to  Pancras  Wells  was  a  sort  of  rival  establishment,  the 
Adam  and  Eve  Gardens,  which  attained  to  considerable  popularity  as 
the  resort  of  pleasure  seekers,  although  they  had  not  the  attraction  of 
a  medicinal  spring  to  offer.  The  gardens  were  attached  to  the  Adam 
and  Eve  Inn  (an  establishment  quite  distinct  from  that  at  Tottenham 
Court  Road),  close  by  the  old  church  of  St.  Pancras,  and  to  judge 
by  the  following  announcement,  which  appeared  in  a  newspaper  in  the 
year  1786,  were  specially  calculated  to  meet  the  material  wants  of 
visitors : — 


Charles  Eaton  respectfully  begs  leave  to  inform  his  friends 
and  the  publick  in  general,  that  he  has,  at  a  considerable  expence, 
rendered  his  gardens  and  pleasure  grounds  commodious  and  fit 
for  the  reception  of  the  genteelest  company.  A  choice  assortment 
of  neat  Wines,  Foreign  Spirituous  Liquors,  Cyder,  and  home- 
brewed Ale.  A  good  larder,  and  dinners  dressed  on  the  shortest 
notice  for  any  number  of  persons.  Societies  and  other  public 
bodies  will  meet  with  every  accommodation  at  the  above  house. 

A   good   Ordinary  on   Sundays. 
Tea,  Coffee,  and  Hot  Rolls,  every  morning  and  evening." 

158  ST.    PANCRAS. 

ST.    CHAD'S    WELL. 

Near  Battle  Bridge,  in  a  small  garden  and  shrubbery  fronting 
Gray's  Inn  Lane,  there  was  formerly  a  mineral  spring,  dedicated  to 
St.  Chad,  Bishop  of  Lichfield.  St.  Chad  was  the  founder  of  the  see 
of  Lichfield.  According  to  Bede,  joyful  melody  as  of  persons  sweetly 
singing  descended  from  heaven  into  his  oratory  for  half  an  hour,  and 
then  mounted  again  to  heaven.  This  was  to  presage  his  death,  and 
accordingly  he  died,  attended  by  his  brother's  soul  and  musical  angels. 

The  following  account  was  published,  in  1831,  in  Hone's  Every 
Day  Book : — 

"  St.  Chad's  Well  is  near  Battle  Bridge.  The  miraculous  water  is 
aperient,  and  was  some  years  ago  quaffed  by  the  bilious  and  other 
invalids,  who  flocked  thither  in  crowds,  to  drink  at  the  cost  of  sixpence, 
what  people  of  these  latter  days  by  '  the  ingenious  chemist's  art,'  can 
make  as  effectual  as  St.  Chad's  virtues  '  at  the  small  price  of  one 

"  If  anyone  desire  to  visit  this  spot  of  ancient  renown,  let  him 
descend  from  Holborn  Bars  to  the  very  bottom  of  Gray's  Inn  Lane. 
On  the  left-hand  side  formerly  stood  a  considerable  hill,  whereon  were 
wont  to  climb  and  browze  certain  mountain  goats  of  the  metropolis, 
in  common  language  called  swine ;  the  hill  was  the  largest  heap  of 
cinder-dust  in  the  neighbourhood  of  London.  It  was  formed  by  the 
annual  accumulation  of  some  thousands  of  cart  loads,  since  exported 
to  Russia  for  making  bricks  to  rebuild  Moscow,  after  the  conflagration 
of  that  capital  on  the  entrance  of  Napoleon.  Opposite  to  this  unsightly 
sight,  and  on  the  right  hand  side  of  the  road,  is  an  angle-wise  faded 
inscription — 


"  It  stands,  or  rather  dejects,  over  an  elderly  pair  of  wooden  gates, 
one  whereof  opens  on  a  scene  which  the  unnacustomed  eye  may  take  for 
the  pleasure  ground  of  Giant  Despair.  Trees  stand  as  if  not  made  to 
vegetate,  clipped  hedges  seem  willing  to  decline,  and  nameless  weeds 

ST.    CHAD'S     WELL. 


straggle  weakly  upon  unlimited  borders.  If  you  look  upwards  you 
perceive  painted  on  an  octagon  board,  '  Health  Restored  and  Preserved.' 
Further  on  towards  the  left,  stands  a  low,  old-fashioned,  comfortable 
looking,  large  windowed  dwelling ;  and  ten  to  one,  but  there  also 
stands,  at  the  open  door,  an  ancient  ailing  female,  in  a  black  bonnet, 
a  clean,  colored  cotton  gown,  and  a  check  apron ;  her  silver  hair  only 
in  part  tucked  beneath  the  narrow  border  of  a  frilled  cap,  with  a 
sedate  and  patient,  yet,  somewhat  inquiring  look.  This  is  '  the  Lady 
of  the  Well.'  She  gratuitously  informs  you,  that  '  the  gardens '  of 

'  St.  Chad's  Well '  are  '  for  circulation '  by  paying  for  the  water,  of 
which  you  may  drink  as  much  or  as  little,  or  nothing,  as  you  please,  at 
one  guinea  per  year,  gs.  6d.  quarterly,  45.  6d.  monthly,  or  is.  6d.  weekly. 
You  qualify  for  a  single  visit  by  paying  sixpence,  and  a  large  glass 
tumbler  full  of  warm  water  is  handed  to  you.  As  a  stranger  you  are  told 
that  '  St.  Chad's  Well  was  famous  at  one  time.'  Should  you  be 
inquisitive,  the  dame  will  instruct  you,  with  an  earnest  eye,  that  '  people 
are  not  what  they  used  to  be,  and  she  can't  tell  what'll  happen  next.' 
Oracles  have  not  ceased.  Wrhile  drinking  St.  Chad's  water  you  observe 
an  immense  copper  into  which  it  is  poured,  wherein  it  is  heated  to  due 
efficacy,  and  from  whence  it  is  drawn  by  a  cock,  into  the  glasses.  You 

160  ST.    PANCRAS. 

also  remark,  hanging  on  the  wall,  a  '  tribute  of  gratitude,'  versified  and 
inscribed  on  vellum,  beneath  a  pane  of  glass  stained  by  the  hand  of  time, 
and  let  into  a  black  frame :  this  is  an  effusion  for  value  received  from  St. 
Chad's  invaluable  water.  But,  above  all,  there  is  a  full  sized  portrait  in 
oil,  of  a  stout  comely  personage,  with  a  ruddy  countenance,  in  a  coat  or 
cloak,  supposed  scarlet,  a  laced  cravat  falling  down  the  breast,  and  a 
small  red  night  cap  carelessly  placed  on  the  head,  conveying  the  idea  that 
it  was  painted  for  the  likeness  of  some  opulent  butcher  who  flourished  in 
the  reign  of  Queen  Anne.  Ask  the  dame  about  it,  and  she  refers  you 
to  '  Rhone.'  This  is  a  tall  old  man,  who  would  be  taller  if  he  were 
not  bent  by  years.  '  I  am  ninety-four,'  he  will  tell  you,  '  this  present 
year  of  our  Lord,  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  twenty-five.'  All  that 
he  has  to  communicate  concerning  the  portrait  is,  '  I  have  heard  say  it  is 
the  portrait  of  St.  Chad.'  Should  you  venture  to  differ,  he  adds,  '  this 
is  the  opinion  of  most  people  who  come  here.'  You  may  gather  that  it 
is  his  own  undoubted  belief.  On  pacing  the  garden  alleys,  and  peeping 
at  the  places  of  retirement,  you  imagine  the  whole  may  have  been 
improved  and  beautified  for  the  last  time  by  some  countryman  of  William 
III.,  who  came  over- and  died  in  the  same  year  with  that  king,  and 
whose  works  here,  in  wood  and  box,  have  been  following  him  ever  since. 
"  St.  Chad's  Well  is  scarcely  known  in  the  neighbourhood,  save  by 
its  sign-board  of  invitation  and  forbidding  externals.  An  old  American 
loyalist,  who  has  lived  at  Pentonville  ever  since  '  the  rebellion '  forced  him 
to  the  mother  country,  enters  to  '  totter  not  unseen  '  between  the  stunted 
hedgerows ;  it  was  the  first  '  place  of  pleasure '  he  came  to  after  his 
arrival,  and  he  goes  no  where  besides, — '  everything  else  is  so  altered.' 
For  the  same  reason  a  tall,  spare,  thin-faced  man,  with  dull  grey  eyes 
and  underhung  chin,  from  the  neighbourhood  of  Bethnal  Green,  walks 
hither  for  his  '  Sunday  morning's  exercise,'  to  untruss  a  theological 
point  with  a  law-clerk,  who  also  attends  the  place  because  his  father, 

'  when  he  was  'prentice  to  Mr. ,  the   great   law   stationer   in  Chancery 

Lane  in  1776,  and  sat  writing  for  sixteen  hours  a  day,  received  great 
benefit  from  the  waters,  which  he  came  to  drink  fasting,  once  a  week.' 
Such  persons  from  local  attachment,  and  a  few  male  and  female  atra- 
bilarians,  who  without  a  powerful  motive  would  never  breathe  the  pure 
morning  air,  resort  to  this  spot  for  their  health.  St.  Chad's  Well  is 


haunted,  not  frequented.  A  few  years  and  it  will  be  with  its  waters  as 
with  the  water  of  St.  Pancras'  Well,  which  is  enclosed  in  the  garden  of 
a  private  house,  near  old  St.  Pancras  churchyard." 

Hone's  prophecy  has  been  fulfilled.  The  glory  of  St.  Chad's  Well 
has  long  ago  entirely  departed.  On  September  i4th,  1837,  " tne 
Premises,  Dwelling-house,  Large  Garden,  and  Offices,  with  the  very 
celebrated  Spring  of  Saline  Water  called  St.  Chad's  Well,  which,  in 
proper  hands,  would  produce  an  inexhaustible  Revenue,  as  its  qualities 
are  allowed  by  the  first  Physician  to  be  unequalled,"  were  sold  at 
Garraway's  Coffee  House,  Change  Alley,  Cornhill.  A  row  of  houses, 
called  "  St.  Chad's  Row,"  was  afterwards  built  upon  the  spot. 

Old  Joseph  Munden,  the  comedian,  when  he  resided  in  Kentish 
Town,  was  in  the  habit  of  visiting  St.  Chad's  Well  three  times  a  week, 
and  drinking  its  waters,  as  did  the  judge  Sir  Allan  Chambre,  when  he 
lived  at  Prospect  House,  Highgate.  Mr.  Alexander  Mensall,  who  for 
fifty  years  kept  the  Gordon  House  Academy  at  Kentish  Town,  used 
to  walk  with  his  pupils  once  a  week  to  St.  Chad's,  to  drink  the 
waters,  as  a  means  of  "  keeping  the  doctor  out  of  the  house." 

A  gentleman,  who  professed  to  have  been  relieved  from  a  very 
deranged  state  of  health  by  the  use  of  these  waters,  placed  in  the 
pump  room  a  poetical  tribute  to  their  praise,  which  thus  concludes : — 

1  Oh !    were  Physicians  to  their  judgment    true, 

'  Would  give  each  plant,  each  spring,  each  herb,  its  due, 

'  No  foreign  aid  we  need  of  Drugs  compound, 

1  To  heal  diseases  or  to  cure  a  wound ; 

1  But  doctors  still,  politically  blind, 

'Deny  the  bliss,  and  torture  half  mankind." 


A  fair  was  annually  kept  at  the  beginning  of  August  in  the  fields 
on  the  right-hand  side  of  the  hedgerow  of  the  road  leading  from 
St.  Martin's-in-the-Fields  to  the  old  tavern  known  as  the  Adam  and 

Upon  the  occasion  of  this  fair,  some  of  the  actors  from  the  chief 
London  theatres,  most  celebrated  for  comic  humour,  entertained  the 
visitors  with  drolls  and  interludes.  They  were,  however,  suppressed  by 
the  magistrates.  An  official  proclamation  issued  by  the  Quarter  Sessions 

162  Sr.    PANCRAS. 

of  Middlesex,  and  published  in  The  Daily  Courant  of  July  22nd,  1827, 
sets  forth  that  "this  Court  being  informed  that  several  common  players 
of  interludes  have  for  several  years  used  and  accustomed  to  assemble 
and  meet  together  at  or  near  a  certain  place  called  Tottenhoe,  alias 
Tottenhal,  alias  Tottenham  Court,  in  the  parish  of  St.  Pancras,  in 
this  county,  and  to  erect  booths,  and  to  exhibit  drolls,  and  use  and 
exercise  unlawful  games  and  plays,  whereby  great  numbers  of  his 
Majesty's  subjects  have  been  encouraged  to  assemble  and  meet  together, 
and  to  commit  riots  and  other  misdemeanours,  in  breach  of  his 
Majesty's  peace ; "  these  interludes  and  drolls  were  prohibited. 

"  Whoever  reads  the  foregoing  Order,"  says  a  writer  in  The  Craftsman 
of  August  25th,  1827,  "will  have  reason  to  suppose  that  the  worshipful 
Gentlemen  were  in  earnest,  at  the  time  of  publication,  to  suppress  all 
the  unlawful  Games,  Plays,  Drolls,  and  other  shews,  mentioned  in  it. 
That  they  are  unlawful  cannot  be  doubted,  since  so  many  of  his 
Majesty's  learned  Justices  of  the  Peace  have  declared  them  to  be  so ; 
and,  therefore,  I  was  in  hopes  that  they  would  have  put  their  Order 
rigorously  into  execution ;  especially  since  these  vagabonds  had  the 
impudence  to  affront  the  Government  and  administration ;  for  whilst  I 
was  stopt  in  the  crowd,  there  were  two  jack-puddings  entertaining  the 
populace,  from  a  gallery  on  the  outside  of  one  of  the  booths ;  one  of 
whom  represented  an  Englishman,  and  the  other  a  Spaniard.  The 
English  jack-pudding  bully'd  the  Spaniard  for  some  time,  and  threatened 
to  treat  him  as  he  deserved ;  but  Jack  Spaniard  defy'd  him,  bid  him 
take  care  of  his  ears,  and  at  last  knock'd  him  down.  I  was  shocked 
at  such  an  insolent  ridicule  of  our  brave  countrymen  in  our  own 
country,  and  expected  to  see  the  scandalous  buffons  taken  into  custody, 
but  I  don't  hear  that  any  examples  had  been  yet  made  of  them.  This 
can  be  imputed  to  nothing  but  the  neglect,  or  something  worse,  of 
'the  High  Constable,  and  Petty  Constables  of  Holbourn  Division,' 
who  were  charged  with  the  execution  of  the  solemn  Order ;  and, 
therefore,  it  is  expected  that  their  worships  will  make  a  strict  enquiry 
at  their  next  meeting,  why  their  Order  was  not  punctually  obey'd ;  this 
Fair  not  only  tending  to  the  encouragement  of  vice  and  immorality,  as 
their  Worships  very  justly  observe,  but  even  to  sedition  and  disloyalty. 
It  is  not  only  frequented  by  pickpockets,  sharpers,  foot-pads,  &c.,  to  the 



utter  ruin  of  many  apprentices,  servants,  and  other  young  people,  but 
renders  our  nation  contemptible  in  the  eyes  of  all  foreigners  who 
reside  here." 


Smock  races  were  a  frequent  and  favourite  pastime  in  olden  days, 
especially  in  country  districts  among  the  rustic  people,  to  whom  the 
indelicacy  of  the  exhibition  does  not  appear  to  have  been  objectionable. 
"  Running  for  the  Smock "  is  said  to  have  been  much  in  favour  among 
the  young  country  wenches  in  the  North  of  England,  where  the  prize 
offered  was  a  fine  Holland  chemise,  usually  decorated  with  ribbons.  The 
conditions  of  the  race  were  that  the  competitors — young  girls  in  their 
teens — should  race,  a  hundred  yards  on  the  turf,  with  nothing  on  but  a 
smock.  A  writer  in  Notes  and  Queries  describes  the  spectacle  as  "  a  very 
pretty  and  merry  sight." 

The  last  race  of  this  kind  in  Kent  was  run  about  the  middle  of  the 
present  century  at  Chilham  Castle,  but  the  practice  was  discontinued  after 
that  "  in  compliance  with  the  proprieties  of  the  age." 

In  the  quaint  old  engraving  which  is  here  reproduced,  a  race  of  this 
sort  is  humorously  represented  as  one  of  the  diversions  in  connection 
with  Tottenham  Court  Fair,  about  the  year  1738. 




The  Colosseum. — Panoramic  View  of  London. — The  Swiss  Cottage. — The  Glyptotheca. — Classic 
Ruins. — Stalactite  Cavern. — Cyclorama  of  Lisbon.  —The  Diorama. — The  Cosmorama. — The 
Royal  Hospital  of  St.  Katharine :  foundation,  benefactions,  statutes,  &c.  —  Raymond  Lully. — 
The  Hospital  Church. — Removal  to  Regent's  Park. 


CURING     the    Great    Exhibition     of     1851,     when 
. '    visitors    from    all    parts    of   the  world   crowded  to 
',    the   great    centre    of   London,    one    of    the    most 
' :    popular  of  the  many  sights  in  the  Metropolis  was 
\ ;    the  Colosseum.     It  was  so  called  from  its  colossal 
size,    and   was  originally  planned    by  Mr.  Hornor, 
and    commenced    for    him,    in    1824,    by    Messrs. 
Peto    and    Grissell,     from     designs     by    Decimus 

Burton,    the    architect    who    was     responsible     for     many 
buildings  in  London  about  that  period. 

The  main  part  of  the  building  was  polygonal  on  the 
outside,  having  sixteen  faces,  each  measuring  twenty-five 
feet  in  length,  and  the  whole  of  the  chief  portion  occupied 
a  space  a  hundred  and  twenty-six  feet  in  diameter  ex- 
ternally. The  walls  were  three  feet  thick  at  the  ground, 
sixty-four  feet  high  on  the  outside,  and  seventy-nine  feet 
high  within.  This  was  surmounted  by  an  immense  dome, 
one  hundred  and  twelve  feet  in  height.  Fronting  the 
west  there  was  a  bold  portico,  with  six  fluted  columns  of 
the  Grecian  Doric  order,  sustaining  a  well  proportioned 
pediment.  Its  entablature  was  extended  along  the  flanks, 

THE     COLOSSEUM.  165 

and  around  the  whole  building.  At  each  angle  were  double  antae,  or 
pilasters,  rising  from  the  base  to  the  cornice ;  and  above  the  parapet  there 
were  three  steps  from  which  sprang  the  dome.  This  was  crowned  by  a 
parapet,  forming  a  circular  gallery,  for  the  convenience  of  visitors  who 
desired  to  enjoy  a  sight  of  the  natural  panorama  which  the  adjacent  Park, 
buildings,  and  distant  country  afforded.  The  upper  portion  of  this  dome, 
seventy-five  feet  in  diameter,  was  glazed  for  the  purpose  of  lighting  the 
whole  of  the  interior,  there  being  no  side  windows.  The  lower  part  of 
the  dome  was  cased  with  sheets  of  copper  painted.  Beneath  the  portico 
there  was  a  drive  for  carriages,  and  a  paved  path  for  foot  passengers.  A 
large  and  lofty  doorway  opened  to  a  handsome  but  plain  vestibule,  with 
its  walls  painted  in  imitation  of  white  marble,  and  its  pilasters  in  imitation 
of  Sienna  marble.  It  was  divided  into  three  compartments,  measuring 
70  feet  by  fourteen,  and  was  forty  feet  in  height  in  the  middle  division. 
This  was  an  intermediate  building,  between  the  open  portico  and  the 
main  work.  On  the  left  was  a  flight  of  descending  stairs  for  visitors  to 
the  middle  gallery ;  and  on  the  right,  another  flight  to  view  the  saloon, 
the  first  gallery,  the  third  gallery  under  the  ball  (the  original  ball, 
removed  from  St.  Paul's  Cathedral),  and  the  exterior  parapet-gallery,  on 
the  summit  of  the  building. 

There  was  a  small,  narrow  corridor  which  conducted  the  visitor 
to  the  centre  of  the  rotunda,  where  he  entered  a  spacious  circular 
apartment,  called  the  saloon,  fitted  up  with  festooned  and  flowing 
draperies,  hung  and  arranged  in  imitation  of  an  immense  tent,  arched 
overhead,  and  formed  with  numerous  recesses  around  the  exterior  verge, 
for  settees  and  tables ;  whilst  a  collection  of  pictures,  sculptured  and 
fancy  pieces,  objects  of  virtu  and  curiosity,  were  arranged  in  various 
places  throughout  the  apartment.  This  room  was  intended  as  a  place  for 
rest  or  promenade.  The  immediate  centre  of  the  room  was  occupied 
by  a  circular  enclosure  of  strong  and  substantial  framework,  containing 
two  spiral  staircases,  and  a  circular  chamber,  in  which  was  suspended  a 
lift  capable  of  conveying  from  ten  to  twenty  persons  to  and  from  the 
first  gallery. 

The  famous  picture  which  this  remarkable  building  was  designed  to 
display  was  a  panoramic  view  of  London  from  the  top  of  St.  Paul's 
Cathedral.  Mr.  Hornor,  the  projector  of  this  work,  finished  the  sketches 

166  ST.    PANCRAS. 

for  its  execution  in  1824,  having  constructed  scaffolding  and  a  suspended 
house,  or  large  box,  above  the  highest  cross  of  the  Cathedral,  at  a  time 
when  a  new  ball  and  cross  were  required,  to  crown  the  summit  of  that 
edifice.  The  undertaking  was  daring  and  hazardous;  but,  when  accom- 
plished, was  calculated  to  produce  such  a  picture  as  had  never  before 
been  executed.  The  painting  of  the  picture  upon  the  walls  of  the 
Colosseum  was  certainly  a  wonderful  performance.  It  covered  upwards  of 
forty-six  thousand  square  feet,  or  more  than  an  acre  of  canvas.  The 
dome,  on  which  the  sky  was  painted,  was  thirty  feet  more  in  diameter 
than  the  cupola  of  St.  Paul's,  and  the  circumference  of  the  horizon  from 
that  point  of  view  represented  nearly  one  hundred  and  thirty  miles.  After 
the  sketches  were  completed  upon  two  thousand  sheets  of  paper,  and  the 
building  finished,  no  individual  could  be  found  to  paint  the  picture  in  a 
sufficiently  short  period.  Artists  of  talent  were  not  possessed  of  sufficient 
hardihood  to  execute  the  difficult  and  dangerous  work.  The  painting  of 
such  a  large  extent  of  surface,  and  of  such  peculiar  formation,  was 
scarcely  more  dfficult  than  to  gain  easy  and  safe  access  to  every  part 
of  it.  The  common  modes  of  scaffolding  could  not  be  adopted,  and 
many  unsuccessful  attempts  were  made  to  accomplish  the  gigantic  and 
intricate  task.  At  length  Mr.  E.  T.  Parris  was  found  willing  to  undertake 
the  work.  This  gentleman  was  possessed  of  considerable  taste,  knowledge 
of  mechanics  and  perspective,  and  practical  knowledge  of  that  sort  of 
painting.  Above  all  he  had  steady  nerves,  enthusiasm,  and  perseverance, 
and  was  able  to  adapt  many  original  and  ingenious  plans  to  that 
peculiar  undertaking,  to  effect  much  with  his  own  hands,  and  direct 
others  by  his  quick  and  discriminating  eye.  Standing  in  a  basket, 
supported  by  two  loose  poles,  and  lifted  to  a  great  height  by  ropes,  he 
painted  and  finished  nearly  the  whole  surface  of  this  immense  picture  of 

Spectators  viewed  the  picture  from  a  balustraded  gallery,  with  a 
projecting  frame  beneath  it  in  exact  imitation  of  the  outer  dome  of 
St.  Paul's  Cathedral.  It  presented  such  a  pictorial  history  of  London — 
such  a  faithful  display  of  its  myriads  of  public  and  private  buildings — such 
an  impression  of  the  vastness,  wealth,  business,  pleasure,  commerce,  and 
luxury  of  the  English  metropolis,  as  nothing  else  could  effect.  Towards 
the  north  the  eye  recognised  Newgate  Market,  the  old  College  of 

THE     COLOSSEUM.  167 

Physicians,  Newgate,  the  Blue-coat  School,  St.  Bartholomew's  Hospital, 
Smithfield  Market,  with  its  crowds  of  sheep  and  oxen,  and  the  new 
Post  Office.  These  were  objects  in  the  fore-ground.  Beyond  them  were 
Clerkenwell,  the  Charter  House,  and  the  lines  of  Goswell  and  St.  John's 
Streets,  Pentonville,  Islington,  and  Hoxton.  In  the  next  or  third  distance 
there  were  represented  Primrose  Hill,  the  noted  Chalk  Farm,  Hampstead, 
and  a  line  of  fine  wooded  and  wild  hills  to  Highgate.  The  bold  Archway 
and  excavated  road  at  the  latter  place,  and  the  line  of  the  great  North 
Road,  from  Islington  to  Highgate,  were  clearly  to  be  traced ;  whilst 
Stamford  Hill,  Muswell  Hill,  part  of  Epping  Forest,  and  portions  of 
Essex,  Hertfordshire,  and  Middlesex,  bounded  the  horizon. 

To  the  east  was  displayed  a  succession  of  objects  all  differing  from 
the  former  in  effect,  character,  and  associations.  Whilst  that  view 
exhibited  the  quiet,  rural,  and  cheerful  scenery  of  the  environs  of  London, 
this  view  embraced  the  warehouses  and  docks  and  other  proofs  of  the 
immense  bustle  and  business  belonging  to  the  River  Thames.  In  the 
immediate  fore-ground  was  St.  Paul's  School-house ;  whilst  the  lines  of 
Cheapside,  Cornhill,  Leadenhall  Street,  and  Whitechapel  carried  the  eye 
through  the  very  heart  of  the  city,  conducting  it  to  Bow,  Stratford,  and 
a  fine  tract  of  woodlands  in  Essex.  On  the  right  and  left  of  this 
line  were  to  be  seen  the  towers  of  Bow  Church,  Cheapside ;  St.  Mary 
Woolnoth ;  St.  Michael,  Cornhill ;  St.  Ethelburg,  Bishopsgate,  and  others 
of  sub-ordinate  height ;  the  Bank,  Mansion  House,  Royal  Exchange,  East 
India  House,  and  several  of  the  Companies'  Halls.  Another  line  nearly 
parallel,  but  a  little  to  the  east,  extended  throughout  Watling  Street  (the 
old  Roman  Road)  to  Cannon  Street,  Tower  Street,  and  the  Tower  of 
London.  It  also  included  Greenwich  Hospital  and  some  portions 
of  Essex. 

Upon  the  south,  with  the  River  Thames,  and  its  numerous  fine 
bridges  in  the  fore-ground,  there  were  shown  an  amazing  number  and 
variety  of  public  and  private  buildings. 

The  western  view  included  the  west  end  of  St.  Paul's  Cathedral, 
Ludgate  Hill,  Fleet  Street,  the  Strand,  Piccadilly,  etc.,  Holborn  and 
Oxford  Street,  the  Inns  of  Court,  Westminster,  Hyde  Park,  Kensington 
Gardens,  and  a  long  stretch  of  flat  country  to  Windsor. 

A  staircase  led  to   the    upper    gallery,    from    which   the  spectator  had 

168  ST.    PANCRAS. 

an  opportunity  of  again  contemplating  the  whole  picture  in  a  sort  of 
bird's  eye  view.  Another  flight  of  stairs  communicated  with  a  room 
containing  the  ball,  which  was  originally  placed  on  the  top  of  the  dome 
of  St.  Paul's  Cathedral,  and  also  a  fac-simile  of  the  cross.  A  few  steps 
more  conducted  the  visitor  to  the  summit  of  the  building,  which 
commanded  extensive  views  over  the  neighbouring  houses  and  parks. 

This  panorama  was  first  exhibited  in  the  spring  of  the  year  1829, 
before  the  painting  was  actually  completed ;  nevertheless  it  was  computed 
that  upwards  of  a  million  spectators  visited  it  during  that  year  and  the 
subsequent  years  until  1845,  when,  under  the  direction  of  Mr.  William 
Bardwell,  the  picture  was  almost  entirely  repainted  by  Mr.  Parris  and  his 
assistant  artists.  In  connection  with  the  original  Colosseum  there  was  a 
conservatory,  three  hundred  feet  in  length,  stored  with  many  choice  and 
beautiful  plants.  There  were  also  waterfalls,  fountains,  ravines,  and  a 
Swiss  Cottage,  the  latter  having  been  designed  by  Mr.  P.  F.  Robinson,  an 
architect,  and  the  author  of  several  publications  upon  architectural  subjects. 

Numerous  structural  alterations  were  made  in  the  building,  in  addition 
to  the  repainting  of  the  panorama  in  1845..  The  entrance  on  the 
Regent's  Park  side  was  considerably  improved,  and  from  it  the  visitor 
proceeded  down  a  handsome  and  well-lighted  staircase  to  a  vestibule, 
leading  to  the  Glyptotheca,  or  Museum  of  Sculpture,  the  Classic  Ruins, 
Conservatory,  etc. 

The  eastern  entrance  in  Albany  Street  was  newly  constructed  at  that 
period  for  the  convenience  of  such  visitors  as  desired  to  enter  from  that 
side  of  the  Colosseum.  Entering  here  by  large  folding  doors,  the  visitor 
passed  into  a  square  vestibule ;  thence,  to  the  left,  into  a  noble  arched 
corridor,  reminding  the  Italian  tourist  of  the  entrance  to  the  Vatican. 
The  corridor  was  lighted,  during  the  day,  from  above,  by  several  circles 
of  cut  and  ground  glass ;  and,  at  night,  by  twenty-six  bronze  tripods. 
Descending  to  the  basement  story  by  three  easy  flights  of  steps,  he 
entered  a  spacious  apartment,  supported  by  columns  and  pilasters,  and 
adorned  with  glass  chandeliers :  in  this  room  refreshments  could  be 
obtained.  Glass  doors  opened  at  the  north  end  into  the  Swiss  Cottage, 
and  at  the  south  into  the  Conservatories  and  Promenade.  Proceeding 
from  the  refreshment  room,  a  similar  corridor  to  that  on  the  Regent's 
Park  side  of  the  building  conducted  the  visitor  to  the  Glyptotheca. 

THE     COLOSSEUM.  169 

The  Glyptotheca,  or  Museum  of  Sculpture,  designed  and  erected  by 
Mr.  William  Bradwell,  chief  machinist  of  Covent  Garden  Theatre,  was  a 
much  finer  apartment  than  that  known  as  the  "  Saloon  of  Arts,"  which 
was  originally  constructed  upon  this  site.  In  lieu  of  the  draperies,  which 
had  the  appearance  of  a  large  tent  hastily  fitted  up  for  some  temporary 
purpose,  the  visitor  now  beheld  a  lofty  dome,  of  several  thousand  feet  of 
richly  cut  glass,  springing  from  an  entablature  and  cornice  supported  by 
numerous  columns.  The  frieze  was  enriched  with  the  whole  of  the 
Panthenaic  procession  from  the  Elgin  Marbles,  modelled  by  Mr.  Henning, 
Junr.  This  was  continued  without  interruption  around  the  entire  circum- 
ference of  the  Hall,  and  above  it  were  twenty  fresco  paintings,  by 
Mr.  Absalom,  of  allegorical  subjects  on  panels,  the  mouldings,  cornices, 
capitals  of  columns,  and  enrichments  being  all  in  gold.  Beyond  the  circle 
of  columns  was  another  of  as  many  pilasters,  dividing  and  supporting 
arched  recesses,  in  each  of  which,  as  well  as  between  the  columns,  were 
placed  works  of  art  from  the  studios  of  some  of  the  most  eminent  British 
and  foreign  sculptors,  who  gladly  availed  themselves  of  the  opportunity 
for  the  first  time  afforded  them  in  London  of  exhibiting  their  productions 
with  those  advantages  of  light  and  space  so  desirable  for  such  a  purpose. 

In  the  centre  of  the  building  was  the  circular  frame-work  enclosing 
the  staircase  leading  to  the  panorama.  This  was  hung  with  handsome 
drapery  from  the  summit  of  the  arched  dome  to  the  floor,  concealing  the 
stairs,  and  harmonizing  with  the  prevailing  tints  of  the  architectural 
decorations.  Around  this  were  seats  covered  with  rich  Utrecht  velvet, 
raised  on  a  dais,  and  divided  by  groups  of  Cupid  and  Psyche  supporting 
candelabra  in  the  form  of  palm-trees.  Various  other  figures  supported 
branches  for  lights  around  the  outer  circle. 

In  repainting  the  "Grand  Panorama  of  London,"  as  it  was  now 
called,  Mr.  Parris  materially  improved  the  sky  and  distant  country,  giving 
to  the  picture  the  appearance  of  a  clearer  atmosphere,  freer  from  smoke 
than  in  the  first  instance,  and  many  of  the  details  were  brought  out  with 
greater  precision  and  truthfulness. 

To  add  an  appearance  of  greater  reality  to  the  scene,  the  noise  of 
various  clocks  and  chimes  of  church  bells  were  represented  by  suitable 

The  Conservatories  were  newly  stocked   with   flowers  and  shrubs,  and 

I7o  ST.    PANCRAS. 

elaborately  decorated  in  the  Arabesque  style.  In  the  centre  there 
was  a  so-called  Gothic  Aviary,  superbly  fitted  up  with  gilt  carved-work 
and  looking-glass.  The  Exterior  Promenade  had  numerous  clever  repre- 
sentations of  the  marble  columns  and  mouldering  frescoes  of  ancient 
Greece  and  Rome,  including  the  ruins  of  the  Temple  of  Vesta,  Arch  of 
Titus,  and  Temple  of  Theseus.  The  mountain  scenery  around  the  Swiss 
Cottage,  representing  the  Mer  de  Glace,  Mont  Blanc,  &c.,  was  painted 
by  Mr.  Danson.  There  was  also  an  imitation  Stalactite  Cavern,  con- 
structed by  Mr.  W.  Bradwell  and  Mr.  Telbin. 

There  was  an  Evening  Exhibition  at  the  Colosseum,  when  an  extra- 
ordinary panorama  of  "  London  by  Night "  was  shown.  This  immense 
picture  had  no  support  from  the  wall,  on  which  the  day  view  was  painted 
behind  it.  It  was  erected  and  illuminated  every  evening,  after  the  closing 
of  the  morning  exhibition.  The  streets  of  London  were  represented  as 
being  illuminated,  the  moonlight  was  reflected  in  the  River  Thames,  and 
a  movement  was  imparted  to  it  like  that  of  rippling  water,  and  to  the  sky 
like  that  of  fleecy  clouds  flying  steadily  along,  and  various  descriptions  of 
street  music  were  occasionally  introduced. 

At  Christmas,  1848,  was  added  a  superb  theatre,  with  a  picturesque 
rustic  armoury  as  an  ante-room.  The  spectatory,  designed  and  erected 
by  Bradwell,  resembled  the  vestibule  of  a  regal  mansion  fitted  up  for  the 
performance  of  a  masque :  it  was  decorated  with  colossal  Sienna  columns, 
and  copies  of  three  of  Raphael's  cartoons  in  the  Vatican,  by  Horner  of 
Rathbone  Place.  The  ceilings  were  gorgeously  painted  writh  allegorical 
groups,  and  upon  the  front  of  the  boxes  there  was  a  Bacchanalian 
procession,  in  richly-gilt  relief.  Upon  the  stage  passed  the  Cyclorama  of 
Lisbon,  depicting  in  ten  scenes  the  terrific  spectacle  of  the  great  earth- 
quake of  1755,  accompanied  by  characteristic  performances  upon  Bevington's 
Apollonicon.  In  1851,  four  exhibitions  of  the  Cyclorama  were  given  daily, 
and  no  doubt  the  great  influx  of  visitors  to  the  Great  Exhibition  rendered 
that  number  necessary.  During  the  same  year  there  were  daily  afternoon 
and  evening  performances  upon  an  immense  organ  in  the  Glyptotheca. 

In  1855,  the  Colosseum,  with  the  Cyclorama,  were  put  up  to  auction 
by  the  Messrs.  Winstanley.  It  was  then  stated  that  the  Colosseum  was 
erected  at  a  cost  of  £23,000  for  Mr.  Thomas  Hornor,  who  held  a  lease 
of  it  direct  from  the  Crown,  at  a  ground  rent  of  £262  i8s.,  for  a  period 

THE     DIORAMA.  171 

of  ninety-nine  years,  sixty-nine  of  which  were  unexpired  on  the  loth  of 
October,  1854.  He  subsequently  expended  above  £100,000  to  carry  out 
the  objects  for  which  it  was  intended,  by  decorating  the  interior, 
purchasing  pictures,  &c.  In  August,  1836,  the  lease  was  sold  to  Messrs. 
Braham  and  Yates.  Mr.  Braham  laid  out  about  £50,000  on  the  building, 
which  in  a  few  years  afterwards  became  the  property  of  Mr.  Turner,  who 
added  the  Cyclorama,  which  cost  £20,000,  so  that  the  entire  edifice  cost 
above  £200,000.  The  sum  of  £20,000  was  bid,  but  the  property  was  not 

At  Christmas,  in  1856,  after  having  been  long  closed,  the  building 
was  opened  to  the  public,  with  an  admission  charge  of  one  shilling. 
Under  the  charge  of  Dr.  Bachhoffner,  it  continued  open  till  the  spring  of 
1864,  when  it  was  again  closed.  The  sale  of  the  site  was  announced  in 
1870.  In  December,  1871,  it  was  announced  that  a  company  was  about 
to  transform  the  building  and  grounds  into  club-chambers,  baths,  a 
winter  garden,  &c.  In  1874  it  was  sold ;  and  large  mansions,  and  a 
mews,  have  subsequently  taken  the  place  of  the  old  building. 


A  building  was  set  up  on  the  eastern  side  of  Park  Square,  Regent's 
Park,  as  early  as  1823,  for  the  accommodation  of  a  diorama  which  had 
long  been  an  object  of  wonder  and  delight  in  Paris.  It  was  opened  in 
the  latter  part  of  the  year  1823,  having  been  erected  by  Messrs.  Morgan 
and  Pugin  in  the  short  space  of  four  months  at  a  cost  of  about  £9,000 
or  £10,000.  The  Diorama  consisted  of  two  pictures,  eighty  feet  in 
length  and  forty  feet  in  height,  painted  in  solid  and  in  transparency, 
arranged  so  as  to  exhibit  changes  of  light  and  shade,  and  a  variety  of 
natural  phenomena ;  the  spectators  being  kept  in  comparative  darkness, 
while  the  picture  received  a  concentrated  light  from  a  ground-glass 
roof.  The  contrivance  was  partly  optical,  partly  mechanical ;  and  con- 
sisted in  placing  the  pictures  within  the  building  so  constructed  that  the 
saloon  containing  the  spectators  revolved  at  intervals,  and  brought  in 
succession  the  two  distinct  scenes  into  the  field  of  view,  without  the 
necessity  of  the  spectators  removing  from  their  seats  ;  while  the  scenery 
itself  remained  stationary,  and  the  light  was  distributed  by  transparent 
and  moveable  blinds — some  placed  behind  the  picture  for  intercepting  and 

I72  ST.    PANCRAS. 

changing  the  colour  of  the  rays  of  light,  which  passed  through  the  semi- 
transparent  parts.  Similar  blinds  above  and  in  front  of  the  picture  were 
moveable  by  cords,  so  as  to  distribute  or  direct  the  rays  of  light.  The 
revolving  motion  given  to  the  saloon  was  an  arc  of  about  seventy-three 
degrees ;  and  while  the  spectators  were  thus  passing  round,  no  person 
was  permitted  to  go  in  or  out.  The  revolution  of  the  saloon  was 
effected  by  means  of  a  sector,  or  portion  of  a  wheel  with  teeth  which 
worked  in  a  series  of  wheels  or  pinions.  One  man,  by  turning  a  winch, 
moved  the  whole.  The  space  between  the  saloon  and  each  of  the  two 
pictures  was  occupied  on  either  side  by  a  partition,  forming  a  kind  of 
avenue,  proportioned  in  width  to  the  size  of  the  picture.  Without  such 
a  precaution  the  eye  of  the  spectator,  being  thirty  or  forty  feet  distant 
from  the  canvass,  would,  by  anything  intervening,  have  been  estranged 
from  the  object. 

The  combination  of  transparent,  semi-transparent,  and  opaque  colour- 
ing, still  further  assisted  by  the  power  of  varying  both  the  effects  and 
the  degree  of  light  and  shade,  rendered  the  Diorama  the  most  perfect 
scenic  representation  of  nature,  and  adapted  it  peculiarly  for  moonlight 
subjects,  or  for  showing  such  accidents  in  landscape  as  sudden  gleams  of 
sunshine  or  lightning.  It  was  also  unrivalled  for  representing  architec- 
ture, particularly  interiors,  as  powerful  relief  might  be  obtained  without 
that  exaggeration  in  the  shadows  which  is  almost  inevitable  in  every 
other  mode  of  painting.  The  interior  of  Canterbury  Cathedral,  the  first 
picture  exhibited  in  1823,  was  a  triumph  of  this  class  ;  and  the  companion 
picture,  the  Valley  of  Sarnen,  equally  admirable  in  atmospheric  effects. 
In  one  day  (Easter  Monday,  1824)  the  receipts  exceeded  £"200. 

Although  the  Diorama  at  Regent's  Park  was  artistically  successful,  it 
was  not  commercially  so.  In  September,  1848,  the  building  and  ground 
in  the  rear,  with  the  expensive  machinery  and  pictures,  was  sold  for 
£6,750  I  again,  in  June,  1849,  for  £4,800 ;  and  the  property,  with  sixteen 
pictures,  was  next  sold  for  £3,000.  The  building  has  since  been  converted 
into  a  Chapel  for  the  Baptist  denomination  at  the  expense  of  Sir  Morton 
Peto,  Bart. 


This  exhibition  was  established  at  Nos.  207  and  209,  Regent  Street, 
in  1820.  It  presented  delineations  of  the  celebrated  remains  of  antiquity, 


and  of  the  most  remarkable  cities  and  edifices  in  every  part  of  the   globe. 
The  subjects  represented  were  changed  every  two  or  three  months. 


The  institution  which  is  represented  by  the  church  and  adjoining 
buildings  pleasantly  situated  on  the  eastern  side  of  Regent's  Park,  near 
Gloucester  Gate,  has  a  long  and  eventful  history.  The  Royal  Hospital  of 
St.  Katharine  owes  its  origin  to  Queen  Matilda,  wife  of  King  Stephen, 
who,  in  1148,  obtained  that  monarch's  consent  to  found  the  Hospital  and 
Church,  in  pure  and  perpetual  alms,  to  secure  the  repose  of  the  souls 
of  her  children,  Baldwin  and  Matilda,  who  were  buried  within  it  before 
her  own  death.  The  foundation  consisted  of  a  Master,  Brethren  and 
Sisters,  and  Almspeople ;  and  the  endowments  were  ample.  The  Queen 
purchased  the  site,  with  a  mill,  from  the  Priory  of  the  Holy  Trinity, 
Aldgate,  for  £6  per  annum,  charged  upon  the  Manor  of  Braughing, 
Herts,  and  gave  them  the  perpetual  custody  of  the  Hospital. 

The  Collegiate  Chapter  of  the  Royal  Hospital  and  Free  Chapel  of 
St.  Katharine,  originally  situated  near  the  Tower  of  London,  was  an 
ecclesiastical  corporation  of  the  Church  of  England  of  higher  antiquity, 
(if  we  may  accept  the  testimony  of  a  well-known  archaeologist,  who  wrote 
in  1824,)  than  any  other  existing.  It  remained  upon  that  site  until  the 
year  1825,  when,  for  reasons  which  will  be  explained  in  another  place, 
it  was  removed  and  the  present  buildings  at  Regent's  Park  were  erected. 

It  is  recorded  that,  soon  after  the  foundation  of  St.  Katharine's 
Hospital,  William  de  Ypres  granted  a  tract  of  ground  called  Edredeshede, 
since  called  Queenhithe,  near  the  Tower,  to  the  above  Priory  of  the  Holy 
Trinity,  Aldgate,  charged  with  a  payment  of  £20  to  the  Hospital  of 
St.  Katharine.  Thus  it  remained  until  1255,  when  Queen  Eleanor,  wife 
of  Henry  III.,  instituted  a  suit  against  the  Prior  and  Convent,  with 
the  final  result  of  the  alienation  of  the  custody,  and  a  dissolution  of 
the  Hospital. 

This  unjust  exercise  of  power  was  effected  in  opposition  to  the 
express  charters  of  Stephen,  Matilda,  and  Henry  III.,  and  two  decisions  of 
the  courts  of  law  (which  had  pronounced  the  right  of  custody  to  belong 
to  the  Priory),  through  the  superior  address  and  ecclesiastical  assistance 
afforded  the  Queen  by  Fulke  Basset,  Bishop  of  London,  who  visited 

174  ST>    PANCRAS. 

the  Hospital,  at  the  lady's  suggestion,  on  St.  Giles's  Day,  1257, 
attended  by  a  train  of  eminent  persons,  and  entered  into  the  following 
examination  of  the  Prior  and  Chapter : — What  was  their  temporal  right 
in  the  Hospital ;  their  spiritual  right ;  of  whom  they  had  the  latter ; 
and  why  they  had  placed  one  of  their  own  Canons  to  preside  over 
the  Hospital? 

The  answer  was  that  they  had  the  same  right  over  this  Hospital 
as  they  had  over  those  at  Corney,  etc.,  etc.,  whose  brethren  and  sisters 
received  their  habits  and  pronounced  their  oaths  before  them.  The 
spiritual  right,  they  said,  was  derived  from  situation  within  the  parish 
of  St.  Botolph,  Aldgate,  on  their  own  land,  and  from  grant  by  the 
Bishop  of  London,  who  had  himself  appointed  the  then  Prior,  who 
was  as  legally  constituted  as  any  ever  had  been.  And,  as  to  the 
appointment  of  one  of  their  own  body  to  the  Mastership  of  St. 
Katharine's,  it  was  done  to  reform  the  Brethren,  who  had  acquired 
the  reputation  of  being  frequently  inebriated. 

The  bishop,  however,  proceeded  to  remove  the  canon  from  his 
office ;  and  prohibited,  under  heavy  penalties,  the  Brethren  and  Sisters 
from  paying  any  kind  of  obedience  to  the  prior  and  convent  of  the 
Holy  Trinity.  He  placed  a  chaplain  over  them  as  master,  who 
probably  presided  until  the  death  of  Basset.  After  the  death  of  the 
latter,  Wengham,  Bishop  of  London,  was  prevailed  upon  by  the  Queen, 
in  1261,  in  conjunction  with  two  bishops  and  others  of  the  Queen's 
council,  to  summon  the  Prior  and  Canons  a  second  time,  when  they 
were  intimidated,  by  threats  of  the  King's  displeasure,  into  a  verbal 
surrender  of  all  claims  to  St.  Katharine's.  Upon  which  the  Bishops 
executed  a  surrender,  under  their  respective  seals,  to  the  upright 
Eleanor.  Urban  IV.,  in  1267,  made  an  ineffectual  attempt  to  prevail 
upon  her  Majesty  to  restore  the  Hospital  to  its  legal  owners ;  who 
very  soon  after  this  shameful  deprivation  granted  the  churchyard  of 
St.  Katharine's  to  the  Brethren  and  Sisters,  for  an  annual  payment  of 
two  pounds  of  wax,  to  be  deposited  on  the  anniversary  of  St.  Botolph, 
upon  the  altar  of  the  church,  and  remitted  to  them  five  shillings 
tithes  at  Chaldfleet,  for  certain  lands  at  Edmonton. 

Queen  Eleanor,  after  the  death  of  her  husband,  Henry  III.,  re- 
founded  St.  Katharine's  by  her  charter,  dated  July  5th,  1273,  for  a 


Master,  three  Brethren,  three  Sisters,  ten  Beads-women,  and  six  Poor 
Scholars,  with  endowments ;  and  reserved  to  herself,  and  the  successive 
Queens  of  England,  the  nomination  of  the  Master,  three  Brothers, 
Priests,  and  three  Sisters,  upon  all  vacancies.  The  Beadswomen  were 
to  receive  their  sustenance  from  the  alms  of  the  Hospital,  and  lodge 
within  it,  for  which  they  were  required  to  pray  for  the  foundress,  her 
progenitors,  and  the  faithful.  The  boys  to  be  maintained,  taught,  and 
to  assist  in  the  celebration  of  divine  service. 

King  Edward  II.,  in  the  year  1309,  granted  to  this  Hospital  the 
perpetual  advowson  and  patronage  of  the  church  of  St.  Peter,  in 
Northampton,  with  the  chapels  of  Upton  and  Kingsthorp  annexed. 

St.  Katharine's  Hospital  is  supposed  to  be  associated  with  the 
memory  of  Raymond  Lully,  the  celebrated  hermetic  philosopher,  who  is 
said  to  have  made  experiments  with  a  view  to  the  discovery  of  the 
secret  of  the  transmutation  of  brass  and  iron  into  gold. 

Lully  was  born  at  Palma,  Majorca,  in  or  about  the  year  1235. 
One  account  of  him  says  that  he  fell  in  love  with  a  young  woman 
who  had  a  cancer,  which  circumstance  induced  him  to  apply  himself 
*o  the  study  of  chemistry  and  physic  for  the  purpose  of  discovering  a 
remedy  for  her  complaint.  He  is  said  to  have  succeeded,  but  the 
account  says  not  whether  they  were  afterwards  married.  Another  account 
is  that  Lully,  upon  finding  the  young  woman  had  cancers  in  the  breast, 
relinquished  his  purpose  of  marriage,  and  undertook  a  course  of  travels 
into  Africa  and  the  East  for  the  purpose  of  converting  the  Mahometans 
to  the  Christian  faith,  where  he  incurred  great  hardships  and  dangers. 
He  was  so  much  inflamed  with  zeal  for  this  object  that,  not  succeeding 
in  his  application  to  various  Christian  princes  for  assistance,  he  entered 
the  Franciscan  Order,  and  returned  to  Africa  with  the  hope  of  obtaining 
the  crown  of  martyrdom.  When  he  was  again  found  in  that  country, 
from  which  he  had  been  permitted  to  quit  only  on  condition  of  not 
returning,  he  was  thrown  into  prison,  and  subjected  to  much  torture. 
He  is  said  to  have  been  stoned  to  death,  but  a  more  detailed  account 
records  his  rescue  by  some  Genoese  traders  after  being  stoned  and  left  for 
dead.  His  rescuers  took  him  into  their  ship  to  convey  him  home,  but  on 
the  passage,  and  just  within  sight  of  his  native  land,  the  poor  old  man 
expired.  His  death  occurring  in  1315,  his  age  must  have  been  about  eighty. 

176  ST.    PANCRAS. 

Lully  was  a  famous  man  in  his  time,  but  his  name  has  long  since 
been  forgotten.  His  works  upon  theology,  physic,  philosophy,  chemistry, 
and  law,  which  are  considered  very  obscure,  have  been  frequently  printed, 
and  in  olden  times  were  much  valued. 

It  is  not  certain,  however,  that  Raymond  Lully  was  ever  in  this 
country.  His  name  seems  to  have  been  confounded,  by  some  writers, 
with  that  of  another  Raymond,  a  Jew  of  Terragona,  who  had  an  apart- 
ment in  the  Tower  of  London,  where  he  tried  some  experiments  in  the 
prevalent  delusion  of  gold  making. 

IR  X335  Edward  III.  granted  to  the  Hospital  of  St.  Katharine  wood 
and  timber,  to  be  taken  in  the  wood  of  Roger  Wast,  of  Leyton,  in  the 
forest  of  Essex,  for  firing,  and  for  the  repair  of  their  mill  at  Reynham. 

The  next  benefactress  to  the  hospital  was  Philippa,  wife  of  Edward 
the  Third.  She  founded  a  chantry  here,  and  gave  to  the  Hospital,  £10 
in  lands  per  annum,  for  the  maintenance  of  an  additional  Chaplain,  with 
the  manors  of  Upchurch,  in  Kent,  and  Queenbury  in  Reed,  in  Hertford- 
shire. She  also  granted  a  new  charter  and  statutes  for  the  regulation  of 
the  hospital.  Some  of  these  regulations  are  curious : — 

"  The  said  Brethren  shall  wear  a  straight  coat  or  clothing,  and  over 
that  a  mantel  of  black  color,  on  which  shall  be  placed  a  mark  signifying 
the  sign  of  the  Holy  Katherine  ;  but  green  cloaths,  or  those  entirely  red, 
or  any  other  striped  cloaths,  or  tending  to  dissoluteness  shall  not  at  all 
be  used.  And  that  the  Brethren  and  Clerks  there  assembled  shall  have 
the  crowns  of  their  heads  shaved  in  a  becoming  manner. 

"  None  of  the  Brethren  or  Sisters  shall  stay  out  of  the  said  Hospital 
longer  than  the  usual  time  of  ringing  the  fire-bells  belonging  to  the 
churches  within  the  City  of  London,  for  the  covering  up  or  putting  out 
of  the  fires  therein.  And  also,  that  none  of  the  Brethren  shall  have  any 
private  interview  or  discourse  with  any  of  the  Sisters  of  the  said  house, 
or  any  of  the  other  women  within  the  said  Hospital,  in  any  place  that 
can  possibly  beget  or  cause  scandal  to  arise  therefrom." 

The  statutes  also  gave  directions  for  the  diet,  stipend,  number  of 
masses  to  be  said  every  day,  visitation  of  the  sick,  and  many  other 
internal  regulations.  They  likewise  notice  the  re-building  of  the  church 
by  William  de  Erldesby,  master  of  the  hospital,  who  began  that  work  about 
the  year  1340;  to  which  building  the  queen  was  a  liberal  contributor. 












Several  royal  and  other  personages  were  among  the  benefactors  to 
this  institution  in  one  way  and  another.  It  is  very  probable  that 
Henry  VIII.  intended  to  dissolve  this  house,  but  his  intention  is  supposed 
to  have  been  altered  at  the  request  of  Queen  Anne  Boleyn. 

St.  Katharine's  Hospital  escaped  the  ravages  of  the  great  fire,  and, 
later  on,  of  the  Gordon  Riots,  although  upon  the  latter  occasion  its 
safety  was  imperilled  by  the  mob.  William  Macdonald,  a  lame  soldier, 
and  two  women  named  Mary  Roberts  and  Charlotte  Gardner  (the  latter 
a  black  woman),  headed  the  rabble,  who  destroyed  the  dwelling  of  John 
Lebarty,  a  publican  in  St.  Katharine's  Lane,  and  were  about  to  demolish 
the  church,  as  a  relic  of  popery,  had  they  not  been  prevented  by  the 
London  Association.  They  were  afterwards  hanged  upon  Tower  Hill. 

The  old  church  belonging  to  this  hospital  contained  a  fine  monu- 
ment to  the  memory  of  John  Holland,  Duke  of  Exeter,  a  great 
benefactor  to  the  establishment ;  and  also  a  very  curiously  carved  wooden 
pulpit,  which  was  given  by  Sir  Julius  Caesar  in  the  time  of  James  I.,  and 
had  around  its  six  sides,  this  inscription : — "  Ezra,  the  scribe,  |  stood 
upon  a  |  pulpit  of  wood  |  which  he  had  |  made  for  the  |  preachin  Neheh. 
Chap.  viii.  4.  j 

Early  in  1824  some  of  the  principal  merchants  in  the  City  obtained 
the  sanction  of  Government  to  apply  for  an  Act  of  Parliament  to 
construct  wet-docks  between  the  Tower  and  the  London  Docks,  a  space 
which  included  the  site  of  the  chapel,  hospital,  and  entire  precinct  of 
St.  Katharine ;  and  when  the  act  was  obtained,  the  new  Dock  Company 
made  compensation  to  the  hospital,  under  the  direction  of  Lord  Chancellor 
Eldon,  to  the  following  amount,  namely  £125,000  as  the  value  of  the 
precinct  estate ;  £36,000  for  building  a  new  hospital ;  £2,000  for  the 
purchase  of  a  site  ;  and  several  smaller  sums,  as  compensation  to  certain 
officers  and  members  of  the  hospital,  whose  interests  would  be  affected  by 
removal  to  another  situation. 

A  site  having  been  granted  on  the  east  side  of  Regent's  Park  by 
the  Commissioners  of  Woods  and  Forests,  the  new  hospital  buildings  were 
erected  there.  The  centre  consists  of  a  chapel,  with  chapter-house ;  and 
on  each  side  of  the  chapel  are  three  houses,  those  on  one  side  being 
for  the  brothers,  and  the  others  for  the  sisters,  with  requisite  offices  and 

outbuildings,  including  a  coach-house  ;  and  at  each  end,  by  the  Park  side, 


there  is  a  lodge.  The  residence  of  the  master,  on  the  opposite  side  of 
the  carriage-road,  is  situated  in  about  two  acres  of  land  laid  out  in 
ornamental  grounds  and  shrubberies.  The  ancient  and  interesting  monu- 
ments were  transported  at  the  expense  of  the  Dock  Company  to  the  new 
chapel,  where  they  have  been  restored  at  an  enormous  expense. 

The  income  in  1890  was  stated  to  be  £7,500,  and  out  of  this  hand- 
some sum  means  were  found  for  the  provision  of  a  home  and  pension 
for  three  sisters  and  three  brethren,  and  a  master;  and  also  for  the 
education  of  thirty-six  boys  and  twenty-four  girls. 



University  College.— St.  Pancras  Volunteers.— The  Royal  Panarmonion   Gardens.— Thorrington's 
Suspension  Railway.— The  Tottenham  Theatre.— The  Cabinet  Theatre. 


N     THE     YEAR     1826,    University    College, 
London,   was  founded.     The   Report    of  the 
Council     to     the     Proprietors,     dated     30th 
September,    1828,    gives    the     following    ac- 
count of  the  early   history    of   the   building. 
"A    portion    of    freehold     land,    containing 
rather     more     than     seven     acres,     between 
Russell   Square   and   the  New  Road,  having 
been    purchased   by    the    Council,    and    the 
design    of    William    Wilkins,    R.A.,    having    been    selected, 
the   first    stone    was    laid   by    the    Duke    of    Sussex,     on 
the    3oth   of   April,    1827.     The   contractors   were    Messrs. 
Henry      Lee     and     Sons.       The     chief     access     to     the 
University   is    by    Gower    Street,    Bedford   Square,   at   the 
upper    end    of   which    the  ground   is   situated.      There   is 
access   also   from   the   new  Road  by  Gower  Street    North, 
and    from    the    west    by   Carmarthen   Street    and    Grafton 
Street,  leading  from  Tottenham  Court  Road. 

"The    building,    when     completed,    will    consist    of    a 
central  part,  and  two  wings  advanced  at  right  angles  from 
its   extremities.    .    .    .    The    central    part    only    has    been 
erected,  and  to  that  the  present  description  is  confined. 

"  At    the    entrance    are    two    temporary    lodges    for  the    porter,   one 
surmounted  by  a  belfry,  the  other  by  a  clock, 

180  ST.    PANCRAS. 

"  As  it  must  necessarily  take  some  time  to  finish  the  dome  and 
portico,  that  part  of  the  building  is  partitioned  off  from  the  rest  of  the 
area,  to  prevent  any  interference  between  the  students  and  the  workmen. 
A  temporary  semi-circular  iron-railing  encloses  the  area  for  the  students, 
leaving  a  communication  to  the  courts  behind;  a  large  space  of  ground 
on  each  side  being  left  for  the  workmen,  while  the  wings  are  building. 
A  broad  paved  footpath  on  each  side  of  the  porter's  lodges,  and 
a  carriage  way  between  the  lodges,  lead  to  the  doors,  in  the  centre 
of  what  may  be  called,  for  the  convenience  of  description,  the  North 
and  South  Ranges,  being  the  portions  of  the  building  on  the  north 
and  south  sides  of  the  portico.  These  doors  are  the  chief  entrances 
of  the  students  to  the  lecture  rooms. 

"  Upon  entering  the  door  of  the  north  range,  there  is  a  room 
on  each  side  of  the  passage,  both  of  which  are  to  be  used  as  lecture 

Detailed  descriptions  of  the  various  rooms  follow,  but  space  does  not 
allow  of  any  mention  of  them.  They  included  a  chemical  laboratory, 
museum  of  materia  medica,  upper  and  lower  north  and  south  theatres, 
libraries,  common  rooms  for  the  students,  refreshment  rooms,  &c. 

Among  the  professors  attached  to  the  University  at  its  commence- 
ment was  Mr.  (afterwards  Sir)  Anthony  Panizzi,  whose  department 
included  Italian  language  and  literature. 

University  College,  London,  was  opened  on  October  ist,  1828,  under 
the  title  of  "  the  University  of  London ;  "  the  institution  was  incorporated 
as  "  University  College,  London,"  by  Royal  Charter,  dated  November 
28th,  1869,  which  was  annulled  by  Act  of  Parliament,  passed  June  24th, 
1869,  whereby  the  college  was  re-incorporated  with  additional  powers, 
and  divested  of  its  proprietary  character. 

The  purpose  of  the  college,  as  expressed  in  the  Act,  is  "  to  afford 
at  a  moderate  expense  the  means  of  education  in  literature,  science, 
and  the  fine  arts,  and  in  the  knowledge  required  for  admission  to  the 
medical  and  legal  professions,  and  in  particular  for  so  affording  the  means 
of  obtaining  the  education  required  for  the  purpose  of  taking  the  degrees 
now  or  hereafter  granted  by  the  University  of  London." 

The  college  was  founded  on  undenominational  principles,  and  supplies 
instruction  in  all  the  branches  of  education — including  engineering  and 




the   fine   arts — that   are    taught    in    the    universities,    with    the    exception 
of  theology. 

The  buildings,  the  chief  feature  of  which  is  the  Corinthian  portico 
at  the  main  entrance,  surmounted  by  a  dome,  were  enlarged  by  a  wing 
in  1881,  and  contain  a  large  library,  and  the  Flaxman  Gallery,  with 
original  models  by  Flaxman. 


The  following  account  of  this  corps  is  taken  from  the  Loyal  Volunteers 
of  London  and  Environs,  published  in  1799 : — 

"  Major  Commandant,  James  Miller. 

"  This  Volunteer  Corps  was  formed  in  April,  1798,  for  the 
preservation  of  Public  Tranquility,  to  assist  the  Civil  Magistrates, 
and  for  the  protection  of  Property ;  but  not  to  march  without 
consent  beyond  their  own  District.  The  corps  consists  of  three 
Companies,  Battalion  and  Light  Infantry,  of  about  340  Privates; 
and  every  man  has  the  care  of  his  own  Arms,  &c.  They  were 
originally  joined  to  the  Kentish  Town  Association,  but  are  now 
unconnected  with  any  Body.  The  St.  Pancras  Volunteers 
received  their  colours  from  the  hand  of  Mrs.  Dixon,  as  Proxy 
for  Lady  Camden,  in  the  Cricket  Ground  belonging  to  Mr.  Lord, 
and  they  were  reviewed  by  His  Majesty  in  Hyde  Park,  on  the 
4th  of  June,  1799,  and  inspected  by  him  on  the  2ist  of  the 
same  month,  at  the  Foundling  Hospital.  Their  Committee  consists 
of  all  the  Officers,  18  Privates,  and  a  Serjeant-major  ;  and  each 
Company  chooses  its  own  Privates. 


Major   Commandant   and    Captain,   John    Dixon. 
First   Company. —  Captain,    Phillip    Lejeune  ; 

Lieutenant,   John   Crompton ; 

Ensign,   —   Robinson. 
Second   Company. —  Captain,   John   Dixon  ; 

Lieutenant,   John    Downman  ; 

Ensign,   —   Adolphus. 

182  ST.    PANCRAS. 

Light   Company. —  Captain,   vacant; 

First  Lieutenant,   John    Pepys ; 
Second  Lieutenant,   John   Cooper ; 
Adjutant,   William    Elliott. 

"  DRESS. 
Helmets:    on   a   Label,   ST.    PANCRAS    VOLUNTEERS;    ornament    on 

ditto,   G.  R. 

Breast-plate,  oval :    S.  P.  V.   and   Crown   at  top. 
Cartouch :   a    Star,    S.  P.  V.  in   centre. 
Buttons :    S.  P.  V. ;    Light    Infantry,    a    Bugle    Horn. 
First    Company,    Gaiters   or   Boots;    Second    Company    and     Light 

Infantry,  Half  Boots." 

The  dress  of  the  St.  Pancras  Volunteers  was  a  blue  coat  and 
pantaloons,  red  lappet,  collar  and  cuffs,  and  white  waistcoat. 

On  stated  days  the  corps  marched  to  Chalk  Farm  to  fire  with 
ball  at  a  target,  for  a  silver  cup  subscribed  for  by  the  corps. 


From  a  prospectus  issued  in  the  year  1829,  it  appears  that  a 
spacious  and  desirable  spot  of  ground  was  selected  very  near  Battle 
Bridge,  a  site  which  in  the  year  1790  was  occupied  by  some  nursery 
grounds  belonging  to,  or  in  the  occupation  of,  a  Mr.  Collins.  To 
assist  in  the  erection  of  the  various  buildings  projected,  which  included 
concert  rooms,  hotel,  etc.,  the  lessees  proposed  to  raise  a  sum  not 
exceeding  £20,000  by  shares  of  £100  each,  to  be  paid  by  instalments, 
as  the  undertaking  proceeded.  The  prospectus  sets  forth  that,  "  In 
addition  to  the  extensively  ornamented  Gardens,  which  will  be 
judiciously  planted  and  pleasingly  interspersed  with  Fountains,  Cascades, 
Temples,  etc.,  it  is  proposed  to  erect  an  Hotel  replete  with  every 
comfort  and  accommodation,  and  which  the  contiguity  of  the  Gardens, 
together  with  Reading  Rooms,  and  Reflectories,  for  the  purposes  of 
refreshment,  which  will  be  supplied  with  the  daily  Newspapers, 
Periodical  Publications,  etc. 

"  The  amusements  in  the  Gardens,  independently  of  the  ingenious 
Rail-way  already  constructed,  will  comprehend  Concerts,  Reading  Rooms, 


and  a  variety  of  novelties  too  numerous  to  detail,  to  which  will  be  added 
a  Botanical  Bazaar,  unique  and  useful  in  character,  also,  Bathing  Rooms 
of  a  peculiar  and  convenient  construction. 

"  A  neat  and  elegant  Theatre  for  Evening  Entertainments  has  been 
fitted  up,  in  which  Opera  and  Ballet  performances  will  be  produced,  with 
appropriate  Decorations,  Scenery,  Dresses,  etc.,  to  which  Shareholders 
will  be  admitted  at  stated  periods. 

"  In  short,  no  pains  nor  expense  will  be  reasonably  spared  in 
rendering  the  general  amusements  of  the  Panarmonion  Gardens  and 
Theatre  effective  and  interesting,  and  it  is  confidently  presumed  they  will 
present  a  novelty  at  once  chaste  and  classical.  Every  care  and  attention 
to  individual  comfort  will  be  observed.  The  price  of  tickets  for  the 
Season,  for  admission  to  the  Theatre  and  Gardens,  will  be  regulated  by 
the  Committee  of  Management." 

The  Grand  Panarmonion  Theatre  was  situated  on  the  north  side  of 
the  Gardens,  and  was  probably  approached  from  Chesterfield  Street  and 
Belgrave  Street.  There  were  entrances  to  the  Gardens  themselves  in 
Manchester  Street,  Liverpool  Street,  and  Argyle  Street.  From  a  contem- 
porary plan  of  the  establishment  it  appears  that  there  were  boxes  and 
covered  walks  all  around  the  Gardens,  and  there  were  a  fountain  and 
cascades  in  the  Gardens.  The  Concert  room  was  on  the  south  side,  and 
the  Theatre,  Billiard  Rooms,  Reading  and  Refreshment  Rooms,  etc., 
occupied  the  entire  width  of  the  north  side  of  the  Gardens. 

The  "ingenious  Rail-way"  referred  to  in  the  prospectus  was  doubtless 
the  "suspension  railway"  invented  by  Mr.  H.  Thorrington,  two  or  three 
illustrations  of  which  appeared  at  the  time.  The  invention  seems  to  have 
consisted  in  suspending  a  boat-shaped  car  from  a  substantial  level  bar, 
along  which  it  travelled  upon  small  wheels.  The  motive  power  was 
supplied  from  the  car  by  means  of  a  wheel  which  was  worked  by  hand, 
and  by  which  means  the  rate  of  progression  was  regulated.  "No  one  can 
believe,"  says  a  contemporary  account,  "  that  this  Car  travels  with  such 
ease  and  rapidity  without  being  a  witness  of  the  fact.  The  idea  is  a  very 
ingenious  one,  and  does  great  credit  to  Mr.  H.  Thorrington,  who  is  the 
inventor.  The  admittance  to  the  Gardens  is  One  Shilling  each  Person, 
entitling  the  parties  to  ride  round  the  gardens  in  the  Car,  or  on  the 
Hobby  Horse.  On  Sunday,  6d.  each  person  to  walk  in  the  Gardens." 

184  ST.    PANCRAS. 

A  further  prospectus  sets  forth  in  detail  the  various  objects  of  the 
institution.  It  was  established  "  for  the  encouragement  and  promotion 
of  the  arts,  in  their  connection  with  dramatic  exhibition,  and 
for  the  cultivation  and  development  of  native  British  musical  talent." 
It  comprised  an  academic  theatre  for  young  professors  and  pupils 
of  the  stage ;  a  subscription  theatre  for  opera  and  ballet  performances, 
admission  to  which  was  limited  to  subscribers,  no  money  being  taken 
at  the  doors ;  a  grand  panorama ;  ornamental  gardens ;  assembly  and 
concert  room ;  exhibition  gallery  for  paintings  and  works  of  art ; 
reading  room,  etc.  Signer  Gemaldo  Lanza  seems  to  have  been 
intimately  associated  with  the  promotion  of  the  institution. 


Francis  Pasqualis,  in  the  year  1780,  at  the  suggestion  of  the  Earl  of 
Sandwich,  built  this  house  originally,  which  was  known  at  first  as  "  The 
King's  Ancient  Concert  Rooms."  In  an  early  period  of  its  history  it 
received  royal  patronage,  as  may  be  seen  from  the  following  notice  in  a 
newspaper  of  1792  : — 

"  This  place  was  honoured  last  night  by  their  Majesties  and 
the  elder  princesses.  The  selection  was  made  by  Lord  Exeter, 
and  consisted,  as  usual,  of  compositions  by  Handel  and  others. 
Master  Walch  was  added  to  the  vocal  corps.  Kelly,  Niell,  Miss 
Pool  and  Miss  Pache  were  the  other  vocal  performers,  and  they 
all  acquitted  themselves  with  their  accustomed  ability.  The  whole 
was  as  usual  forcible  and  earnest,  particularly  the  choruses." 

In  1808  the  celebrated  Master  Saunders  took  the  house  as  an  eques- 
trian theatre,  and  it  was  then  denominated  "  The  Amphitheatre."  At 
one  time  it  was  called  "The  Regency  Theatre."  It  was  afterwards 
called  "  The  Tottenham  Street  Theatre,"  and  in  1823,  when  French 
plays  were  performed  there,  "The  West  London  Theatre."  This  is 
said  to  have  been  the  first  house  in  London  at  which  French  plays 
were  put  on  the  stage.  It  has  frequently  changed  its  name,  having 
been,  at  various  times,  known  as  "The  New  Royal  West  London 
Theatre,"  "The  Queen's  Theatre"  in  1835,  "The  Royalty,"  and  "The 
Prince  of  Wales's  Royal  Theatre." 


The  latter  part  of  its  career  was,  to  say  the  least,  chequered,  and 
before  it  was  finally  closed  it  was  popularly  known  by  the  significant 
but  uncomplimentary  name  of  "  The  Dust-hole."  The  building  is  now 
occupied  by  the  Salvation  Army. 

Most  of  the  celebrated  actors  of  the  day  have  occasionally  performed 
at  this  house.  The  first  appearance  of  C.  M.  Young  was  at  a  private 
performance  there.  The  Royal  Life  Guards  engaged  the  house  for  a 
private  performance  in  1804,  when  Captains  Noel,  Hardy,  Chad, 
Thompson,  and  others  took  parts,  and  after  the  entertainment  concluded* 
a  ball  and  supper  were  provided  at  the  expense  of  Captain  Chad. 
Madame  Catalini  had  a  benefit  there,  when  ten  guineas  were  offered 
for  a  seat  in  the  boxes.  M.  Piozzi,  Mr.  Jones,  Mr.  Lidel,  and  others, 
had  benefits  at  various  times.  It  once  was  known  as  "  Hyde's  Rooms " 
when  Mr.  Griesbach  held  his  annual  concert  there. 


This  little  theatre  in  Liverpool  Street,  like  its  fellow  in  Tottenham 
Street,  Tottenham  Court  Road,  passed  under  various  names.  Each 
new  management  sought  out  some  fresh  name.  From  Palmer's  History 
of  St.  Pancras  we  learn  that  it  was  originally  known  as  "  The  Philhar- 
monic," then  as  "  The  Royal  King's  Cross  Theatre,"  afterwards  as 
"The  Royal  Clarence  Theatre."  After  that  it  was  known  as  "The 
Cabinet  Theatre,"  and  now  as  "  The  King's  Cross  Theatre."  At  the  time 
it  was  known  as  "The  North  London  Athenasum  "  Mr.  George  Bennett, 
of  Sadler's  Wells,  read  lectures  there  on  the  "  Morality  of  Shakespeare's 
Plays."  During  the  more  recent  part  of  its  career  the  theatre  has  been 
principally  engaged  as  an  amateur  establishment. 


Charities :  Heron's  Charity ;  Miller's  Gift ;  Stanhope's  Gift ;  Charles's  Gift ;  Cleeve's  Gift ; 
Coventry's  Gift ;  Platt's  Gift ;  Church  Lands  ;  Donor  unknown.— Ancient  Bequests.— Charity 
School.— The  Foundling  Hospital.— Thomas  Coram.— Hatton  Garden  Premises.— William 
Hogarth's  Pictures.  — Raphael's  Cartoon.  — G.  F.  Handel.  — "  The  Messiah."— Benjamin 
West,  R.A.— The  Small  Pox  Hospital.— The  Royal  Free  Hospital.— North  London,  or 
University  College  Hospital. 


UMEROUS  ancient  charities  belonging  to  the 
parish  of  St.  Pancras  are  mentioned  in  the 
Charity  Commissioners'  Reports. 

William    Heron,  citizen    and   woodmonger,  by 
his    will,    dated    I2th    July,    1580,    after    giving 
certain  annuities  to  his   wife  and   others  for  life, 
and     after    making    various    bequests,     gave     £8 
towards    the     repairing    of    the    highways    from 
time   to   time    in    most    needful    places,    between 
Spital    House    at    Highgate,    and   the    corner   of 
St.    James's    Wall,   and    the    common    highway 
leading   from    Highgate    through    Kentish    Town    to    Battle 
Bridge,   the   same   to   be  yearly    bestowed   by   the   constable 
and  churchwardens   of    the    said  places   for   the   time   being. 
The   yearly   sum    of    £8   is   paid    by    the     Company    of 
Clothworkers   in    London  in   respect  of  this  gift ;   and   it   is 
transmitted  in    rotation    to    the    officers   of    the   parishes  of 
Clerkenwell,    Islington,    and    St.   Pancras,    in   which  parishes 
the   highways  mentioned    by   the   testator   lie. 

According     to    the    Report    of    the    Charity     Commis- 
sioners  in    1826,   the    £8    received    by    the    parish    of    St. 
Pancras   every  third   year  was  carried  to  the  general  parish 
fund,    out  of  which  the   necessary  disbursements  were  made 
for  the   repairs  of  the  highway  lying  within   the   parish. 



In  a  list  of  the  benefactions  to  the  parish  of  St.  Pancras,  printed 
in  1766,  but  purporting  to  have  been  collected  in  the  year  1696,  it  is 
stated  that  John  Miller,  by  his  will,  dated  the  i8th  day  of  July,  1583, 
gave  two  closes  in  Green  Street,  in  the  manor  of  Totten-hall  Court, 
in  this  parish,  containing  about  nine  acres,  to  Simon  Frenchbourne, 
of  Islington,  his  heirs  and  assigns,  upon  the  condition  that  he  and  they 
should  yearly  pay  265.  8^.  to  such  one  poor  impotent  man  as  the  vicar 
and  churchwardens  of  this  parish,  and  four  of  the  tenants  of  the  said 
manor,  should  appoint  from  time  to  time  to  receive  the  same. 

The  Charity  Commissioners,  in  1826,  could  find  no  trace  of  this 
payment,  neither  could  they  ascertain  what  were  the  lands  charged 



It  is  also  stated  in  the  printed  list  above  referred  to  that  Edward 
Stanhope,  knight  and  doctor  of  laws,  by  his  will,  dated  the  last  day 
of  February,  1602,  gave  to  this  parish  £20,  to  be  paid  to  the  Bishop 
of  London  for  the  time  being,  and  to  the  two  Justices  of  the  Peace 
next  inhabiting  to  Kentish  Town,  for  a  present  stock  for  employing 
the  poor  of  the  said  parish  that  dwell  in  the  manor  of  Cantelows,  and  the 
profits  thereof  to  be  to  their  relief.  The  stock  to  be  always  kept  whole. 

In    1826    nothing  further   could   be    learned    respecting   this   gift. 


Thomas  Charles,  by  will,  bearing  date  23rd  December,  1617,  gave 
245.  in  bread  yearly  to  the  poor  of  this  parish  for  ever,  out  of  four 
messuages  in  Fetter  Lane,  London,  three  of  them  adjoining  towards 
the  north  side  of  the  passage  leading  into  King's  Head  Court,  the 
fourth  behind  the  three  said  messuages ;  and  by  decree  in  Chancery, 
dated  the  3d  day  of  April,  in  the  2d  year  of  King  William  and  Queen 
Mary,  the  annuity  is  payable  yearly  at  every  Christmas  for  ever. 

The  property  charged  with  this  payment  in  1826  belonged  to  Mrs. 
Ann  Hooper,  of  Stockwell  (or  of  Prospect  Place,  Walworth),  in  the 
county  of  Surrey. 

A  similar  donation  was  made  by  the  same  benefactor  to  the  parish 
of  Hampstead. 

i88  ST.    PANCRAS. 


In  the  printed  table  it  is  stated  that  Thomas  Cleeve,  on  the  loth 
of  October,  1634,  gave  the  sum  of  £50,  with  which  was  purchased  by 
the  parishioners,  according  to  his  directions,  an  annuity  of  £2  i6s.  a 
year,  payable  out  of  two  acres  of  free  land  of  Mr.  Richard  Balthorp  (and 
in  the  year  1696  the  fee  of  Mr.  Francis  Stanton)  to  the  churchwardens 
of  this  parish  yearly  at  Lady-day  and  Michaelmas-day  for  ever,  to  be 
laid  out  for  13  penny  loaves  of  bread,  and  to  be  bestowed  on  13  poor 
people  of  the  said  parish  (except  the  poor  people  of  Highgate  only) 
every  Sunday,  and  to  such  only  that  come  in  due  time  to  church  or  to 
chapel  to  morning  prayer,  unless  hindered  by  sickness  or  otherwise,  as 
the  vicar  and  churchwardens  shall  allow  to  be  reasonable. 

The  premises  charged  with  this  annuity  are  the  Boot  public-house, 
Greenland  Place,  Somers  Town,  not  far  from  Battle  Bridge,  the  property 
of  Mr.  Lucas. 

The  charity  was  given  away  by  the  parish  clerk  after  morning 
service  at  the  church,  in  penny  loaves,  to  poor  women  of  the  parish 
who  attended  at  the  service. 


Thomas  Coventry,  Esq.,  by  deed  bearing  date  the  loth  of  July, 
1636,  settled  upon  certain  feoffees  for  the  Company  of  Merchant  Tailors, 
London,  the  fee -farm  rents  of  £10  35.  4^.  per  annum,  issuing  out  of 
the  rectory  and  church  of  East  Mouldsey  in  Surrey,  and  that  of  £"14 
per  annum  issuing  out  of  the  rectory  and  church  of  Winslow  in  Buck- 
inghamshire, and  that  of  £j  135.  4^.  per  annum  issuing  out  of  the 
rectory  and  church  of  Kempton  in  Hertfordshire,  for  ever,  upon  the 
condition  that  the  master  and  wardens  of  the  said  company  should 
yearly  for  ever,  upon  the  Feast  of  All  Saints,  pay  out  of  the  same 
rents,  unto  the  overseers  of  the  poor  of  this  parish,  the  sum  of  £5  to 
be  bestowed  in  fuel  and  clothes  upon  the  poor  people  dwelling  in  the 
said  parish  at  or  near  Highgate. 


It  is  stated  in  the  printed  list  of  charities  that  William  Platt,  of 
Highgate,  in  this  parish,  Esq.,  by  a  codicil  to  his  will,  dated  4th 


November,  1637,  £ave  out  °f  the  yearly  revenues  of  the  lands  and 
tenements  given  by  him  to  St.  John's  College,  Cambridge,  the  sum  of 
£14  yearly  for  ever,  to  be  paid  to  the  overseers  of  the  poor  every 
New  Year's  Day ;  £10  thereof  to  be  given  to  ten  poor  people  of  High- 
gate  in  the  said  parish,  and  the  other  £4  to  four  poor  people  in 
Kentish  Town. 


In  the  printed  list  it  is  stated  that  certain  lands,  copyhold  of  inheri- 
tance, held  of  the  manors  of  Toten  Hall  Court  and  of  Cantelows,  in 
the  names  of  eight  trustees,  and  let  in  the  year  1696  to  four  several 
tenants  at  the  rents  of  £6,  £3,  £19  ios.,  and  £8,  were  given  by  a 
person  or  persons  unknown,  for  the  use  and  benefit  of  this  parish,  for 
the  needful  and  necessary  repairs  of  the  parish  church  and  the  chapel. 


The  Report  of  the  Charity  Commissioners,  in  1826,  states  that  there 
is  a  parcel  of  land,  containing  about  three  acres,  lying  at  Kentish  Town, 
in  the  parish  of  St.  Pancras,  called  the  Fortress  Field,  being  copyhold 
of  inheritance,  held  of  the  manor  of  Cantelow,  of  the  rents  of  which 
the  parish  of  St.  Pancras  is  entitled  to  one  third,  and  the  parish  of 
Chipping  Barnet  to  the  other  two  thirds.  In  the  printed  list  of 
benefactions  to  which  reference  has  already  several  times  been  made  it  is 
stated  that  this  land  was  given  by  some  person  unknown,  and  was  then 
(1696)  let  for  £7  ios.  per  annum ;  £2  ios.  thereof  for  the  relief  of  the 
poor  of  this  parish,  as  the  said  parish  shall  in  vestry  direct  and  appoint. 

It  appears,  however,  from  returns  of  charitable  donations  made  to 
Parliament,  that  among  the  returns  for  the  parish  of  Chipping  Barnet 
this  land  was  the  gift  of  John  Brisco,  by  will  dated  in  1666.  The  will 
of  John  Brisco  wras  searched  for,  but  could  not  be  found. 

Upon  an  application  made  some  years  since  to  the  court  of  Chancery, 
the  parish  documents  and  the  court  rolls  of  the  manor  were  searched, 
in  order  to  state  as  fully  as  possible  the  circumstances  belonging  to  this 
property,  but  nothing  further  was  discovered  respecting  its  origin,  or  the 
trusts  on  which  it  is  held,  than  what  appears  in  the  printed  list. 

The  Charity  Commissioners'  Report  of  1826,  says :  "  The  one  third 
of  the  rents  belonging  to  this  parish,  (to  which  is  generally  added  by  the 

1 9o  sr.  PANCRAS. 

churchwardens  a  small  sum  from  the  sacrament  money,)  has  been  usually 
distributed  on  the  ist  of  January,  by  a  committee  of  the  directors  of  the 
poor  appointed  for  the  purpose,  by  ticket  for  35.  each  ;  these  tickets  are 
delivered  to  the  members  of  the  committee  previously  to  that  day,  and 
they  give  them  at  their  discretion  to  such  persons  as  they  think  deserving 
of  them ;  the  distribution  is  made  at  the  female  charity  school." 


The  following  list  of  ancient  bequests  to  the  parish  of  St.  Pancras 
embraces  a  number  of  charities  which  are  not  mentioned  in  the  Report 
of  the  Charity  Commissioners. 

BAKER'S  GIFT. — William  Baker,  of  Coombe  Bassett,  bequeathed 
the  sum  of  ^"50  to  the  poor,  to  be  distributed  on  New  Year's 
Day  in  bread  and  money. 

BLUNT'S  GIFT. — This  was  the  grant  of  William  Blunt,  who,  in 
1678,  left  to  the  poor  of  this  parish,  £10  to  be  distributed 
by  his  executors. 

CRAVEN'S  GIFT. — John  Craven,  Esq.,  of  Gray's  Inn,  left  the 
sum  of  ^"2,000  to  be  distributed  amongst  one  hundred  poor 
householders  of  this  parish.  The  distribution  was  made  at 
Bagnigge  Wells,  March  14,  1786. 

DENIS'S  GIFT. — Sir  Peter  Denis,  of  Maize  Hill,  Greenwich,  be- 
queathed £200  to  the  poor  of  the  parish,  which  donation 
was  presented  by  the  parish  to  the  Female  Charity  School, 
in  1793. 

DESTRODE'S  GIFT. — Charles  Destrode,  of  Lambeth,  in  1823,  left 
£15  to  be  distributed  amongst  the  poor  of  the  parish. 

EDWARDS'S  GIFT. — Mrs.  Grace  Edwards,  of  Pratt  Street,  left  ^"20 
for  the  poor,  to  be  distributed  in  money  and  bread,  in  1820. 

FITZROY'S  GIFT. — In  the  year  1788,  the  Right  Hon.  Gen.  Fitzroy 
left  a  plot  of  ground,  known  as  the  Mother  Red  Cap  tavern, 
for  the  use  of  the  parish.  It  was  sold  in  1817,  and  the 
proceeds  applied  towards  the  expenses  of  the  new  work- 


GOULD'S  GIFT. — This  lady  left  by  will  property  yielding  ^"70  per 
year,  to  be  distributed  amongst  the  poor  of  Highgate, 
whether  in  Hornsey  or  St.  Pancras,  to  those  poor  who  are 
not  recipients  of  parochial  relief. 

HAMEY'S  GIFT.— Baldwin  Hamey,  Esq.,  M.D.,  left  by  will,  in 
1674,  the  sum  of  ^30,  towards  the  building  of  a  wall  to 
the  vicarage  house. 

JACKSON'S  CHARITY. — John  Jackson,  of  Tottenham  Court  Road, 
bequeathed  in  1843,  £20  per  annum  to  be  distributed  in 
coal  amongst  the  poor  of  the  parish ;  also  £6,000  to  be 
divided  amongst  several  institutions. 

JONES'S  GIFT. — John  Jones,  Esq.,  of  Hampton-upon-Thames,  left 
by  will,  in  1691,  the  rent  of  the  Rainbow  Coffee- House, 
Fleet  Street,  for  the  good  of  the  parish,  one-fourth  to  go 
to  the  vicar. 

MILLS'S  GIFT. — Mr.  J.  N.  Mills,  of  Bayham  Street,  Camden 
Town,  in  1847,  bequeathed  a  sum  of  money  towards  the 
expense  of  repairing  his  family  grave,  the  remainder  of 
which  sum  was  to  be  distributed  amongst  the  poor  widows 
and  orphans  of  Camden  Town. 

MORRANT'S  GIFT. — In  1547  John  Morrant  gave  to  the  parson  and 
churchwardens  of  St.  Pancras  four  acres  of  meadow  land, 
called  Kilborne  Croft,  valued  in  1547  at  sixteen  shillings  per 
annum,  twelve  shillings  to  the  priest  to  keep  an  obit,  and 
four  shillings  to  the  poor  in  recreation. 

NICOLL'S  GIFT. — Isabel  Nicoll,  of  Kentish  Town,  left,  in  1682, 
a  fair  silver  flagon  for  the  use  of  the  altar  of  the  parish 

PALMER'S  GIFT. — Mrs.  Eleanor  Palmer,  wife  of  John  Palmer,  of 
Kentish  Town,  bequeathed  a  third  part  of  the  profits  of 
three  acres  of  land,  situated  near  the  Fortress  Field,  to  the 
poor.  In  1696,  it  produced  £2  los.  ;  and  in  1810,  ^"14. 

PERRY'S  BEQUEST. — Henry  Perry,  of  St.  Ann's,  London,  be- 
queathed to  the  poor  of  this  parish  the  residue  of  his 
estate  after  the  payment  of  several  legacies, 

I92  ST.    PANCRAS. 

PITT'S  GIFT.— This  was  a  grant  from  James  Pitt,  a  church- 
warden of  this  parish  in  1668,  who  left  by  his  will  ^"20,  to 
the  poor  of  the  parish. 

The  foregoing  list  is  given  upon  the  authority  of  Palmer's  History 
of  St.  Pancras. 


The  St.  Pancras  Female  Charity  School  was  instituted  in  the  year 
1776,  for  the  purpose  of  maintaining,  clothing,  instructing,  and  putting 
out  to  service  the  female  children  of  the  industrious  poor  of  the  parish. 
In  the  first  instance,  a  house  was  taken  and  six  children  were  elected, 
and  a  matron  was  appointed  for  the  purpose  of  instructing  and  taking 
care  of  them,  and  such  other  children  as  might  afterwards  be  admitted 
into  the  school.  These  children  were  taken  entirely  from  their  parents, 
and  wholly  maintained  by  the  charity,  so  as  to  be  kept  from  bad  society 
and  made  useful  members  of  society. 

The  old  Charity  School  being  greatly  out  of  repair  and  obscurely 
situated,  and  also  too  small  to  accommodate  the  increasing  number  of 
children,  a  new  house  was  erected,  by  voluntary  contributions,  about  the 
year  1790,  upon  a  piece  of  ground  generously  offered  for  the  purpose  by 
the  Right  Hon.  Lord  Southampton,  on  the  east  side  of  the  Hampstead 
Road,  near  Tottenham  Court,  in  a  public  and  healthy  situation.  The 
number  of  inmates,  about  the  same  date,  was  increased  from  six  to 

"A  Brief  Account  of  the  Charity  School  of  St.  Pancras,"  published  in 
1791,  states  :— 

"The  Children  are  instructed  in  the  Principles  of  the  Christian 
Religion,  in  true  Humility  and  Obedience  to  their  Superiors,  and  such 
necessary  Qualifications  as  may  make  them  of  Benefit  to  the  Community, 
and  honest  and  useful  servants. 

"  They  are  Annually  cloathed  ;  and  when  of  proper  Age,  placed  out 
to  domestic  Service,  in  such  creditable  Families  as  are  approved  by 
the  Trustees. 

"Every  Person  subscribing  Two  Guineas  per  Ann :  is  a  Trustee 
during  the  Time  such  Subscription  shall  be  continued," 


The  conditions  under  which  children  were  admitted  to  the  benefits 
of  this  institution  required  that  they  should  be  free  from  any  infectious 
disorder  or  falling  fits ;  that  they  should  be  not .  under  eight  years  or 
above  eleven  years  of  age ;  that  they  should  not  remain  in  the  school 
after  having  attained  the  age  of  fourteen  years;  and  "that  no  child  be 
admitted  into  the  School,  unless  legally  settled  in  this  Parish,  for  the 
full  Space  of  Two  Years  previous  to  such  Admission  ;  and  the  Parents 
of  such  Child  have  not  received  any  pension  or  Subsistence  from  the 
Parish  (otherwise  than  from  Public  Gifts)  within  the  same  Period." 

Collections  at  St.  Pancras  Church,  in  the  year  1790,  in  behalf  of 
this  institution,  produced  the  sums  of  £16  155.  6d.  and  £17.  Three 
collections  at  Percy  Chapel  in  the  same  year  and  for  the  same  worthy 
object  produced  the  total  sum  of  nearly  £90. 

The  board-room  belonging  to  the  school  is  a  handsome  apartment, 
and  contains  a  list  of  the  benefactors,  written  in  gold,  and  over  the  fire- 
place, a  portrait  of  Thomas  Russell,  Esq.,  one  of  the  trustees,  painted  by 
J.  P.  Knight,  R.A. 


The  founder  of  this  excellent  institution  was  Thomas  Coram,  the  son 
of  John  Coram,  the  captain  of  a  ship,  who  was  born  at  Lyme  Regis  in 
1667  or  1668.  In  process  of  time  Thomas  Coram  adopted  a  maritime 
career,  and,  like  his  father,  he  became  captain  of  a  ship.  In  1719  his 
ship  was  stranded  off  Cuxhaven,  and  after  that  he  settled  down  to 
business  near  London.  His  residence  was  at  Rotherhithe,  and  in  the 
journeys,  early  in  the  morning  and  late  at  night,  to  and  from  the  City, 
which  his  business  compelled  him  to  take,  he  frequently  saw  infants 
exposed  and  deserted  in  the  streets.  His  kind  heart  was  touched  at 
the  pitiable  sight,  and  he  immediately  set  about  improving  their  condition. 

For  seventeen  years  he  laboured  hard  for  the  establishment  of  a 
foundling  hospital,  and  at  length  a  charter  was  obtained,  funds  were 
provided,  and  the  Board  of  Guardians  which  had  been  appointed  met 
for  the  first  time  in  1739.  The  body  of  Governors  and  Guardians 
comprised  John  Duke  of  Bedford  and  350  other  persons,  including  several 
Peers,  the  Master  of  the  Rolls,  the  Chief  Justices  and  Chief  Baron,  the 
Speaker,  the  Attorney  and  Solicitor-General,  and  Captain  Coram. 


A  house  in  Hatton  Garden  was  first  taken,  and  in  1741  children 
were  first  admitted  to  its  benefits,  but  only  twenty  children  could  be 
received,  and  the  large  number  of  applications  for  admission  soon  proved 
that  the  limits  of  the  house  must  be  greatly  extended.  It  was  required 
of  all  who  brought  children  that  they  should  "  fix  on  each  child  some 
particular  writing,  or  other  distinguishing  mark  or  token,"  so  that  the 
children  might  be  identified  if  it  were  subsequently  found  necessary  to  do 
so.  This  wise  condition  removed  the  danger  of  a  woman  being  punished 
for  the  supposed  murder  of  her  child,  when  she  had  really  placed  it 
in  this  excellent  asylum.  The  number  of  applicants  was  so  great  that 
sometimes  a  hundred  women  would  crowd  round  the  door  with  children 
when  only  a  very  few  of  them  could  possibly  be  admitted,  and  a  kind 
of  ballot  was  taken,  those  who  chanced  to  draw  a  white  ball  being 
admitted  subject  to  the  approval  of  the  Board,  those  who  drew  a  black 
ball  being  excluded,  and  those  who  drew  a  red  ball  being  allowed  to  wait 
and  draw  among  themselves  to  fill  up  any  vacancy  which  might  chance 
to  arise  where  a  candidate  was  found  to  be  ineligible. 

The  necessity  of  more  extended  premises  led  to  the  purchase  of  a 
magnificent  site,  fifty-six  acres  in  size,  at  the  top  of  Lamb's  Conduit 
Street.  The  foundation  was  laid  in  September,  1742,  and  the  western 
wing  of  the  present  hospital  was  opened  in  1745,  and  the  house  in  Hatton 
Garden  was  given  up.  The  other  two  portions  of  the  edifice  soon 
followed,  and  in  1747  the  Chapel  was  commenced. 

The  Governors  of  the  hospital  having  appealed  for  assistance  in  1756, 
the  House  of  Commons  promised  and  gave  substantial  support,  and  the 
hospital  was  thereupon  thrown  open  for  the  general  admission  of  found- 
lings. A  basket  was  hung  outside  the  gates  of  the  hospital,  and  an 
advertisement  publicly  announced  that  all  children  under  the  age  of  two 
years,  tendered  for  admission,  would  be  received.  On  June  2nd,  1756,  the 
first  day  when  this  regulation  came  into  force,  117  children  were  tendered 
and  received  within  the  hospital  walls. 

Children  were  sent  up  from  all  parts  of  the  country  in  baskets  and 
bags,  and  so  little  care  was  taken  that  many  of  them  perished  by  the 
way.  One  man  is  said  to  have  made  a  regular  trade  of  bringing  up 
from  Yorkshire  two  children  in  each  of  his  panniers,  for  which  he  received 
the  sum  of  eight  guineas. 








In  the  first  year  of  this  indiscriminate  admission  3,296  infants  were 
received  ;  in  the  second,  4,085 ;  and  in  the  third,  4,229.  Of  course  it  was 
found  quite  impossible  to  attend  properly  to  the  wants  of  this  enormous 
number  of  young  and  often  delicate  children.  Only  a  comparatively  small 
proportion  of  the  children  lived  to  be  apprenticed.  To  remedy  this  evil  to 
some  extent,  it  was  resolved  that  some  children  should  be  received  upon 
the  payment  of  £100  each  ;  but  of  course  this  unpopular  resolution,  so  out 
of  harmony  with  the  plan  and  intent  of  the  venerable  and  kind-hearted 
founder,  was  soon  abolished.  Since  January,  1801,  no  child  has  been 
received  into  the  hospital  with  any  sum  of  money,  large  or  small. 
Children  are  now  admitted  solely  upon  the  committee  being  satisfied  that 
the  case  is  genuine  and  deserving  of  consideration.  The  chief  require- 
ments are  that  the  child  be  illegitimate  (except  in  the  case  of  the  father 
being  a  soldier  or  sailor  killed  in  service),  that  it  be  under  twelve  months 
old,  that  the  father  be  not  forthcoming,  and  that  the  mother  shall  have 
borne  a  good  character. 

In  1745,  upon  the  completion  of  the  western  wing  of  the  hospital, 
Hogarth  contemplated  the  adorment  of  its  walls  with  works  of  art,  with 
which  view  he  solicited  and  obtained  the  co-operation  of  some  of  his 
professional  brethren.  On  November  5th  in  each  year,  the  most 
prominent  of  the  artists  and  the  Governors  of  the  Hospital  dined 
together  at  the  Foundling  Hospital.  One  good  result  of  these  meetings 
was  to  bring  a  large  number  of  valuable  paintings  together  for  the 
beautifying  of  the  walls,  and  a  visit  to  the  Foundling  Hospital  to  see 
the  pictures  became  the  most  fashionable  morning  lounge  in  the  reign  of 
George  II. 

Hogarth  was  not  only  the  principal  contributor,  but  the  leader  of  his 
brethren  in  all  that  related  to  ornamenting  the  hospital.  One  of  the 
richest  treasures  of  art  which  is  comprised  in  the  Foundling  Collection  is 
Hogarth's  celebrated  "  March  to  Finchley."  Hogarth  disposed  of  this 
picture  by  lottery,  and  as  167  chances  remained  unappropriated  when  the 
subscription  list  was  closed,  the  artist  generously  gave  them  to  the 
hospital.  The  lucky  number  is  said  to  have  been  amongst  that 
remainder ;  but  another  account  says  that  a  lady  was  the  possessor  of 
it,  and  intended  to  present  it  to  the  Foundling  Hospital,  but  that  some 
person  having  suggested  what  a  door  would  be  open  to  scandal,  were 

196  ST.    PANCRAS. 

any  of  her  sex  to  make  such  a  present,  it  was  given  to  Hogarth,  on  the 
express  condition  that  it  should  be  presented  in  his  own  name. 

The  next  work  which  Hogarth  presented  was  "Moses  before  Pharaoh's 
Daughter."  It  was  painted  expressly  for  the  hospital,  and  was  designed 
by  the  artist  to  assist  in  ornamenting  the  Board-room,  where  it  now 
hangs.  In  the  year  1740,  Hogarth  presented  to  the  hospital  a  whole- 
length  picture  of  Captain  Coram ;  so  that  there  were  now  in  the 
possession  of  the  Foundling  Hospital  three  of  Hogarth's  pictures,  each 
of  which  was  an  excellent  example  of  the  genius  of  that  celebrated 

It  has  been  remarked  by  Charles  Lamb,  in  one  of  his  critical  essays, 
that  Hogarth  seemed  to  take  particular  delight  in  introducing  children 
into  his  works.  There  can  be  little  doubt  that  he  was  passionately  fond 
of  children.  His  sympathy  with  the  work  of  the  Foundling  Hospital 
was  so  great  and  so  practical  that  he  had  some  of  the  young  children 
sent  down  to  Chiswick,  where  he  at  that  time  resided,  in  order  that 
he  and  his  wife  might  more  effectually  see  after  their  welfare. 

The  pictures  at  the  Foundling  Hospital  are  arranged  chiefly  upon 
the  walls  of  three  of  the  apartments  there ;  viz.,  the  Secretary's  office, 
the  Board-room,  and  the  Picture-gallery.  The  following  are  chiefly  worth 
notice  :  — 


"  The   March  to  Finchley."     Hogarth. 

Portrait  of  Handel  (in  oil  colours).     Kneller. 

A  view  of  London  from  Highgate  (in  oil  colours).  Lambert.  This  is 
reckoned  to  be  one  of  Lambert's  finest  works.  The  foliage  is  especially 

A  sea-piece,  representing  ships  employed  in  the  British  Navy  (in  oil 
colours).  Brooking.  A  very  fine  example  of  this  artist's  work.  It  was 
given  to  the  hospital  by  the  painter. 

Two  oil  paintings  upon  wooden  panels,  representing  portraits  of 
Shakespeare  and  Ben  Jonson.  These  paintings  are  known  to  be  of 
considerable  antiquity,  and  they  are  certainly  possessed  of  some  merit. 
It  is  to  be  regretted,  however,  that  nothing  whatever  is  known  as  to 
their  history,  or  of  the  person  who  gave  them.  They  have  been  in 


the    possession    of    the    hospital   since   the    beginning   of  this   century,    if 

not   longer. 

There  are  some  prints,  too,  in  this  room,  which  deserve  notice : — 
Prints  of  Hogarth's  portrait  of  himself,  and  also  of  Captain  Coram. 
Mezzotint  portraits  of  George  Washington  and  Benjamin  Franklin. 


"  Fear  not ;  for  God  hath  heard  the  voice  of  the  lad  where 
he  is"  (Gen.  xxi.  17).  (Hagar  and  Ishmael.)  Highmore.  This  is 
one  of  the  artist's  most  famous  pictures. 

"Suffer   the    little    children    to    come     unto    me,    and    forbid, 
them    not "    (St.   Mark   x.    14).      Rev.  James   Wills,  Chaplain  to  the 
Society   of  Artists.      This   is   Wills's    principal    performance,    and 
was   presented   to   the   hospital   by   the   painter. 

"  And    Pharaoh's   daughter    said    unto    her,    Take    this    child 
away,    and    nurse    it    for    me,    and    I    will   give    thee   thy   wages "  . 
(Exod.  ii.  9).     Hayman. 

"  And   the   child   grew,   and   she   brought  him  unto  Pharaoh's 
daughter,  and  he   became    her    son.      And    she    called    his    name 
Moses "  (Exod.  ii.   10).      Hogarth.     Presented    by   the   artist. 
The   four   pictures  just    mentioned    are  of  large   size,  and    occupy  the 
principal    parts    of  the    wall,    but    there    is    a    series    of   eight    circular   oil 
paintings  of  hospitals,   etc.,  which,  although  of  much   smaller  proportions, 
are  works  of  great    merit.      The    following    is    a    list    of    them,    with    the 
names   of  the   artists  : — 

Christ's    Hospital.      Samuel  Wale,  R.A. 

Greenwich   Hospital.          ,,  ,, 

St.  Thomas's  Hospital.      ,,  ,, 

Bethlem  Hospital.      Haytley. 

Chelsea  Hospital.  ,, 

The  Charterhouse.      Thomas  Gainsborough,  R.A . 

The  Foundling  Hospital.     Richard  Wilson,  R.A. 

St.  George's  Hospital.  ,,  ,, 

Before  leaving  the  Board-room  there  are  one  or  two  other  works  of 
art  worthy  of  mention.  The  handsome  marble  mantelpiece  has  a  fine 
basso-relievo,  by  Rysbrack,  representing  children  engaged  in  navigation 

i98  ST.    PANCRAS. 

and  husbandry,  being  the  employments  to  which  the  children  of  the 
hospital  were  supposed  to  be  destined. 

The  side  table,  of  Grecian  marble,  is  supported  by  carved  figures 
in  wood,  representing  children  playing  with  a  goat.  It  was  presented 
by  Mr.  John  Sanderson. 

The  ornamental  ceiling  was  done  by  Mr.  Wilton,  the  father  of  the 
eminent  sculptor. 


Among  the  pictures  exhibited  in  the  Stone  Hall  are  portraits  of 
Archdeacon  Pott,  Lord  Chief  Justice  Wilmot,  Dr.  Heathcote,  etc.  There 
is  also  an  oil  painting  by  Casali,  representing  "  The  Offerings  of  the 
Wise  Men." 


This  gallery  contains  a  large  collection  of  paintings  and  other 
valuable  works  of  art  and  objects  of  interest.  The  cartoon  of  Raphael 
representing  "  The  Murder  of  the  Innocents,"  of  course,  deserves  first 
mention.  This  very  valuable  work  of  art  was  bequeathed  to  the 
Foundling  Hospital  by  Prince  Hoare,  Esq.,  in  1835.  By  the  will  of 
that  gentleman  it  was  directed  that  it  should  be  offered  first  to  the 
Royal  Academy  of  Arts  for  £2,000 ;  or,  if  declined,  to  the  Directors 
of  the  National  Gallery  for  the  sum  of  £4,000 ;  and  if  that  offer  was 
not  accepted,  it  was  then  to  be  presented  to  the  Foundling  Hospital 
or  to  a  public  hall  or  college.  The  Royal  Academy  and  the  National 
Gallery  both  declined  the  offer,  and  the  picture  was  accordingly 
presented  to  the  Foundling  Hospital. 

This  cartoon  belonged  to  a  set  of  ten  cartoons  executed  by  Raphael 
by  the  order  of  Pope  Leo  X.  They  were  afterwards  sent  to  Flanders,  to 
be  copied  in  tapestry,  for  which  purpose  the  Flemish  weavers  cut  them 
into  strips  for  their  working  machinery.  When  the  tapestry  was 
completed  and  sent  to  Rome,  the  original  cartoons  were  carelessly  thrown 
into  a  box  and  left  mingled  together.  When  Rubens  was  in  England 
he  told  Charles  I.  the  condition  they  were  in,  and  the  King  desired 
him  to  procure  them.  Seven  perfect  ones  were  purchased  and  sent  to 
his  Majesty ;  the  remainder  appear  to  have  been  scattered  in  fragments, 
here  and  there,  in  different  parts  of  Europe.  When  the  royal  collections 


were  dispersed,  these  cartoons  are  said  to  have  been  bought  in  for 
£300  by  Cromwell's  express  orders. 

This  portion  of  "  The  Murder  of  the  Innocents "  was  sold  at 
Westminster  as  disputed  property,  and  Prince  Hoare's  father  purchased 
it  for  £26.  The  artistic  merits  of  this  superb  composition  are  beyond 
all  praise,  and  some  of  the  heads  represented  in  it  are  considered  to 
be  unequalled  by  any  of  the  great  works  of  art  in  the  world.  Seven 
of  Raphael's  cartoons  are  now  in  the  South  Kensington  Museum. 

In  this  picture-gallery  hangs  the  portrait  of  Captain  Coram  by 
Hogarth,  of  which  the  artist  wrote,  some  time  after — 

"  The  portrait  which  I  painted  with  most  pleasure,  and  in  which 
I  particularly  wished  to  excel,  was  that  of  Captain  Coram,  for  the 
Foundling  Hospital ;  and,"  he  adds,  in  allusion  to  his  detractors  as  a 
portrait-painter,  "if  I  am  so  wretched  an  artist  as  my  enemies  assert, 
it  is  somewhat  strange  that  this,  which  was  one  of  the  first  I  painted 
the  size  of  life,  should  stand  the  test  of  twenty  years'  competition, 
and  be  generally  thought  the  best  portrait  in  the  place,  notwithstanding 
the  first  painters  in  the  kingdom  exerted  all  their  talents  to  vie 
with  it." 

Among  other   pictures   are    the   following   portraits : — 

Duke  of  Cambridge.      G.   P.    Green. 
Earl  of  Macclesfield.       Wilson. 
Theodore  Jacobsen,    Esq.      Hudson. 
King   George   the  Second.      Shakleton. 
Dr.    Mead.      Ramsay. 
John    Milner,    Esq.      Hudson. 

In  some  glass  show-cases  there  are  exhibited  various  documents 
connected  with  the  hospital,  autographs  of  various  celebrated  personages, 
trie  pocket-book  of  Captain  Coram,  and  the  original  draught  in  pen 
and  ink  of  the  arms  of  the  Foundling  Hospital.  It  is  thought  probable 
that  this  was  executed  by  Hogarth. 

The  connection  of  Handel  with  the  Foundling  Hospital  forms  one 
of  the  most  pleasing  features  in  the  hospital's  history,  and  the  following 
notice  is  very  properly  preserved  and  exhibited  in  one  of  the  glass 
cases : — 

"  At   the    Hospital   for   the    Maintenance    and    Education   of    exposed 

200  57.    PANCRAS. 

and  deserted  Young  Children  in  Lamb's  Conduit  Fields,  on  Tuesday 
y*  first  day  of  May,  1750,  at  12  o'clock  at  Noon,  there  will  be 
performed,  in  the  Chapel  of  the  said  Hospital,  a  Sacred  Oratorio 
called  '  The  Messiah,'  Composed  by  George  Frederick  Handel,  Esq. 

"  The  Gentlemen  are  desired  to  come  without  Swords,  and  the 
Ladies  without  Hoops.  .  .  ." 

In  the  same  show-case  are  preserved  the  MS.  scores  of  "  the 
Messiah  "  which  Handel  generously  bequeathed  to  the  hospital.  "  The 
Messiah "  was  performed  for  the  first  time  in  London  on  March 
23rd,  1749. 

Upon  several  occasions  Handel  shewed  his  personal  sympathy  with 
the  objects  of  this  charitable  institution,  by  conducting  musical  per- 
formances in  aid  of  its  funds.  In  1749,  he  gave  a  performance  in 
aid  of  the  funds  for  completing  the  chapel,  upon  which  occasion  he 
gave  the  "  music  of  the  late  Fire  Works,  the  anthem  on  the  Peace, 
selections  from  the  oratorio  of  Samson,  and  several  pieces  composed  for 
the  occasion."  The  tickets  were  sold  for  half  a  guinea  each,  and  the 
audience  numbered  above  a  thousand  persons. 

When  the  Hospital  chapel  was  completed,  Handel  presented  the 
Governors  with  an  organ  for  it,  and  his  amanuensis  and  assistant, 
Mr.  John  Christopher  Smith,  was  appointed  the  first  regular  organist. 

One  of  the  Governors  of  the  hospital  presented  the  communion 
plate ;  the  king's  upholsterer  gave  the  velvet  for  the  pulpit ;  and  many 
other  valuable  gifts  were  presented. 

In  the  year  1750,  upon  the  completion  of  the  hospital  chapel, 
Chevalier  Casali  presented  an  altar-piece  painted  in  oil  colours,  entitled 
"The  Offering  of  the  Wise  Men."  In  1801,  however,  the  Governors 
removed  that  picture,  and  replaced  it  by  West's  masterpiece  of  harmony 
and  colouring,  "  Christ  Presenting  a  little  Child."  The  artist,  speaking 
of  this  work,  says — 

"  The  care  with  which  I  have  passed  that  picture,  I  flatter  myself, 
has  now  placed  it  in  the  first  class  of  pictures  from  my  pencil ;  at  least, 
I  have  the  satisfaction  to  find  that  to  be  the  sentiment  of  the  judges 
of  painting  who  have  seen  it." 

In  order  to  make  the  picture  as  nearly  perfect  as  possible,  West 
almost  entirely  repainted  it,  and  the  Governors,  in  acknowledgment,  and 


to  show  their  high  appreciation  of  West's  talents  and  generosity, 
resolved  to  elect  him  one  of  their  corporate  body.  It  was  West's 
intention  to  fill  two  panels  in  the  chapel  with  oil  paintings,  but  unluckily 
his  professional  engagements  were  too  numerous  to  permit  him  to  carry 
out  his  excellent  intention. 

Coram,  the  venerable  founder,  died  in  1751,  and  was  buried  in  the 
catacombs  beneath  the  chapel.  Many  of  the  Governors  of  the  hospital 
have  subsequently  been  buried  there. 

Among  the  objects  which  everyone  who  visits  the  hospital  should  see 
are  the  miscellaneous  contents  of  two  glass  show-cases.  One  cannot  look 
upon  these  objects  without  feelings  of  deep  and  pathetic  interest. 
These  cases  are  filled  with  small  articles  of  personal  ornament  and 
old  and  rare  coins,  which  have  been  attached  by  a  mother's  loving  hands 
to  the  infants  as  a  token  whereby,  if  necessary,  it  might  be  possible  to 
identify  them,  after  their  names  were  changed  and  many  other  circum- 
stances of  their  history  forgotten. 

When  the  Governors  of  the  Foundling  Hospital  were  negotiating 
for  the  purchase  of  the  site  in  Lamb's  Conduit  Fields,  the  owner  of 
the  land,  the  Earl  of  Salisbury,  declined  to  sell  them  so  small  a  plot 
as  they  desired,  and  they  were,  therefore,  forced  to  buy  a  large  area, 
fifty-six  acres  in  extent.  Fortunately,  this  has  turned  out  a  very  good 
investment.  The  Governors  could  hardly  have  done  a  wiser  thing,  for 
as  the  neighbourhood  has  grown  and  the  value  of  land  has  increased 
so  enormously,  the  rents  from  the  surplus  ground  have  proved  a  very 
substantial  source  of  income  to  the  hospital. 


This  institution  was  first  erected  on  the  23rd  of  September,  1746, 
at  Battle  Bridge,  but  the  accommodation  being  insufficient,  it  was 
decided  to  erect  a  new  and  larger  building.  An  old  paper  of  1793 
contains  the  following  notice: — "New  Building,  Small-Pox  Hospital. 
The  president,  vice-presidents,  and  committee  will  meet  at  the  hospital, 
in  Pancras,  on  Thursday  next,  the  2nd  of  May,  at  2  o'clock  precisely, 
in  order  to  assist  at  the  ceremony  of  laying  the  first  stone  of  the 
new  building,  by  his  grace  the  Duke  of  Leeds;  after  which  they  will 
dine  together  at  the  New  London  Tavern,  Cheapside.  Gentlemen  who 

202  ST.    PANCRAS. 

design  to  favour  them  with  their  company  are  requested  to  send  to  the 
tavern  on  before  the  preceding  day,  where  tickets  will  be  delivered  at 
75.  6d.  each.  There  will  be  no  collection. — A.  HIGHMORE,  Secretary." 

In  1798,  Dr.  Jenner  having  made  the  discovery  of  vaccination, 
Dr.  Woodville,  the  then  physician  to  the  hospital,  cordially  united  with 
him  in  its  working,  which  led  to  the  result  of  its  acceptance  by  the 
principal  physicians  and  surgeons  in  London.  Thus  a  new  branch  was 
added  to  this  establishment,  and  it  thereupon  received  the  name  of  the 
Small  Pox  and  Vaccination  Hospital.  For  upwards  of  fifty  years  it 
continued  thus,  when  upon  the  alterations  occasioned  by  the  construc- 
tion of  the  Great  Northern  Railway,  the  establishment  was  removed  to 
its  present  situation  on  Highgate  Hill. 


Previously  to  the  founding  of  this  hospital,  there  was  no  medical 
establishment  in  the  Metropolis  where  destitute  strangers,  when  overtaken 
by  sickness  or  disease,  could  find  an  asylum  for  their  immediate  reception. 

In  the  winter  of  1827,  a  poor,  destitute  girl,  under  eighteen  years  of 
age,  was  seen  lying  on  the  steps  of  St.  Andrew's  Churchyard,  Holborn 
Hill,  after  midnight,  actually  perishing  through  disease  and  famine.  She 
was  a  total  stranger  in  London,  without  a  friend,  and  died  two  days 
afterwards,  unrecognized  by  any  human  being.  This  distressing  event 
being  witnessed  by  the  late  Mr.  William  Marsden,  Surgeon,  who  had 
repeatedly  been  struck  with  the  difficulty  and  danger  arising  to  the 
sick  poor  from  the  system  of  requiring  letters  of  recommendation  before 
admission  to  the  Public  Hospitals,  and  of  having  only  appointed  days 
for  admission,  he  at  once  determined  to  set  about  founding  a  medical 
charity  in  which  destitution  and  disease  should  alone  be  the  passport 
for  obtaining  free  and  instant  relief.  On  this  principle  the  Free  Hospital 
was  established  in  Greville  Street,  Hatton  Garden,  and  opened  to  the 
public  on  the  28th  of  February,  1828.  Through  the  influence  of  Sir 
Robert  Peel,  the  patronage  of  George  IV.  was  conceded  to  it ;  and 
the  following  year  the  Duke  of  Gloucester  became  its  President.  Under 
the  countenance  and  support  of  many  noblemen  and  distinguished 
personages,  as  well  as  private  individuals,  of  the  Corporation  of  London 
and  other  public  bodies,  its  means  and  utility  went  on  increasing  in 

THE     ROYAL     FREE     HOSPITAL.  203 

a  corresponding  degree,  till  1832,  when  that  alarming  and  destructive 
scourge,  malignant  cholera,  appeared  in  London ;  and  in  order  to  carry 
out  the  great  principle  of  the  charity,  the  Governors  at  once  threw 
open  the  doors  of  the  hospital  to  all  persons  afflicted  with  that  dreadful 
malady,  notwithstanding  the  other  hospitals  had  closed  theirs  against 
them.  Upwards  of  seven  hundred  cholera  patients  were  consequently 
admitted.  In  the  years  1849  and  1854,  when  that  awful  epidemic  again 
visited  the  metropolis,  more  than  three  thousand  in  the  former  year, 
and  upwards  of  six  thousand  in  the  latter,  were,  upon  the  same  principle, 
relieved  by  the  Royal  Free  Hospital. 

At  the  death  of  George  IV.,  William  IV.  honoured  the  charity  by 
becoming  its  Patron.  In  the  course  of  the  same  year  their  Royal 
Highnesses  the  Duchess  of  Kent  and  the  Princess  Victoria  became 
Patronesses,  and  other  ladies  of  high  rank  followed  their  good  example. 
On  the  demise  of  the  late  Duke  of  Gloucester,  His  Grace  the  Duke 
of  Buccleuch  and  Queensbury  was  elected  President.  On  the  death  of 
William  IV.,  the  Hospital  still  retained  the  Royal  sanction ;  for  our 
young  and  munificent  Queen,  through  Lord  John  Russell,  expressed  her 
approbation  of  the  Charity,  and  most  graciously  condescended  to  become 
its  Patron.  Her  Majesty  further  evinced  her  regard  for  the  welfare 
of  the  Hospital  by  commanding  that  in  future  it  should  be  called  THE 
ROYAL  FREE  HOSPITAL.  In  1863,  the  Prince  of  Wales  became  its 

A  favourable  opportunity  of  extending  the  usefulness  of  the  Hospital 
presented  itself  in  the  autumn  of  1842,  in  the  circumstance  of  premises  in 
the  Gray's  Inn  Road,  formerly  known  as  the  barracks  of  the  Light  Horse 
Volunteers,  being  then  vacant  and  adapted  to  the  purposes  of  the  Charity. 
In  order  not  to  lose  so  valuable  an  opportunity,  the  Governors 
determined  on  purchasing  the  lease  of  those  premises,  which  they 
accordingly  did  on  the  3ist  August,  1842,  when  the  Hospital  was 
established  in  Gray's  Inn  Road. 

After  the  decease  of  the  Duke  of  Sussex,  a  subscription  was  entered 
into  for  the  erection  of  a  monument  to  his  memory.  After  several 
meetings  of  the  subscribers,  and  much  deliberation,  it  was  decided  that 
the  most  suitable  mode  of  carrying  out  the  object  would  be  the  erection 
of  a  Wing  to  the  Royal  Free  Hospital,  to  be  called  the  "  Sussex  Wing," 

204  ST-    PANCRAS. 

with  a  Statue  of  His  Royal  Highness  in  front.  The  important  work  was 
commenced  in  the  year  1855,  and  completed  and  opened  in  June,  1856. 

In  the  year  1863,  mainly  through  the  zealous  exertion  and  personal 
influence  of  the  late  George  Moore,  Esq.  (then  Chairman  of  the 
Committee),  the  Freehold  of  the  Hospital  was  purchased  from  the 
Right  Hon.  Lord  Calthorpe,  at  a  cost,  inclusive  of  incidental  charges, 
of  £5,265  los.  7^.,  the  whole  of  which  sum  having  been  raised  by  a 
special  appeal,  the  property  of  the  Hospital,  disencumbered  of  interest 
on  mortgage  and  of  annual  rental,  was  vested  in  Trustees.  Henry 
Hoare,  Esq.,  Alexander  E.  Marsden,  Esq.,  M.D.,  and  William  Tarn 
Pritchard,  Esq.,  are  the  Trustees  at  the  present  time. 

In  the  year  1876,  in  consequence  of  the  munificent  bequest  of  the 
late  Rev.  John  Gautier  Milne,  the  committee  resolved  to  pull  down  the 
old  buildings  which  had  formed  part  of  the  barracks  of  the  Light 
Horse  Volunteers,  and  erect  a  new  wing  and  other  necessary  buildings 
for  the  accommodation  of  the  nurses,  and  the  increasing  requirements 
of  the  hospital.  As  the  amount  derived  from  Mr.  Milne's  legacy  was 
only  sufficient  to  enable  the  Committee  to  carry  out  a  part  of  this 
scheme,  they  resolved  in  the  first  instance  to  proceed  with  the  erection 
of  the  new  wing,  containing  fifty  additional  beds ;  a  large  out-patient 
department,  including  waiting  rooms  for  men  and  women ;  the  dispensary ; 
and  a  covered  way  for  communicating  with  the  other  portions  of  the 
building.  This  wing  was  completed  and  opened  in  the  spring  of  1878,  and 
has  been  named  the  Victoria  Wing,  in  honour  of  Her  Majesty  the  Queen. 

In  the  year  1878,  in  consequence  of  the  munificent  legacies  bequeathed 
by  the  late  Mr.  Wynn-Ellis,  Miss  Usborne,  Mr.  George  Moore,  Mr. 
James  Graham,  Mr.  Thornhill  Gell,  and  Mr.  Walter  Cave,  the  Committee 
were  enabled  to  carry  out  the  rest  of  the  works  comprised  in  the  scheme 
for  the  reconstruction  of  the  Hospital.  These  buildings  contain  the 
nurses'  quarters;  isolated  wards  for  patients;  a  large  room  for  meetings; 
private  rooms  for  the  medical  staff  and  students  ;  museum,  post-mortem 
theatre ;  mortuary ;  and  a  number  of  store-rooms  and  other  necessary 
conveniences ;  and  were  completed  and  opened  at  the  close  of  1879. 
The  Governors  are  now  in  possession  of  a  hospital  containing  150  beds, 
constructed  on  the  most  approved  modern  principles,  and  replete  with 
every  convenience  for  the  comfort  of  the  patients  and  nurses. 


This  hospital  was  founded  on  the  principle  of  free  and  unrestricted 
admission  of  the  sick  poor ;  poverty  and  suffering  being  the  only  pass- 
ports required.  Having  no  endowment,  it  is  entirely  dependent  for 
support  on  the  subscriptions  of  its  Governors  and  the  voluntary  donations 
and  bequests  of  its  friends. 

The  hospital  has  afforded  relief  to  over  two  million  poor  sick  persons, 
and  admits  into  its  wards  about  2,000  in-patients  annually,  besides 
administering  advice  and  medicine  to  more  than  25,000  out-patients,  who 
resort  to  it,  not  only  from  the  crowded  courts  and  alleys  in  its  immediate 
neighbourhood,  but  from  all  parts  of  London  and  the  suburban  districts. 
The  relief  thus  afforded  is  effected  at  a  cost  of  about  £11,500  per  annum, 
while  the  reliable  income  of  the  Charity  from  annual  subscriptions  and 
other  sources  does  not  exceed  £2,500,  so  that  the  large  balance  of  £9,000 
has  to  be  raised  by  means  of  constant  appeals  to  the  public  benevolence- 


A  beginning  of  this  institution  was  practically  made  on  the  8th 
September,  1828,  when  the  "  University  Dispensary "  was  established  at 
No.  4,  George  Street,  Euston  Square.  It  was  the  medical  school  of  the 
University  of  London,  and  the  "  objects  of  the  Institution "  covered  a 
large,  comprehensive,  and  benevolent  area  for  work.  The  specified  objects 
were  "  To  give  medical  and  surgical  advice  and  administer  medicines 
gratuitously,  to  poor  persons  suffering  under  disease  of  any  description. 
To  visit  at  their  own  abodes  those  who  from  the  severity  of  the  case 
may  be  incapable  of  attending  at  the  Dispensary.  To  provide  poor 
iying-in  at  their  own  homes  with  professional  attendance  and  medicines." 

The  management  of  the  Dispensary  was  at  this  early  stage  of  its 
career  in  the  hands  of  a  Committee  of  Proprietors  of  the  University  of 

In  1833,  a  large  and  influential  committee  having  been  appointed,  and 
the  Council,  with  the  consent  of  the  Proprietors,  having  set  apart  an 
eligible  plot  of  ground  facing  the  College,  valued  at  £7000,  on  which  to 
build  an  hospital,  public  subscriptions  towards  that  object  were  solicited, 
and  the  result  was  so  satisfactory  that  in  May,  1833,  a  sufficient  sum 
had  been  raised  to  justify  the  Committee  in  at  once  proceeding  with  the 
erection  of  the  building. 



The  selected  design  by  Mr.  Ainger  provided  for  the  accommodation 
of  230  patients,  but  the  funds  would  only  enable  the  Committee  to  start 
with  the  erection  of  the  entire  block,  to  contain  130  beds.  On  the  22nd 
of  May,  1833,  the  first  stone  of  the  North  London  Hospital,  as  it  was 
then  called,  was  laid  by  his  Grace  the  Duke  of  Somerset. 

It  is  a  noteworthy  fact  that  such  of  the  medical  professors  as  were  to 
be  appointed  physicians  or  surgeons  to  the  hospital  agreed  to  devote  their 
fees  exclusively  to  the  support  of  the  institution. 

The  President  of  the  hospital,  from  its  foundation  until  the  year  1866, 
was  the  Rt.  Hon.  Lord  Brougham  and  Vaux,  Lord  High  Chancellor. 

The  hospital  was  opened  for  the  reception  of  patients  on  the  ist 
of  November,  1834,  and  after  twelve  months  had  elapsed  it  became 
evident  that  there  was  absolute  necessity  for  extending  the  accommodation 
already  provided. 

During  the  years  1838-40,  the  work  of  building  the  south  wing  was 
carried  on,  and  in  November,  1840,  was  completed. 

The  foundation  of  the  north  wing  was  laid  on  the  2Oth  May,  1846, 
by  Lord  Brougham  and  Vaux. 

In  1854,  Dr.  William  Jenner  was  appointed  physician,  and,  in  1856, 
Mr.  Henry  Thompson  (afterwards  Sir  Henry  Thompson)  assistant-surgeon 
to  the  hospital. 

In  1867,  Mr.  Edward  Yates,  a  member  of  the  hospital  committee, 
bequeathed  £46,000  to  University  College  as  trustee  for  the  hospital — the 
income  of  one  half  to  be  appropriated  for  the  purpose  of  a  "  Samaritan 
Fund "  for  the  relief  of  poor  patients,  and  that  of  the  remainder  to  the 
general  purposes  of  the  hospital. 



St.  Pancras  Celebrities :  Frank  Buckland,  John  Leech,  Barry  Cornwall,  Charles  Dickens, 
Charles  Darwin,  Thackeray,  Shelley,  Charles  Kean,  Samuel  Warren,  Dr.  Dodd,  George 
Smith. — Anecdote  of  Toplady. — Miscellanea:  Capper's  Farm,  Pugilism,  Items  from  Old 
Newspapers. — Index. 


N  EXTENDED  search  would  doubtless  tend 
to  show  that  St.  Pancras  in  its  association 
with  celebrated  men  and  women  of  the  past 
is  equally  rich  with  its  sister  parish  of  St. 
Marylebone.  A  very  few  of  its  celebrities 
are  here  set  down,  without  any  attempt  to 
exhaust  the  list. 


Frank  Trevelyan  Buckland  lived  for  some 
years   at  No.  37   (formerly    No.  34),  Albany   Street. 


The   well-known   caricaturist,   John    Leech,    resided    at 
No.  32  in  this  square  for  about  ten  years. 

Barry  Cornwall    (W.  B.  Procter)  in   1816  was  living  in 
a  house   in  Brunswick  Square. 


Among  the  many  residences  of  Charles  Dickens  in 
London,  No.  48,  Doughty  Street,  was  one.  Dickens  resided  with  his 
family  in  that  house  from  March,  1837,  until  late  in  the  year  1839, 
and  while  living  there  he  wrote  Oliver  Twist  and  Nicholas  Nickleby. 

208  S7.    PANCRAS. 


Charles  Darwin  lived  in  furnished  apartments,  in  the  year  1839,  at 
No.  no,  Gower  Street. 

Charles  Dickens  and  his  parents  used  at  one  time  to  reside  at 
No.  4,  North  Gower  Street. 


William  Makepeace  Thackeray  was,  in  1840,  living  at  No.  13,  Great 
Coram  Street.  It  was  whilst  residing  at  this  house  that  he  wrote  The 
Paris  Sketch  Book. 


In  the  churchyard  attached  to  the  old  church  of  St.  Pancras,  Percy 
Bysshe  Shelley  wooed  and  won  his  bride,  Mary  Godwin. 


Tavistock  House,  on  the  north-east  side  of  Tavistock  Square,  was 
from  1850  to  1860  the  home  of  Charles  Dickens.  Bleak  House  and 
Little  Dorrit  were  produced  during  this  period. 


During  the  period  of  his  management  of  the  Princess's  Theatre, 
viz.,  from  1853  to  1856,  Charles  Kean  resided  at  No.  3,  Torrington 


Samuel  Warren  lived  at  No.  35,  Woburn  Place,  from  1840  to 
1857.  His  novel,  Ten  Thousand  a  Year,  by  which  he  is  best  known,  was 
published  in  1841,  and  was  probably  partially,  if  not  entirely,  written 
at  that  house. 

DR.    DODD. 

Dr.  Dodd's  execution  has  been  referred  to  in  an  earlier  part  of  this 
volume  (see  pp.  74-5).  After  the  melancholy  scene  at  Tyburn  was  over, 
the  body  was  conveyed  by  the  undertaker  to  a  house  in  George  Street, 
Tottenham  Court  Road,  with  the  hope  that  by  some  means  life  might 
be  resuscitated ;  and,  indeed,  it  was  afterwards  reported  that  the  efforts 
used  were  successful,  and  that  he  had  retired  to  France.  But  such 
was  not  the  case.  Death  had  too  effectually  accomplished  his  work, 

ST.    PA  NCR  AS     CELEBRITIES.  209 

and  no  means  which  could  be  used  by  the  several  eminent  surgeons 
and  members  of  the  medical  profession  who  were  present,  could  avail 
to  bring  back  life  to  the  lifeless  body,  which  they  resigned  to  the 
persons  appointed  to  see  his  remains  interred. 

It  was  the  wish  of  Dr.  Dodd  to  be  buried  in  his  own  churchyard, 
and  the  place  was  crowded  the  whole  day  with  people  in  carriages  and 
on  horseback  who  came  to  witness  the  ceremony.  But  the  sexton 
informed  them  he  had  been  carried  to  a  village  near  Uxbridge  for 
interment.  This  false  report  gaining  ground,  the  spectators  departed 
for  that  place.  In  the  afternoon,  however,  a  vault  was  opened  in  West 
Ham  Churchyard,  which  belonged  to  a  very  ancient  family,  and  a  few 
minutes  past  twelve  the  body  of  the  unfortunate  clergyman  was  interred 
therein,  in  the  presence  of  a  great  number  of  spectators,  who  flocked 
to  the  churchyard  on  the  report  of  the  vault  being  opened. 


This  famous  bass  singer  resided  for  many  years  in  Union  Street, 
Somers  Town.  The  deep  tone  of  his  voice  is  said  to  have  been 
surprising,  and  to  have  had  a  wonderful  effect  upon  every  person  who 
heard  it.  The  following  anecdote  is  told  of  him : — 

One  day  Mr.  James,  of  the  Bedford  Arms,  Camden  Town,  having 
a  party  of  friends  about  to  dine  with  him,  invited  Smith  to  join  them, 
which  he  did,  and  they  dined  in  the  club-room,  which  was  over  the 
smoking  parlour.  An  elderly  gentleman  was  quietly  smoking  his  pipe 
below,  when  Smith  sang  "  The  Wolf,"  which  had  such  an  extraordinary 
effect  upon  him,  that  he  rang  the  bell  and  told  the  waiter  that  he 
wished  to  speak  to  Mr.  James.  Upon  his  coming  into  the  room,  he 
requested  to  know  tfye  name  of  the  gentleman  who  had  just  been 
singing;  and  when  told  it  was  Mr.  George  Smith,  of  Drury  Lane 
Theatre,  he  remarked,  "Well,  although  I  am  quite  aware  that  he  was 
over  my  head,  yet  I  declare  that  his  voice  lifted  up  my  chair,  and 
made  my  glass  dance  upon  the  table." 


In  1775,  Toplady  was  compelled  through  ill-health  to  come  to 
London,  and  he  became  preacher  at  Orange  Street  Chapel,  Leicester 

2io  ST.   PANCRAS. 

Square,  for  a  short  time.  On  Sunday,  June  14,  in  the  last  stage  of 
consumption,  and  only  two  months  before  he  died,  he  ascended  his  pulpit 
in  Orange  Street  Chapel,  after  his  assistant  had  preached,  to  the 
astonishment  of  his  people,  and  gave  a  short  but  affecting  exhortation,  at 
the  close  of  which  he  made  the  following  declaration  : — "  It  having  been 
industriously  circulated  by  some  malicious  and  unprincipled  persons,  that 
during  my  present  long  and  severe  illness,  I  expressed  a  strong  desire 
of  seeing  Mr.  John  Wesley,  before  I  die,  and  revoking  some  particulars 
relative  to  him,  which  occur  in  my  writings, — Now  I  do  publicly  and 
most  solemnly  aver  that  I  have  not  nor  never  had  any  such  intention 
or  desire ;  and  that  I  most  sincerely  hope  that  my  last  hours  will  be 
much  better  employed  than  in  communing  with  such  a  man.  So  certain 
and  satisfied  am  I  of  the  truth  of  all  that  I  have  ever  written,  that 
were  I  now  sitting  up  in  my  dying  bed,  with  a  pen  and  ink  in  my 
hand,  and  all  the  religious  and  controversial  writings  I  ever  published, 
especially  those  relating  to  Mr.  John  Wesley,  and  the  Armenian  contro- 
versy, whether  respecting  fact  or  doctrine,  could  be  at  once  displayed  to 
my  view,  I  should  not  strike  out  a  single  line  relative  to  him  or  them." 


Two  maiden  ladies,  sisters,  of  the  name  of  Capper,  occupied  a  farm 
situated  behind  the  north-west  end  of  Great  Russell  Street,  Bloomsbury. 
They  wore  riding-habits  and  men's  hats.  One  rode  an  old  grey  mare, 
and  took  a  spiteful  delight  in  cutting  kite-strings  attached  to  kites  when- 
ever she  came  across  boys  indulging  in  that  pastime.  For  that  purpose 
she  provided  herself  with  a  large  pair  of  shears.  The  other  sister's 
business  was  to  seize  the  clothes  of  the  lads  who  trespassed  upon  their 
premises.  About  a  hundred  years  ago  there  were  only  a  few  straggling 
houses  between  Capper's  Farm  and  the  "Adam  and  Eve"  public  house. 

There  is  some  reason  to  think  that  a  portion,  at  least,  of  the  farm- 
house still  remains.  Messrs.  Heale  and  Son's  extensive  premises  at  No. 
195-198,  Tottenham  Court  Road,  stand  upon  the  boundary-line  which 
separates  the  parishes  of  St.  Pancras  and  St.  Giles-in-the-Fields.  There 
are  two  tablets,  attached  to  the  walls  of  an  old  building  in  the  rear  of 


those  premises,  which  mark  the  boundary-line,  and  both  bear  last-century 
dates.  An  old  lease  of  the  property  contains  a  clause  binding  the 
tenant  to  keep  up  stabling  for  forty  head  of  cattle.  That  old  stable, 
constructed  entirely  of  wood,  was  destroyed  by  fire  a  few  years  ago,  and 
the  ground  it  occupied  is  now  covered  by  the  show-rooms  attached  to 
Messrs.  Heale's  extensive  premises.  This  may  have  been  Capper's  Farm, 
but  the  evidence  is  not  conclusive.  It  is  known,  however,  that  the 
premises  were  once  used  for  the  purposes  of  a  large  livery-stable. 


The  Morning  Herald  of  August  22nd,  1805,  gives  the  following 
curious  account  of  a  female  pugilist : — 

"A  singular  case  of  pugilism  was  seen  yesterday,  August  21,  1805. 
Two  porters,  of  the  names  of  Johnson  and  Wigmore,  having  had  a 
quarrel  in  Tottenham  Court  Road,  on  the  next  day  agreed  to  meet  in 
the  fields  to  have  a  fight.  The  contest  afforded  but  little  diversion, 
as  neither  parties  possessed  any  skill,  and  Johnson  was  declared  the 
victor  in  the  space  of  fifteen  minutes.  The  wife  of  Wigmore  who 
seconded  her  husband,  was  so  enraged  at  this,  that  she  challenged  the 
second  of  her  husband's  opponent,  a  fellow  of  the  name  of  Leverett,  and 
a  fight  took  place,  in  which  sally  she  made  such  forcible  straitforward 
hits  that  her  opponent  reluctantly  yielded  to  her  superior  strength  and 
science.  After  a  fight  of  ten  minutes,  the  Amazonian  pugilist  then 
challenged  her  husband's  conqueror." 

The  London  newspapers  of  the  last  century  contain  a  great  deal  of 
information  about  the  various  events  which  took  place  in  this  district. 
Cases  of  highway  robbery  appear  to  have  been  of  frequent  occurrence 
close  by  the  old  church  of  St.  Pancras,  and  the  following  few  extracts  are 
given  without  further  comment : — 

"Yesterday  evening  a  prodigious  concourse  of  people  were  assembled 
in  St.  Pancras  Churchyard  to  see  a  Free  Mason's  funeral.  Many  people 
having  got  on  the  tiles  belonging  to  the  Adam  and  Eve,  some  of  the 
waiters  imprudently  threw  water  at  them,  which  enraged  them  so  much 

212  ST.  PANCRAS. 

that  they  stripped  the  whole  row  of  arbors  of  the  tiling,  threw  them 
into  the  gardens  and  did  much  mischief.  The  pickpockets  took  advantage 
of  the  confusion  and  uproar,  and  eased  many  people  of  their  pocket 
handkerchiefs,  snuff-boxes,  etc. 

"  Last  night  one  of  the  Hampstead  stages  was  stopped  at  Pancras 
by  two  Footpads,  armed  with  cutlasses,  who  robbed  the  passengers  of 
between  four  and  five  pounds,  and,  after  threatening  to  murder  every 
person  that  attempted  to  apprehend  them,  made  off  through  the 
churchyard." — i$th  September,  1772. 

"  On  Thursday  morning  a  duel  was  fought  near  Pancras  by  Capt. 
E — ,  formerly  of  Burgoine's  Light  Horse,  and  a  Surgeon  in  the  army ; 
they  fired  each  a  case  of  pistols,  in  the  course  of  which  the  former 
received  a  shot  in  the  arm,  and  another  in  the  side,  when  he  fell  to 
the  ground,  and  was  directly  dressed  by  his  antagonist,  who  assisted 
to  place  him  in  a  coach,  and  attended  him  to  his  apartments  in  Bond 
Street,  where  he  lies  dangerously  ill." — 2^th  January,  1774. 

"  Early  on  Thursday  morning  two  modern  men  of  honour  (a  Parish- 
clerk  and  a  Barber)  met  in  a  field  near  Pancras,  in  order  to  settle  a 
dispute  which  had  arisen  from  the  former  gentleman's  having  accused 
the  latter  of  writing  a  paragraph  which  appeared  in  a  morning  paper, 
tending  to  ridicule  him  (the  said  clerk)  for  dancing  at  a  public  ball ; 
but  just  as  they  were  proceeding  to  action,  they  were  interrupted  by 
the  arrival  of  a  lady  (wife  of  the  psalm-singing  hero)  who  very  soon 
ended  this  important  business  in  a  ludicrous  manner,  by  wresting  the 
pistols  out  of  their  hands,  and  then  seizing  the  poor  tonsor  by  the 
foretop,  giving  him  a  most  severe  and  terrible  scratching,  for  his 
insolent  attempt  to  injure  her  dear  man  in  the  eyes  of  the  Public. 
Having  completed  her  revenge  on  him,  she  instantly  commanded  her 
husband  to  quit  the  field,  on  pain  of  sharing  the  fate  of  his  bleeding 
antagonist.  The  hen-pecked  combatant  had  too  often  experienced  the 
fatal  effects  of  non-compliance  to  her  will,  to  show  the  least 
reluctance  on  the  present  occasion,  and  immediately  departed,  to  the 


great    diversion    of    the     bystanders,    who    were    called    to   the    scene    of 
action   by   the   cries   of  the   vanquished   periwig-maker." — 2jth  June,  1776. 

"  On  Thursday  last,  according  to  an  immemorial  octennial  custom,  the 
Minister  and  Parish-officers  of  Pancras,  attended  by  a  numerous  train  of 
children  and  other  parishioners,  made  the  Lustration  of  that  parish,  when 
they  found  no  less  than  three  terminal  boundaries  had  been  removed,  which 
they  ordered  to  be  fixed  up  again  in  their  proper  places.  The  procession 
forced  their  way  through  Lord  Mansfield's  Park,  which,  they  said,  ought 
not  to  have  been  enclosed  :  his  Lordship  was  all  the  while  at  his  house 
at  Canewood,  and  was  a  spectator  of  their  marching  triumphant  through 
his  fields,  by  an  ancient  common  foot-path,  which,  in  law,  ought  always 
to  be  left  free  and  uninclosed. 

"  By  this  lustration  of  the  parish  of  St.  Pancras,  made  last  Thursday, 
it  appears  that  two  thousand  new  houses  have  been  built  in  the  parish 
within  the  space  of  these  last  eight  years." — Newspaper,  1776. 

A  newspaper,  dated  2gth  April,  1810,  says : — "  Another  large  field, 
beyond  Somers  Town  is  about  to  be  covered  with  houses,  for  the  purpose 
of  assisting  London  in  its  progress  towards  York." 

"  The  Pond  by  the  Brill  near  Pancras  is  the  most  dangerous  piece  of 
water  near  London.  The  holes  are  deep,  and  the  declivities  to  them  very 
sudden.  More  lives  have  been  lost  there  within  seven  years  than  in  any 
land  of  equal  size ;  and  it  ought  to  be  immediately  filled  up  or  enclosed." 

— Newspaper,  1780. 

"  Sunday  morning  Pancras  Church  was  broken  into,  and  a  large  brass 
chandelier  and  a  surplice  were  stolen  thereout.  'Tis  imagined  that  the 
sacrilegious  villans  were  in  expectation  of  meeting  with  the  Communion 
Plate,  as  it  was  the  first  Sunday  in  the  month,  but  they  were  disappointed 
of  their  expected  booty." — Jth  April,  1779. 

"  Sunday  morning,  about  seven  o'clock,  a  hare  was  discovered  in  the 
fields  near  Kentish  Town,  and  was  immediately  pursued.  At  Pancras  it 
swam  across  a  pond,  and  was  almost  surrounded  by  its  followers.  It 



then  continued  its  route  to  the  turnpike  by  the  New  Road  near  Battle- 
bridge,  when  a  man  was  very  near  knocking  it  down  with  his  hat ;  and 
a  greyhound,  who  happened  to  be  there,  with  too  much  eagerness  to 
catch  it,  leaped  over  its  back  and  missed  it.  It  then  crept  between 
the  narrow  rails,  and  ran  across  the  lawn  before  the  Inoculating  Hospital. 
This  inclosure  for  some  time  obstructed  the  pursuit.  It  afterwards  fled 
across  the  fields  to  Maiden  Lane,  and  up  towards  Copenhagen  House. 
Here  poor  puss  had  the  good  fortune  to  hide  itself,  and  to  remain 
concealed  somewhere  about  the  brick-fields,  though  it  was  followed  by 
a  great  number  of  people  with  bull-dogs,  fox-dogs,  terriers,  pugs,  and 
curs  in  abundance." — September,  1801. 


NOTE. — In  several  cases  where  surnames  are  mentioned  in  the  index,  it  has  been  found 
impossible  to  give  the  Christian  names  of  the  persons  referred  to ;  but,  as  a  general  rule 
these  cases  are  limited  to  the  immediate  districts  of  Marylebone  and  St.  Pancras,  and,  as  a 
further  means  of  identification,  the  profession,  or  trade,  has  been  specified. — G.C. 


Adam  and  Eve,  The,  Pancras 

Gardens,  Pancras 

Tottenham  Court  Road 

121-125,  ] 
Adolphus,  Ensign  — 

Africa 175 


Ainsworth,  W.  H 

Albany  Street  ...         ...          53 

Albemarle,  Duke  of  

Alford,  —        

All       Souls'      Church,      Langham 


Allcock,  — ,  organist  

Allen,  George  


Allington         82-83 

Alpha  Road 101 

Amelia,  Princess      

"  Amphitheatre,"  The 

Anne,  Queen 160 

Apollonicon    ...         ...         ...         ...     170 

Apple  Village  

Archers'  Hall  

Argyle  Rooms 




Argyle  Street            

.-          I83 


Arlington,  Henry  Earl  of... 



Arne,  T.  A  


Arlington,  Isabella,  Countess  of 

...     119 


Armstrong,  Sir  Thomas 

...       70 


T  *~l  T* 

Arnold,  Lieut. 

...       80 


Artillery  Ground 

.  .  .     iii 
...       82 







Arundel,  Richard  Earl  of  ... 



Augustus  Street 

•••       53 

Austen,  Family  of  ... 


*y  _^  Q 


I  IO 



d  *•    T^-\V»T-i      T<i»-4- 



Austin,  John... 

/  j 


Athens,  Temple  of  the  Winds 

•••       54 


Axtell,  —  ,  a  regicide 

...       70 

i  73 



...     171 

1  60 

Bacon,  Elizabeth 

...     141 


Francis...                     ... 




Tnhn     R  A 


J  ULLlly     ±.\.,r\»              ...                   ... 


Bagnigge,  Family  of 

—    "HniiQp                                      TOic.    i 

...       148 
r/*S.    T  An 



Bagnigge  River        ...  ...     147 

-  Wash 147 

-  Wells     122,  148-155,  190 

Baker,  William         ...  190 

Bale,  Bishop 69 

Balthorp,  Richard 188 

Bampfylde,  Sir  C.  W.,  Bart.        ...      in 

Bank  of  England,  The       167 

Bardwell,  William    ...         ...          168-170 

Baretti,  Giuseppe     ...         ...          23,  in 

Barking  Abbey         ...         ...         ...         3 

Barkstead, — ,  a  regicide    ...         ...       70 

Barn  Field     ...  ,.         ...         ...       56 

Barnet  Races  ...         ...         ...       72 

Barrow  Hill  ...         ...         ...         ...75-78 

Barry,  James...         ...         ...          103-104 

Basset,  Fulke,   Bishop   of    London     173 
Bassompierre,  The  Marshal  de    ...       69 
Battle  Bridge          125,  126,  146,  149, 

150,  158,  182,  186,  188,  201,  213 
Bayham    Street         ...         ...         ...     191 

Baynes,  Walter        147 

Bayswater      ...          ...          ...          ...       84 

Beattie,  James          ...         ...         ...       62 

Beck,  Rev.  -  ...         ...         ...     139 

Bedford,  Duke  of 59,  84 

John,  Duke  of...         ...         ...     193 

Arms,  Camden  Town  ...     209 

House    ...         ...         ...         ...       59 

-  Square 85,   179 

Bedloe,  Capt.  William        76 

Behnes,  The  sculptor          ...         ...       29 

Belgrave  Street         183 

Bell  Field      51,  52 

Bell,  Dr.  William 73 

Bennett,  George       185 

Bentinck,  Lord   George,  Statue  of      62 

Bentinck  Street        

Beresford,  John        

Beresford,  Mary       

Bergavenny,  Lord  ... 

Berkeley,  William,  Marquis 

Berners,  Charles       


Street  Hoax 


Berridge,  Rev.  —    ... 
Berry,  Henry 
Bertie,  Charles 
Bethlem  Hospital     ... 
Bethnal  Green 
Bevington's  Apollonicon 
Bevis,  Dr.  John 
Bibbins,  Jos.... 
Bilson's  Farm 
Birchin  Lane 

Birnie,  —       

Bishopsgate    ... 
Black  Mary's  Hole... 
Blackfriars  Bridge   ... 

Blair,  Capt 

Blandford  Square    ... 
Street    ... 

Blessed  Mary's  Well 
Blewhouse  Field 
Bloomsbury   ... 

"  Blue  Bottles" 

" Posts,"  The 

" Stocking  Club,"  The 

Blunt,  William         

Boadicea,  Queen 
"  Boarded  House,"  The     ... 
Boleyn,  Queen  Anne 
Bolsover  Street         



•••    135 

•••    134 


...       90 

47,  102-103 


...     139 

...       76 


...     197 


...     170 


...       80 

...       47 

...     127 

...     109 

...       81 

147-148,  150 

83,  146 

...       80 

...  64-65 

...     103 

148,  150 

...       56 


...  84 
...  80 
...  123 
...  62 



...  177 
...  103 



Bolton  &  Sparrow,  Messrs. 
Bond  Street  ... 
Bononi,  Joseph 

Booth,  —       

Boscowen,  Lieut. 

Boston,  New  England      '... 

Bos  well,  James 

Bow  Church,  Cheapside    ... 


-  Street    

Bower  Theatre,  The 

Box,  — 

Boydell,  Alderman  ... 

Bradshaw,  John 

Braham  and  Yates,  Messrs. 

Brampton  Bryan 


Brandon,  Gregory 

,  R. 


Braughing,  Manor  of          

Bray,  Sir  Reginald... 
Braybrooke,     Robert,     Bishop      of 
London  ...         ...         ...  n 

Breadalbane,  Earl  of 

Brick  Field 

Brill,  The      ...         ...  115,  117,  150, 

Bringhurst,  —  (constable) 

Brisco,  John  ... 

Britannia  Theatre,  The 

British  Museum        ...         ...  9, 

Broad  Street 

Street,  St.  Giles's 

Brocklesby,  Dr.  R 

Brooking,  Charles    ... 
Brougham  and  Vaux,  Lord 
Broughton,  —  (prize-fighter) 
Broughton's  Amphitheatre 




Brown,  John... 



Browning,  E.  B  

...     106 


Brunt,  —  (a  shoemaker)    ... 

...     107 


Brunswick,  The  Duke  of  ... 

•v     J55 


T-TrmT-    nf 

...     126 



145,  207 

oquare  ...         ...         ... 


Bryanston  Square     



Buckingham,  Duke  of 

42,  70 


Buckingham  Street... 

...     103 


Buckland,  F.  T  

...     207 


"Bumble-puppy,"   a  game... 

...     124 


Bunhill  Fields           

...       82 


Burke,  Edmund 

62,  103 


Burn,  J.  S. 




Burton,  Decimus      ...        53, 

54,  89,  164 


Burton-way  (Field)  ... 

...       56 


Butcher's  Field        

...       51 


Bute,  Earl  of            

...       72 


Byron,  Lord  ... 

...       25 




...       61 

>  15 





"  Cabinet  Theatre,"  The 
Caesar,  Julius 

...  185 

115,  126 

...  177 

Caledonian  Church,  Hatton  Garden  142 

Calthorpe,  Lord 
Cambridge,  Duke  of 
Camden,  Earl 






...117,  146,  191,  209 

Campbell,  Thomas 105 

Canewood       •••  213 

Cannon  Street           ...  ...  167 

Cansick,  F.  T.  •••  ^34 

Cantelows       ...                       in,  187,  189 

Canterbury  Cathedral  ...  172 

Capper's  Farm         210-211 



Carey,  John 6 

Carleton,  John  de 119 

Carlton  House  ...  ...  53 

Carnaby  Market  138 

"Carpenter's  Arms"  The 68 

Cartwright,  Richard  91 

Gary,  George  Saville  36 

Casali,  The  Chevalier  ...  198,  200 
Casley,  Mr.,  Keeper  of  the  Cot- 

tonian  Library  ...  ...  ...  10 

Castle  Street  East 103,  104 

Castlereagh,  Lord 108 

Casvelhan,  King  ..>.  116 

Catalini,  Madame  ..' 185 

Catherine,  Queen,  of  Braganza  ...  84 
Catholic  Apostolic  Church,  Gordon 

Square I42'I43 

Catley,  Anne 35 

Cato,  Street 106-109 

Cave,  Walter  204 

Cavendish  Square  ...  61-62,  104,  127 

Chad,  Capt 185 

Chaldfleet  ...  -. 174 


Chalk  Farm  ... 
Chambers,  Sir  William 
Chambre,  Sir  Allen... 
Chancery  Lane 
Chandos,  John  Duke  of 
Chantrey,  the  sculptor 
Chapman,  Rev.  Mr. 
Charles  I.       ...  5, 


Charles  Thomas 

Charity  School,  St.  Pancras 

Charlotte  Street        

Charlotte's,  Queen,  Lying-in  Hospital 








69,  70,  119,  198 

5,  55,  84,  148 


84,  104 


Chatterton,  Thomas 

Chelsea  Hospital       

Chesterfield,  Philip  Earl  of 
-  Philip  Dormer,  Earl  of 

...  119 

...  167 

...  197 

•••  55 

•••  55 

...  183 

...  163 

Charterhouse,  The 

167,  197 

Chilham  Castle,  Kent 

Chingford       ...         ...         ...         •••  88 

Chipping  Barnet      .  .         ...         •••  189 

Chiswell  Street         82 

Christ  Church,  Stafford  Street     ...  28 

Christ's  Hospital      197 

Church,  John            83 

Clare  Market             44 

Clarence,  Duke  of 142 

Clarke,  G.  S 28 

Clarke,  Sir  William 6 

Claxton,  Mr 37 

Clayton,  William     72 

Cleeve,  Thomas        188 

Clerkenwell    ...     146,   149,  155,  167,  186 

Clinch,  George         68 

Clinch,  Tom  ...         ...         ...         ...  69 

Clipstone  Steeet       ...         ...         ...  99 

Cloudesley,   Richard            ...         ...  132 

College,  James          72 

i  Collier,  William        73 

Collins,  — ,  a  nurseryman...         ...  182 

Colosseum,  The        ...         ...         164-171 

Connaught  Place     68 

Constable,  John        ...          ..         ...  104 

Coombe  Bassett        ...         ...         ...  190 

Cooper,  Lieut.  John            ...         ...  182 

Copenhagen  House  ...         ...         ...  213 

Coppice  Row            ...         ...         ...  149 

Coram,  John ...  193 



Coram,  Thomas     193,  196,  197,  199-201 

Corbet,  — ,  a  regicide         70 

Cornhill          167 

Cornwall,  Barry        104,  207 

Terrace...  ...  53,  97 

Corpus  Christi  College,  Oxford    ...       83 
Cosmorama,  The      ...         ...          172-173 

Cotes,  Francis,  R.A.  ...         ...     104 

Coutts  &  Co.  127 

Covent  Garden  Theatre     ..  44,  169 

Coventry,  Thomas 188 

Cowley,  Abraham 97 

Cowper,  William      54,  62 

Grace  Collection,  British  Museum 

32,  54.  156 

Cramer,  William       25 

Crassus,  M 115 

Craven,  John             190 

Chapel 139 

Crompton,  Lieut.  John       181 

Cromwell,  Oliver  5,  69,  82,  121,  126,  199 

Crosby  Square          ...           139 

Crown  Street...         ...         ...         ...  139 

Crozet,  — ,  carver in 

Cruickshank,  George           70 

Cumberland,   William  Duke  of     ...  61 

Square 53 

Cupid ...  35 

Cutler,  Gray 37 

Cyclops,  The 35 

Cyclorama,  The,  of  Lisbon           ...  170 

DALLING,  JAMES        38 

Danson,  —    ...         ...         ...         ...  170 

Dare,  Lieut.  ...         ...         ...         ...  80 

Dark,  —         86 

Darwin,  Charles       208 

Davey,  Sir  Humphrey        89 

Davidson, —  (a  man  of  colour)  ...     107 
Davis,  Miss,  a  vocalist      ...         ...       33 

Dawson,  Nancy        ...         ...         ...43-44 

Day,   Charles...         ...         ...         ...       60 

"Deadly  Never  Green"     ...         ...       67 

De  Courcy,  Rev.  —  ...         ...     139 

De  Kaunteloe  ...         ...         ...     118 

Dekker,  Thomas       ...         ...         ...       75 

Delamain,  Lieut.      ...         ...         ...       80 

De  la  Place,  Mr 7 

Denis,  Sir  Peter       190 

Derby,  Earl  of         ...         ...         ...         4 

Derrick,  — ,  a  hangman     75 

Deschamps,  John     ...         ...         ...       19 

Despair,  Giant          ...          158 

Destrode,  Charles 190 

Devonshire  Terrace...         ...         ...     105 

Dickens,  Charles      ...  105,  207,  208 

Dickie,  -         155 

Dimmock,  — ,  a  coachmaster       ...       72 
Diocletian,  Emperor  ...         ...     131 

Diorama,  The  171,  172 

Dissenting  Chapels  in  Marylebone  29-30 

Dixon,  Capt.  John 181 

Dixon,  Mrs 181 

Dodd,  Dr 74.  75>  208-209 

Domesday  Book,  The         ...          118-119 

Dorset  Square  64,  86 

Douce,  Mr 10 

Sir  Edmund 21 

Doughty  Street         ,         ...     207 

Downing,  Edward 57 

Downman,  Lieut.  John       ...         ...     181 

Drury  Lane  Theatre  ...  44,  99 

Dryden  John...  ...  75,  97,  153 

Dudley,  Sir  Robert 119 



Dun,  "  Esquire  " 
Duncannon,  Viscount 
Duncomb,  George    . 
Dupper  Field 
"Dust-hole,  The"    ... 
Dutch  Barn  Field    ... 
Dyer,  H.  M 






HALING           73 

East  India   House,  The     167 

East  Mouldsey,  Surrey      ...         ...  188 

Eastbourne 92 

Edgware  Road        , 68,  106 

Edmondson's  Barn...         ...         ...  45 

Edmonton      ...         ...         ...         ...  174 

Edward  the  Confessor       ...         ...  57 

-II 175 

-  Ill 176 

Edwards,  —  (a  spy)  ...          108-109 


"Eight  String  Jame" 
Eldon,  Lord  Chancellor     ... 


Eleanor,  Queen  of  Henry  III. 
Elgin  Marbles 

Eliot,  George  ..          

Elizabeth,  Queen     ...       4,  69,  119, 

Elliott,  Adjutant  William 

Elm  Tree  Road       

Elonore,  Alexander...         ...         ...     134 

Mary     134 

Epping  Forest          88,  167 

Erechtheium,  The    ...         ...         ...     137 

Erldesby,  William  de         176 

Essex  ...         ...         ...         ...         ...     167 

Etna,  Mount...         ...         ...         ...       35 

Euston  Road  58 




1 20 

Evans,  Marian          ...         ...         ...  65 

Eve,  Francis...         ...         ...         ...  132 

Laurentia          ...         ...         ...  132 

Robert 131-132 

Thomas            132 

Exeter...         ...         ...         ...         ...  93 

John  Holland,  Duke  of       ...  177 

Lord      184 

Exhibition,  The  Great,  of  1851    164,  170 

Eyre,  Samuel            ...         ...         ...  55 

" Arms,  The" 56 

FAGS-WELL      ,  146 

Fairlop  Oak,  The    ...         ...         ...  137 

Faraday,  Michael 103 

Farringdon   Road     ...         ...         ...  146 

—  Street 146 

Felton,  John...         ...         ...  ...       70 

Female  Charity  School      ...190,  192-193 

Ferguson,  James      ...         ...  ...       25 

Ferrand,   —    (performer   upon  the 

bariton)  ...         ...          ...  •••33'34 

Ferrers,  Joan,  Lady            ...  ...     119 


Robert,  Lord 

Fetter  Lane  ... 
Fielding,  Sir  John 
Figg,  James  ... 

Fitzalan,  Joan  

Fitzclarence,  Capt 

Fitzroy,  Hon.  Charles 

Rt.  Hon.  Gen. 

Square  ...         ...         ...         ...     109 

Five  Acres,  The      51 

Flanders,  Mr.  37 

...     119 
..     187 
...       72 
24,  40-42 

-       45 
...       82 



...     119 
139,  190 



Flaxman,  John 


Fleet,  River 


Flower,  Prof.  W.  H. 
Foley,  Lord  ... 


Forbes,  Mr.  ... 

George  .  . 

Fordyce,  John 
Forset  Family  Vault 
Forset,  Arabella 




131,  146,  150 
167,  191 





...       38 

•  •     5°'  51.  53 



189,  191 

Fort  Street    ... 
Fortress  Field 
Foundling  Hospital,    The 

44,  117,  145,  149,  193-201 
Fountayne,  Rev.  John  ...  7,  98-99 
Four  Acre  Field  ...  ...  ...  56 

Foyster,  Samuel       141 

Franklin,  Benjamin 197 

"  Fraternitye  of  St.  George  "         ...       81 
French   Chapel         30,  37 

Refugees  132 

Revolution        91,  132 

Frenchbourne,    Simon         ...         ...     187 

Fuller,  Thomas         68 

Fuseli,  Henry  102,  104 

Gardiner,  Messrs.     ... 

•  197 

•  155 
.     177 
87,  88 

Garnerin,  A.  J 

Garraway's  Coffee  House,  Cornhill  161 

Garrick,  Mrs.           98 

Gaunt,  Elizabeth     ...                    ...  75 

Gay,  John,  the  poet 42 


Geary,  Stephen        ..           128 

Gell,  Thornhill          ...         ...         ...  204 

George  II 195,  199 

III.,  Jubilee  of           ...         ...  65 

IV.            84,  91,  126,  128,  202,  203 

"George  and  Blue  Boar,   The"...  69 

George  Street            ...    80,  104,  205,  208 

Gibbs,  —  a  vocalist            ...         ...  155 

James 22 

Gibbon,  Edward      ...         ...          101-102 

Gibbons,  Grinling    ...         ...         ...  134 

Rev.  Thomas  ...         ...         :..  139 

Gibson,  Thomas       ...         ...         ...  6 

Giffard,  Dr.  Andrew           139 

Gilpin,  William        ...         ...         ...  137 

Gloucester,  Duke  of           ...         ...  202 

Gloucester  Gate       173 

Glyptotheca,  The     168,  169 

Goddard,  —              96 

Godfrey,  Sir  E.  B 76-77 

Godwin,  Mary          ...         ...         ...  208 

-  M.  W.              ...  135 

Goldington  Street    ...         ...         ..-  117 

Goldsmith,  Oliver 62 

Gordon,  Lord  George        138 

House  Academy         161 

Riots      177 

Square 142 

Goswell  Street          167 

Gothic  Aviary           17° 

Gough,  Mr.,  proprietor  of  Maryle- 

bone  Gardens 32 

A.  D ...     I31 

Daniel ...       37 

Gould's  Gift iQ1 

Gower  Street  ...  84,  179,  208 

Grafton,  Charles,  Duke  of  ...     119 



Graham,  James 

-  Sir  James,  Bart. 
Grand  Junction   Road 
Gray,  Family  of 
Gray's  Inn  Lane          107, 

-  Inn  Road 
Gravel  Pit  Field 
Great  Coram  Street 

-  Field      

-  Garden  Field  ... 

-  Hill  Field 

-  Robin's  Field'... 

-  Titchfield  Street 
Grecian  Theatre,  The 
Green,  G.  P. 

-  Robert 

-  Berry  Hill 

Lane,  The 



. . .  204 

...  25 

...  84 

...  131 

158,  190 

147,  203 


Greenland  Place,  Somerstown 

-  Hospital  

Gregory  the  Great  ... 

Greville  Street          

Grey,  Samuel  

Griffin,  Mr.,  Showman 
Griffith,  Charles 
Grosvenor,  Rev.  Benjamin 

-  Square 

...       56 

...       56 

...       56 


•••     155 
...     199 

..         76 


...  47 
...  187 
...  188 
167,  197 


1 08 

71,  72, 

Gwynne,  Eleanor     ... 

HACKER,  —  a  regicide 
Hainault  Forest,  Essex 
Hallam,  Henry 
Hamey,  Baldwin,  M.D. 
Hamilton,  Major 
Emma,  Lady  ... 


••     137 

..  191 
..  79 

Hamilton,  Sir  William       ...  99-100 



'»  187 

138,  192 
Hampton-upon-Thames      ...         ...     191 

Handel,  G.  F.     ..    98,  99,  184,  199,  200 
Hanging  Field  ...         ...         ...       56 

Harcourt,  Lieut 

John,  M.P 

Hammond,  Thomas 
Hampstead,  44,  45,  97,  146,  149, 

-  Churchyard 


Hardwicke,  Lord  Chancellor 

Philip,  R.A 


..  80 
••  57 

57.  61 
..  56 
,.  106 

25,  28 

Hardy,  Capt.  

Harleian  Manuscripts 

Harley,   Edward,    Earl    of   Oxford 

and  Mortimer 
Lady  Margaret  Cavendish  ... 

,  10 


Harrington,  Earl  of 
Harris's  Field 
Harrison,  Col.  Thomas 

Harrowby,  Lord 
Hatton  Garden 



...       71 



...     103 
1 08,  109 

142,    194,    202 
...       140 

Hayley,  W 

Hayman,  Francis    ... 
Haymarket,  The 
Haytley,  —  artist    ... 
Hawkins,  — 
Heale  &  Son,  Messrs. 
Heathcote,  Dr. 

...     197 
125,  127 

...     197 
...     154 

210,    2TI 
...       198 



Heneage,  Thomas    ...         ...         ...       57 

Henning,  —  Junr.   ...          ...          ...     169 

Henrietta  Maria,  Queen    ...         ...       69 

Henry  III 170,   173 

-  VII. 's    Chapel,    Westminster 
Abbey      69 

-  VIII 81,  120,  177 

Hensey,  Dr 71 

Heron,  William        186 

Hertford,  Marquis    ...          ...  54,  64 

Hertfordshire  167 

Heslop,  Rev.  Archdeacon  ...       25 

Heyfield,  Joanna      41 

Hidon,  —       ...         ...         ...         ...     109 

High  Street,  St.  Giles's 68 

Highgate,    125,    146,  149,  161,   167, 

186,  188,  189,  191,  196 

Archway  167 

-  Hill        202 

Highmore,  A.  ...         ...         ...     202 

Joseph  ...         ...         ...         ...     197 

Highway  Robbery  at    St.  Pancras     212 
Hill,  Lawrence         ...         .  .         ...       76 

—  Richard  118 

-  Sir  Richard     52 

Rev.  Rowland  139 

Field      51 

Hinde,  Jacob  ...         ...         ...         6 

Peter 6 

Hoare,  Henry  ...         ...         ...     204 

Prince 198 

Hobson,  Thomas     4 

Hocher,    Mr.,    Deputy    Keeper    of 

the  Records  in  the  Tower     ...       10 
Hodgkinson,  Sampson        ...  22,  36 

Hogarth,    William       42,    123,    195, 

196,   197,   199 

Hogarth's  "Rake's  Progress"     ...  16-18 
Holborn       68,    117,    125,    140,    144, 

145,    158,  162,  167 

"  Holborn  Bars.  The  "       123 

Holcroft,  Thomas    ...         ...         ...  99 

Holdbrook,  Richard            ...         ...  52 

Holebourne,  The  River     ...          146-148 

Holland,  John,  Duke  of  Exeter  ...  177 

Holies,  John,    Duke    of  Newcastle  4 

Holt  &  Scheffer,  Messrs.  ...         ...  in 

Holy  Maid  of  Kent            69 

-  Trinity,  Priory  of,  Aldgate,  173-174 
Holy  Trinity  Church,  Marylebone  28 
Home  Field 52 

-  Seven  Acres  Field  ...            ...  51 

Hone,  William          123,  124 

Honorable  Artillery  Company,  The 

81,  82 

Hone,  William          161 

Hood,  Lord 77,  106 

Thomas             ...         ...         ...  104 

Hook,  Theodore       ...         ...        102,  103 

Hooper,  Ann 187 

Hoppner,  John         138 

Horn,  Thomas          ...         ...         ...  17 

Horn  Castle 56 

Rev.  Thomas  Hartwell        ...  10 

Horner,  —  (of  Rathbone  Place)...  170 

Hornor,  Thomas      ..            164,  165,  170 

Hornsey          ...         ...                     ••  191 

Hotham,  Lord          ...                     ...  77 

Hoxton           81,  167 

Hoyle,  Edmund        ...          24 

Hudson           ...  199 

Hughes,  — ,  proprietor  of  Bagnigge 

Wells      I51*  J52 

Hunt,  — ,  card-maker        m 



Hunt,  Leigh 104 

Hunting  in  Marylebone  Park 
Huntingdon,  Countess  of  ... 

Hyatt,  Rev.  John    ... 

-  Miss,  a  vocalist 

Hyde  Park 


...     141 
...       30 


•••       34 
77,  84,  167,  181 

INGS,  —  (a  butcher)           ...         ...  107 

Inner  Circle 89 

Innoculating  Hospital         213 

"Inns  of  Court  HoJel,  The"       ...  69 
Insula,  William  de, .Earl  Warren, 

&c 3 

Invvood,  William      137 

Ipsley,  Sir  John       ...         ...         ...  5 

Ireton,  Henry           ...         ...         ...  69 

Irving,  Rev.  Edward          ...        105,  142 


Ive,  Family  of 



58,  81,  120,  147, 

149,  167,  1 86,  187 


...  132 


"JACK  PUDDING  "    ... 
"  Jack  Spaniard" 
Jackson,  John 
Jacob,  John    ... 
Jacobson,  Theodore... 
Jacomb,  Lucy 

-  Robert 

Jacombe,  William    ... 
James  I. 
Jameson,  Anna 
Jeffrey,  Nicholas 
Jeffreys,  Sir  Jeffery... 

44,  162 

...  162 

...  191 


..  199 

4,  120 
..  105 
..  118 
..  118 

Jenkins's  Nursery     ... 
Jenner,  Dr.  William 
"  Jew's  Harp,  The  " 
-  Harp,   Islington 

John,  King     ... 
Johnson,  — ,  pugilist 


Dr.  Samuel 

Jones,  Humphry 




Jonson,  Ben  ... 
Joss,  Rev.  Torial 


2O2,  2O6 

45.  47.  49.  125 

...  49 

120,  121 



...62,    104,  132 


...  191 

...  72 




Kean,  Charles           208 

Kempton         188 

Kendall,   Richard     51,  52,  120 

Kenrich,  Dr.  William         ...         ...  36 

Kensett,  — ,  cabinet-maker            ...  in 

Kensington  Gardens           ...         84,  167 

Kent,  Duchess  of     ...         ...         ...  203 

Kent,  Holy  Maid  of 69 

Kentessetonne          ...         ...         ...  132 

Kentish  Town     118,  133,  139,  146, 

161,  186,  187,  189,  213 

Kentish  Town  Volunteer  Association  1 8 1 

Ketch,  Jack 75 

Kilbornecroft 133,  191 

Kilburn  Bridge         no 

King,  Philip 118 

"  King's  Ancient    Concert   Rooms, 

The  "       184 

Cross     ...         ...  117,  125-128 

" Cross  Theatre,  The  "        ...  185 

Head  Court     187 



King  John's  Palace... 

Kinsman,  Rev.  —    ... 
Kneller,  Sir  Godfrey 
Knerler,  — ,  a  violinist 
Knight,  Charles 

Rev.  Joel 

-  J.P.,  R.A. 
Knightly,  Rose 

"  Lamb,"  the  public-house 
Lamb,  Charles 









Lever,  Sir  Ashton  ...         ...         ...82,  85 

Leverett,  —  ...         ...         ...         ...     211 

101,  196 


Lamb's  Conduit        ...  144, 

Conduit  Fields 

Conduit  Street 

Lambert,  George 

—  Sir  Henry 

Lampe,  Mrs.,  Jun.,  a  vocalist 
Landseer,  Sir  Edwin,  R.A. 
Lanza,  Gemaldo 
La  Roache,  Eleanor 
Leadenhall  Street    ... 
Lebartz,  John 
Lee,  Walter  ... 
Lee  &  Sons,  Messrs.  Henry 
Leech,  John  ... 
Leeds,  Duke  of 
Leicester  House 


Lejeune,  Capt.  Phillip 

Lely,  Sir  Peter         

Leo  X.,  Pope 

Lever,  Sir  D'Arcy  ... 

...  144 
145,  146 

2OO,  2OI 
149,  194 



•••   34 

1 04 

...  184 

•••  72-73 
...  167 
...  177 
...  19 
...  179 
...  207 

6,  2OI 

83, 84 

83,  209 

...  181 
...  149 
...  198 


Leverton  &  Chawner,  Messrs. 
Leyton,  Essex 


Light  Horse  Volunteers 
Lilestone,  Manor  of 
Lisbon,  Cyclorama  of 
Lisson  Fields 

-  Green      . . 


Little  Blewhouse  Field 

-  Hay  Field 

—  Robin's  Field  ... 

-  Titchfield  Street 
Welbeck  Street 

Liverpool  Street 
Lloyd,  William 
Dr.  Williams 

Locker,  E.  H. 
Lockhart,   Mrs. 
J.  G.     ... 



•••       57 

•••       57 


46,  57-58 

...       56 

...       56 


...  99 
...  65 
127,  183 

...       57 

...       77 



1 06 

Loders-well    ...         ...         ...         ...  146 

Lodge  Field 52 

Lollards,  The            68 

Lombard  Street        ...         ...         ..-.  127 

London  Association,  The  ...         ...  177 

Defences  of,  1643       117 

Grand  Panorama       169 

-  Skating  Club 85 

Tower  of         ...            167,  173,  176 

Long's  Bowling  Green,  Marylebone  43 

Long,  Robert  37 

Forty  Acres     ... 

Mead,  The       

Lord,  Thomas 

Lord's  Cricket  Ground 


...  51 
...  51 
...  86 
64,  181 



"  Lousy  Jack "          ...         ...         ...     140 

Lover,  Samuel          ...         ...         ...     105 

Lowe,  Thomas         ...  33,  35,  36,  37,  38 

Ludgate  Hill 167 

Lully,  Raymond,  a  Jew  of  Terragona  176 

— , ,  of  Palma  ...         ...     175 

Lyell,  Sir  Charles 104 

Lysons,  Daniel         ...115,  116,  118,   130 
Lyttelton,  Lord        ...          ...  62,  63 

MARYLEBONE,  ANCIENT  NAME       ...         3 

-  Domesday  Account  of  ...         3 

-  Old  Church  of  ...         ...     100 

-  Bowling  Green  ...  42,  43 

-  Celebrities       ...  •••93>  101-106 

-  Cricket  Clab 86-87 

-  Farm     ...         ...         ...   53,  90,  120 

-  Gardens  ...          ...       30-39,  98 

-  Lane      ...         ...         ...         ...       80 

-  Manor  House...         ...         ...      6-8 

-  Park      ...       48,  50-53,  55,  123-124 

-  Road      ...  39,  40,  46,  58,  104 

Volunteers,   The 

Macbeth,  Lady 
Macclesfield,  Earl  of 
Macdonald,  William 
Macnamara,  Captain 
Macready,  W.  C.     ... 
Maiden  Lane 
Maize  Hill,  Greenwich 

Manby,  -        82 

Manchester,  Duke  of 

-  Square  ...         ...      64,  96,  101 

Mandubrace,  King  of  London     115 




Marsden,  William    ... 
Mapother,  E.  D.,  M.D.     ... 

Margaret  Street        


Mark  Antony  

Marryat,  Frederick  ... 
Martin,  John... 

Matilda,  Queen  of  King  Stephen 
Mays,  Miss,  a  vocalist 

Mead,  Dr.      ...  

Mecklenberg  Square 

Medley,  Rev.  -         

Mensall,  Alexander  ... 

Mer  de  Glace 

Messer,  — ,  a  coach-builder 


Middle  Field 

-  Temple,  The  ... 

-  Hospital,    The 89 

Midland  Railway  Company 
Middleton,  Thomas... 

Miller,  John 

-  Major  Commandant  James 

Mansfield,  Lord 
Mansion  House 
Marsden,  A.  E.,  M.D. 


...     213 
64,  167 

Mills,  J.  N 

Milne,  Rev.  J.  G 

Milner,  John  ... 
Milton,    John... 
Minto,  Lord  ... 
Mitchie,  Andrew 
Montague,  Hon.  Edward  ... 

-  Elizabeth 
House   ... 

-  Lady  Mary  Wortley... 

-  Matthew 

-  Square  ...         ...      65,  66, 

Montgomery,  Lieut. -Col. 


I O6 




...  161 

...  170 


•••  93 

...  56 

..  104 

...  167 

-92,  no 

...  134 

•••  75 

...  187 

..  181 

...  191 

...  204 

57.  199 
...  97 
...  77 
...  38 
...  62 
...  62-63 
...  62-63 
...  42 
...  63 
104,  nt 
...  77 



6,  53 

Moore,  George 



Mont  Blanc 

Morgan,  James 

&  Pugin,  Messrs. 

Morland,  -- 

George  ... 

More,  — ,  a  grocer  ... 
Morrant,  John 
Morris,  Sir    Christopher 
Mortimer,  Richard  ...         ... 

Street    ...         ...         ...        10 


"Mother  Redcap,  The"    ... 
Munden,  Joseph 
Murray,  Lady 
Muswell  Hill... 




•  55 







Napoleon  I.  ... 
Nares,  Rev.  Robt. 
Nash,  John     ... 
National  Gallery 
Neale,  Lieut. 
"  Nelson,"  Horatia 

Nether  Paddock 

New  London  Tavern,  Cheapside 

Oxford  Street  ... 

River  Company 

-  Head       

Road,  The        ...          57,  58-61,  213 

100,   125 

89,  158 


6,  53>  55 
...     198 
...       80 
77,  99-100 
...       52 

" Royal  West   London  Theatre, 

The"       184 

Newbury  Port            ,           141 

Newcastle,  Duke  of...         ...         ...  4 

Newgate                   '...        68,  73,  74,  167 

Market 166 

Newman  Street         ...          ...          ...  105 

Nichol,  Isabel           ...         ...         ...  191 

Nine  Acres,  The      ...         ...         ...  56 

Noel,  Capt 185 

Nollekens,  Joseph     ...          ...  73,  74,  105 

Nollet,  Michel  Eloy             ...          ...  30 

Norden,  John             ...             129-130,  131 

North  Bank 65,  86 

" London    Athenaeum,    The"  185 

—    or     University     College 
Hospital  ...          ...          ...          205-206 

North  Road,  The     167 

Northumberland,  Duke  of              ...  90 

Nottingham  Street  ...          ...          ...  80 

OAK  TREE  FIELD      ...         ...         ...  56 

Gates,  Titus 76 

Okey,  — ,  a  regicide            ...          ...  70 

Old  Bailey     73 

—  Farthing  Pie  House,  The  46,  47,  59 

-  Street      149 

Oldcastle,  Sir  John 149 

Oldenshaw,  Phillis  ...          ...         ...  133 

-  WTilliam             133 

Oliver,  Mr '...  100 

Onslow,  Mr.  Speaker          48-49 

Orange  Street  Chapel         ...          ...  209 

O'Rourke,  Paddy     155 

Osnaburgh  Street     ...                     •  •  53 

Ossultone  Hundred 57 

Otto,  M.,  French  Ambassador     ...  63 

Overbury,  Sir  Thomas        69 

Oxford,  Edward,  Earl  of 10 

-  Earl  of            4,  9,  106 

Lord                             62 



Oxford  House 
-  Road      .. 

...    8-10 

96,  no,  167 

Ozealey,  — 155 

PACHE,  Miss 184 

Paddington  45,58,98,123-124,   139,  149 

"-    -  Drag,  The" 123 

Paine,  J.         ...          ...          ...          ...  90 

Paley,  William          130 

Palma,  Majorca        175 

Palmer,  Eleanor       191 

John       ...         ...         ...         ...  191 

-  Samuel ...         ...           136,  185,  192 

Pancras,  Manor  of 119-20 

-  Road      131 

-  Wash     ...  148 

-  Wells 156-157 

Pancratius,  Saint      ...         ...         ...  131 

Panizzi,  Sir  Anthony          ..           ...  180 

Park  Crescent           ...          ...          ...  53 

Lane      ...         ...         ...         ...  67 

-  Square  ...                                   53,  171 

-  Village  East    ...         ...         .  53 

-  West        ...         ...         ...  53 

Parkes,  John    ..          ...          ...          ...  41 

Parkinson,  James     ...          ...          ...  83 

Parsons,  Rev.  Edward       ...         ...  139 

Parris,  E.  T....         ...         ...        166,  169 

Parrot,    An     old,    at     Marylebone 

Manor  House    ...         ...         ...  8 

Pasqualis,  Francis  ...         ...         ...  184 

Peake,  John  ...         ...         ...         ...  140 

Pearce,  Matthew      ...         ...         ...  140 

Pears,  — ,  perfumer...         ...         ...  in 

Peckwell,  Dr.            ...         ...         ...  139 

Pennant,  Thomas     ...         ...         ...  42 


Pentonville     58,  147,  167 

Pepys,  Lieut.  John   ..         ...           ..  182 

-  Samuel ...         ...         ...         ...  31 

Percy  Chapel             ...          ...          ...  193 

Pericles           ...         ...         ...         ...  137 

Perny,  Bernard         ...         ...         ...  30 

-  Henry 191 

Peto  &  Grissell,  Messrs.                ...  164 

Peto,  Sir  Morton,  Bart 172 

Piccadilly       167 

Piercy,  Rev.  -           139 

Pightle  (Field)          51 

Pinder  of  Wakefield,  The...         125,  148 

Piozzi,  M 185 

Pitt,  James 192 

-  William             106 

-  Street 140 

Platt,  William          188 

Plowden,  Lieut.        ...         ...         ...  80 

Plunket,  Oliver         ...  70 

Pool,  Miss      184 

Pope,  Alexander      ...         ...         ...  62 

Porter,  David            ..  65 

Portland,  Duke  of 25,  28 

-  William,  2nd  Duke  of          ...         4 

-  William  H.  C.  B.,  Duke  of         24 

-  Margaret  Cavendish  ...         ...         9 

-  Family  Vault 18,  24 

-  Place     48,  53 

—  Road      ...  44 

Portman  Square       ...          ...          ...62-64 

Family  ...          ...          ...          ...       62 

Portsmouth    ...         ...         ...         ...  70 

Post  Office,  The  New  (General)...  167 

Pott,  Archdeacon     ...         ...         ...  198 

Pound  Field 52 

Pownall,  Lieut So 




"Philharmonic,  The"         185 

Philippa,  Queen  of  Edward  III...,  176 

Phillips,  T 80 

Phipps,  Lieut. -Col.  ...          ...          ...  79 

Phoenix  Street          ...         ...         ...  117 

Physicians,  Old  College  of           ...  166 

Prance,  — ,  a  conspirator  ...          ...  76 

Pratt  Street  ...         ...         ...         ...  190 

Price,  —  (a  smith)  ...         ...         ...  121 

Primrose  Hill            •••47>  75-7^,  149,  167 

Prince  Consort,  The           ...         ...  84 

"  Prince  of  Wales'  Royal  Theatre, 

The"       184 

Prince  Regent  ...  6,  53,  91,  97 

Pritchard,  W.  T 204 

Procter,  B.  W.         ...         ...        104,  207 

Prospect  Place,  Wai  worth            ...  187 
" Providence  Chapel "          ...         ...29-30 

Prynn,  —       ...  155 

Pugin,  A.  W.  N 128 

Pulteney,  William    ...         ...         ...  62 

"  Pyed  Bull,  The,"  Islington        ...  120 

,  Richard 

Queen  Anne's  Square         ...         ...       64 

Anne  Street     105 

Square  ...         ...         ...         ...     117 

Queen's  Head  and  Artichoke    44-45,   124 

" Theatre,  The  "         184 

Queenhithe     ...         ...         ..  ...     173 

RAD-WELL       ...         ...  ...         ...  146 

Raffles,  Sir  Stamford  89 

Rainbow  Coffee  House  ...         ...  191 

Raleigh,  Sir  Walter  120 

Ramsay,  —    ...         ...  ...         ...  199 


Ramsay,  Allen          ...         ...         ...       25 

Rann,  John    ...         ...         ...         ...  71-73 

Raphael's  cartoons  ...         ...170,  198-199 

Rathbone  Place        ...         ...         ...     170 

Raworth,  — ,  a  vocalist      ...          ...       33 

Red  Lion  Inn,  Holborn     ...          ...       69 

Street      ...         ...          144-149 

"Regency  Theatre,  The"...          ...      184 

Regent's  Canal          ...         ...         ...       55 

Regent's   Park         48,  50-54,  78,  81, 

84-88,  89,  97,   168,  172,   173,   177 
-  Basin       ...         ...         ...       53 


53.  172 

...       25 
61,  62-104 
...     140 
1 40 
Richardson,   G.         ...         ...          ..       51 

Ritchie,  —     ...          ...          ...          ...     143 

River  of  Wells,  The 

Square   Presbyterian   Church 

Reid,  — ,  chair-maker 
Relham,  Anthony     .. 
Reynolds,  Sir  Joshua 
Rhodes,  A.  C. 

Robarts,  Curtis,  &  Co. 
Robert  Street 
Roberts,  Mary 
Robinson,  Ensign     ... 
P.  F. 

...     146 

...     139 
...     177 
...     181 
...     1 68 
...     127 
46-47,  150 
...     118 
...     116 


Rotherhithe ...     193 

Roumieu,  — 131 

Rowley,  Dr 138 

Robson,  John  

Rocque's  map  of  London  ... 

Roehampton  ...  

Rome  ... 

Romney,  George      

Rose  of  Normandy,  The   ... 
Tavern,  Marylebone  ... 



Royal  Academy        198 

-  Botanic  Society          84-89 

"Royal  Clarence  Theatre,  The"...     185 

Exchange,  The  ...         ...     167 

-  Free  Hospital,  The    ...          202-206 
"  Royal  King's  Cross  Theatre,  The  "     185 

Panarmonion  Gardens  182-184 

-  Toxophilite  Society,  The      ...81-86 

"Royalty,  The"       

Rubens,  P.  P 198 

Rugg  Moor    ...         ...  ..          52,  120 

Ruggemere,  Manor  of        ...         ...     120 

Rush  worth  &  Co.     .'.. 

Russell,  Lord  John... 


Rye  House  Plot       

Rysbrach,  J.  M 

Sadler's  Wells 

St.  Andrew 

St.  Andrew's,  Holborn 

Churchyard,  Holborn 



St.  Anne's,  London... 

St.  Bartholomew's  Hospital 

St.  Botolph,  Aldgate 

St.  David       

St.  Dunstan's  Church 

-  Villa       

St.  Chad         

Portrait  of 

St.  Chad's  Row 

-  Well      

St.  Ethelburg,  Bishopgate... 
St.  George 

St.  George's,  Bloomsbury  ... 

...     127 

...       25 
70,  75 
38,  197 

...       70 

44.  l85 
...  128 
...  146 

...       202 

...  105 
...  191 

...     167 

...  174 
...  128 

••-       54 


•  •     158 


...  161 
.  .  167 
...  128 
...  146 

St.  George's  Hospital 
—  Row,  Bayswater 



St.  Giles's      ...         ...         ...         ...     146 

Bowl      68-69 

Pound    ...         ...         ...         ...     no 

St.  Helena     89 

St.  James's  Church  ...          ...         ...     138 

Palace   ...         ...         ...         ...       53 

Street     ... 127 

St.  John  of  Jerusalem,  Hospital  of  55,  57 

St.  John's  Street      155,  167 

-  Wood 55,  86,  iii 

Great       ...         ...         ...       55 

Chapel    ...          ...  29,  96,  in 

Lane        56 

-  Little,  at  Highbury     ...       55 
St.  Katharine's  Lane          ...         ...     177 

St.  Katharine,  Royal  Hospital  of  173-178 

St.  Martin-in-the-Fields      161 

St.     Mary's      Church,      Wyndham 

Place       ...         ...         ...  26 

St.  Mary  Woolnoth,  Church  of 
St.  Marylebone  Church  (Old) 
St.  Marylebone  Church  (New) 


...  15-25 

...  87 
...  167 

150.  193 
•••  137 

2O8,   211 

181,  182 

St.   Patrick 128 

St.  Paul         .  ...         ...         ...  134 

St.  Paul's  Cathedral          125,  131, 

149,  165,  167,  168 

St.  Michael's,  Cornhill 
St.  Pancras  ... 

-  Old  Church  of 

121,   129-137, 

Church  (New)... 






St.  Paul's,  Canons  of         ...         ...  118 

-  Church,  Great  Portland  Street  29 

-  Cross     ...         ...         ...         ...  69 

-  Dean  and  Chapter  of     119-120,  129 

School   ...          ...          ...          ...  167 

St.   Peter        ... ...  134 

St.  Peter's  Church,  Northampton  175 

-  Church,  Vere  Street 28-29 

St.  Sepulchre's  Church      ...         ...  74 

St.   Thomas's  Hospital       ...           ..  197 

Salisbury,   Earl  of    .  .          201 

Saltpetre  Field         ...         ...         ...  51 

Salvation  Army,  The          ...          ...  185 

Sam's  Royal    Library         ...          ...  127 

Sanderson,  -                ..          ...          ...  93 

Sanderson,  John        ..          ...          ...  198 

Sandhills         ...          ...          ...          ...  117 

Sarnen,  Valley  of    ...          ...          ...  172 

Scott,  Sir  Claude,  &  Co 127 

Rev.  Edward    ..         ...         ...  60 

—  Sir   Walter       ...         ...         ...  106 

Scroggs,  Lord  Chief  Justice        ...  76 

Seaford            ...         ...         ...         ...  92 

Selwyn,   George        ...         ...         ...  74 

Seymour,  Lord  Robert       ...         ...  91 

-  Street 107 

Shakespeare,  William       63,  97,  98,  196 

School  of         ...         ...         ...  36 

Sharp,  William        95'97 

Shaw,  George,   M.D.,   &c 83 

Rev.   Stebbing            10 

Shea,  Capt 89 

Shee,  Sir  M.  A.,  P.R.A 104 

Shelley,   P.   B 208 

Shepherd,  Robert     ...         ...         ...  72 

Shepherd's  Market 139 

Sheppard,  Jack        ...         ...  68,  70 

Sherlock,  William 130 

Shillibeer,  J.  ...         ...  ...  ...       46 

Shirley,  James           ...  ...  ...       68 

-  Rev.   Walter    ...  ...  .  .     139 

Shoreditch      ...          ...  ...  ...       81 

Short   Forty  Acres  ...  ...  ...       51 

Sice,   Thomas            ...  ...  ...       17 

Siddons,  Mrs.  Sarah  ...  ...97-98 

Sidmouth,  Lord        ...  ..,  ...     108 

Six  Acre  Field          ...  ...  ...       56 

Six  Closes,  The       ...  ...  ...       51 

"Sixteen   String  Jack"  ...  ...       71 

Skinners,   Company  of  ...  ...     117 

-  Well       146 

Slipe,  The  (meadow)  ...  ...       56 

Sloman            ...         ...  ...  ...     155 

Small-Pox  Hospital...  ...  201-202 

Smiles,  Samuel         ...  ...  ...       30 

Smirke,  Sir  Robert...  ...  ...       26 

Smith,  George          ...  ...  ...     209 

J.  C 200 

-  J-  T.      ...  7,  8,  73 
—  John       ...          ...  ...  ..       70 

-  Sydney  ...         ...  ...  ...     106 

Thomas             ...  18,  22,  36,  59 

Smithers,  —  (Bow  Street  Officer)      109 

Smithfield  Market 58,  167 

Smock  Race  ...          ...          ...         ...     163 

Snow  Hill      ...          ...         ...         ...     144 

Soane,  Sir  John,  R.A.   ...    ...   28 

Soho  ...    ...    ...    .  .    ...   76 

Somers,  William      72 

-  Town    119,  146,  147,  213 

Somerset,  Duke  of  ...         ...         ...     206 

Edward,  Duke  of      57 

House 76 

South   Kensington  Museum  ...     199 



Southampton,  Lord... 

-  House,  Bloomsbury 

...  119 

...  117 

...  149 


...  69 

...  81 

64,  106 

...  1 86 

...  81 

...  97 

Southcott,  Joanna    ... 

Southwell,  Robert    .  . 

Spanish  Armada 

Spanish  Place 

Spital  House,  Highgate     ... 

Spital  Square 

Spenser,  Edmund     ... 

Spring  Field...         ...         ...         ...       56 

Squibb,  — ,  a  vocalist         ...         ...       35 

Stacye,   Mrs.... 122 

Stafford,  A.  M 90 

Staines,  R 60 

Stamford  Hill  ...         ...         ...     167 

Stanhope,  Charles    ...         ...         ...       55 

-  Edward...         ...         ...         ...     187 

Lady  H.  L.    ...         ...         ...  106 

Stanton,  Francis      ...         ...         ...  188 

Stephen,  King           ...         ...         ...  173 

Stewart,  George       ...         ...         ...  51 

Stockwell         ..         ...         ...         ...  187 

Stoddart,  — ,  a  pianoforte  maker...  in 
Stokes,  Mrs.,  the  City  Championess 

40,  41 

Storace,  Stephen      ...         ...           ..  23 

Storer,  Miss  ...         ...         ...         ...  m 

Stothard,  Thomas    ... 
Stout,  — ,  Timber  Merchant 
Stow,  John    ... 
Strand,  The  ... 

-  Place 

Strode,  Sir  George 

William,  Lieut. -Gen. 

Stubbs,  George 

...     105 

127,  167 

...     167 
...     106 


...       61 
...       25 

Stukeley,  William,  Dr. 
Surrey,  Earl  of 
Sussex,  Duke  of 



Swain,  Edward,  Son  of 
Sykes,  A.  B 

Tavistock  Square     ... 
Tayler,  Thomas 
Taylor,  — ,  a  vocalist 

Telbin,  — 

Temple  Bar,  London 
Terry  west,  John 
Thackeray,  W.  M.  ... 
Thames,  River 
Theseus,  Temple  of... 
Thirty  Acres,  The    ... 
Thistlewood,  Arthur 
Thompson,  Capt. 

Sir  Henry 

Horatia  "  Nelson  " 

Thorney  Island 
Thoroughgood,  -       .  . 
Thorrington,  H. 
Tidd,  —  (a  shoemaker) 
"Tieburne"  ... 

-  &  Co.,  Messrs. 


•••  3-4 
...  84 
...  106 

•••   57 

Titus,  Arch  of 

Tonbridge  Chapel    ... 
Tornick,  Matthias    ... 
Toole,  William 
Toplady,  Rev.  A.  M. 


...  67 
...  208 

...   24 

•••   33 

...   67 

...  170 


...   41 

...  208 


...  170 
...  52 
...  80 
. . .  206 
...  101 

•••  155 

...  183 

...  107 

...  68 

...  81 

...  60 

...  170 

...  146 

...  139 

...  138 

...  92 



Toppesfield,  Manor  of 
Torrington  Square   ... 
Totenhall,  William  de 
Manor  of 

...  132 

84,  208 


Court   I2O,  121,  122,  187,  l8g,  192 

Tottenham  Court  Road  90,  138-141, 

146,    149,  157,   185,  191 

Fair          161-163 

Street 185 

"—   -  Street  Theatre,  The"         ...     184 

" Theatre,  The"          ...          184-185 

Tottingham,  Mrs.     ...         ...          102-103 

Tower  Hill 177 

-  Street    ...         ...         ...         ...     167 

Toxophilite  Ground...         ...         ...       85 

—  Society 85-86 

Trollope,  Anthony    ...          ...          ...       65 

Triumphal  Arch    across    the    New 

Road        ...  ...  ...  ...  54 

Trusler,  Dr.  ...  ...  ...  ...  16 

John       ...  ...  ...  ...  34 

Tunbridge      ...  ...  ...  ...  117 

Turner,  Mrs....  ...  ...  ...  69 

—  J.  M.  W 105 

Turnmill  Brook,  The  ...  ...      146 

Twenty  Acres  (meadow)  ...  ...       56 

-  Acre  Field       ...  ...  ...       56 

Twenty-nine  Acres,  The  ...  ...       52 

Twenty -two  Acre  Field  ...  ...       56 

Tybourne,  The  River  ...  ...  10-14 

Tyburn,  Couduits  at  ...  ...         5 

Manor  of          ...  ...  3,  4,  5 

Lane      ...         ...  ...  ...       67 

Road     ...         ...  ...  ...       67 

" Tippet,  A"    ...  ...       75 

Tree       67-75 


Upchurch,  Kent 176 

Upton...         ...         ...         ...         ...     lyjj 

Upper  Baker  Street  97-98 

Bryanston  Street        68 

Usborne,  Miss          ...         ...         ...     204 

Utber,  Richard  118 

VANE,  SIR  HARRY    ... 

Vandrebrank,  John... 

Vatican,  The 

Vennes,  Miss 

Venus,  Temple  of    ... 

Vere,  Aubrey  de,  Earl  of  Oxford 

Joan  de 

Robert  de 

Verley,  Thomas 

Vesta,  Temple  of  ... 

Voltaire,  F.  M.  A.  de 

Victoria,  Queen 

Vincent,  Mrs.,  a  vocalist  ... 

Vulcan,   Forge    of,  at    Marylebone 

Gardens  ...  ..  ...          "-35-36 


1 68 
;,  116 

1 70 

...       63 
91,  203,  204 


WALCH,  MASTER  -  ...  ...  184 

Wale,  Samuel,  R.A.  ...  ...  197 

Wales,  — ,  cabinet-maker  ...  ..  in 

-  Prince  of          ...  ...  84,  203 

Walker,  John             ...  ...  ...  136 

Wall,  Alexander       ...  .  .  ...  51 

Waller,  J.  G.            ...  ...   n,  13,  146 

Walpole,  Horace      ...  ..  ...  59 

Walsingham,  Francis  ...  ...  38 

Walter,  Canon  of  St.  Paul's        ...  119 

Walton            ...         ...  ...  ...  92 

Wai  worth       ...         ...  ...  ...  187 

Wandesford,  John 5 



Wanley,  Humphrey 

Ward,  - 

Lieut.    ... 

Ward's  Field  

Waring,  Thomas 

Warren,  Earl,  and  of  Surrey 


10,  24 

..  86 
..  80 
..  65 
84,  86 


..  208 

Warton,  Thomas      ...         ...         ...  63 

Warwick  Street,  Golden  Square...  45; 

Washington,  George           ...        139,  197 

Wast,  Roger 176 

Waterloo,  The  Battle  of 155 

Watling  Street          ...  167 

Watson,  Caroline     ...         ...         ...  24 

Weever,  John           ...         ....         ...  131 

Welch,  Mr.  Justice  ...         ...         ...  74 

Welderen,  Count  de            138 

Welford,  Capt.          ...                     ...  80 

Wells  Street in 

Wengham,    Henry    de,    Bishop    of 

London  ...         ...         ...         ...  174 

Wesket,  John            ...         ...         ...  71 

Wesley,  Rev.  Charles         ...  25,  139-141 

-  Rev.  John        ...             138-141,  210 
West,  Rev.  -             ...         .  .  139 

-  Benjamin,  P.R.A.  26,  29,  105, 

136,   142,  200 
West  Ham  Churchyard     ...         ...     209 

"—    -  London  Theatre,  The"     ...     184 

-  Middlesex  Waterworks         ...       77 
Westbourne  Street  ...         ...         ...       84! 

Westminster  ...         ...         ...     167 

Abbey    ...        " itf-itf 

-  Bridge 155 

-  Hall       69 

Wheatley,  Francis,  R.A.    ...         ...       25 

White,  John 

-  Conduit  Club  ... 

-  Hall  Field 
House  Field 

50,  51,  52,  6o 


...          52 
51,    52 

Whitechapel  ...         ...         ...         ...      167 

Whitefield,  Rev.  George    ...          138-141 
Wigmore,  — ,  a  pugilist     ...         ...     211 

Street     ...         ...         ...         ...       80 

Willan,  Thomas       ...         ...  51,  52 

William  III 160 

-  IV 84,  91,  126,  203 

Williams  &  Co.        ...         ...         ...  1*7 

-  Gilly       ..  74 

Wilkie,  David           .  103 

Wilkins,  William,    R.A 179 

Wilks,  Rev.  Matthew         ...         ...  139 

Willis,  Thomas         ..           ...           ..  125 

Willoughby,  Lord    ...          ...          ...  57 

Willow  Tree  Field  ...         ...         ...  56 

Wills,  Rev.  James   ...         ...         ...  197 

Wilmot,  John  Eardley        ...          ...  24 

-  Lord  Chief  Justice 198 

Wilson,  Richard,  R.A.         no,  197,  199 

Wimpole,  Cambridgeshire 106 

-  Street     ...         ...         ...         ...  106 

Windmill  Street        ...          ...          ...  90 

Windsor          .  .          ...          ...          ...  167 

Winslow         188 

Winstanley,  Messrs.            ...         ...  170 

Wither,  George        .  .         ...         ..'.  .124 

Woburn   Place           ...          ...          ...  208 

Woodville,  Dr.          ...          .._.<*      .  .  202 

Woolaston,   Mary     ...          .'..          ..  150 

Woollett,  Elizabeth...         135 


Whitbread,  Samuel . . . 

90  1  Woolley,  — ,  a  stable-keeper 




•Wooton,  Charles   Henry,  Lord 

Wright,  Robert         

Wyatt,  Capt.... 

-  the  sculptor     ... 
Wycherley,  William 
Wynn-  Ellis,  - 

York,  The  Duke  of.. 

York  Gate 

-  Place 

-  Square 




29 '"  Yorkshire  Stingo,  The" 
146    Young,  C.  M. 
204  i  Ypres,  William  de   ... 

206    Zoological  Gardens,  The 
137    -      -  Society,  The    ... 


1 06 


46,  60 
..  185 
••  173 


RINDING  SECT,      FEB  28  1079. 






Clinch,  George 

Marylebone  and  St.Pancras